DORSET nATQRAIt HISTORY
PRINTED AT THE "DORSET COUNTY CHRONICLE" OFFICE.
f'T/ 9 P 1^^"^
S i-\! 6 IOwJ fi
List of Officers of the Club since its Inauguration
Rules of the Club
List of Officers and Honorary Members
List of Members
List of New Members since the publication of Vol. XXXIII.
Publications of the Club ; Societies and Institutions in Corres-
pondence with the Field Club
THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE CLUB from May, 1912, to May, 1913
MEETING AT BEAULIEU
MEETING AT MARLBOROUGH
The Temple of Avebury. The Excavations
Knowle Chapel and Gravel Pits
THE INTENDED MEETING IN THE CERNE VALLEY
MEETING AT THE UPPER YEO VALLEY
Bradford Abbas Church
MEETING AT THE CERNE VALLEY
Mint erne and Upcerne
FIRST WINTER MEETING
SECOND WINTER MEETING
The Hon. Treasurer's Statement of the Club's Receipts and Expen-
The Hon. Secretary's Account
Anniversary Address of the President
Scando-Gothic Art in Wessex, by H. Colley March, M.D., F.S.A. . .
Dorset Assizes in the Seventeenth Century, by F. J. Pope,
The Ancunt Earthworks of Cranborne Chase, by Heywood
A Reminiscence of the late Rev. C. W. H. Dicker, R.D., and some
Observations on Bloxworth Church, by the Rev. O.
Pickard-Cambridge, M.A., F.R.S.
Second Supplement to the Lepidoptera of the Isle of Purbeck,
compiled from the Notes of Eustace R. Bankes, M.A.,
F.E.S., by Nelson M. Richardso ., B.A. ..
Interim Report on the Excavations at Maumbury Rings, Dor-
chester, 1912, by H. St. George Gray
On New and Rare British Arachnida, noted and observed in 1912,
by the Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, M.A., F.R.S.
Dorset Weather Lore, by J. S. Udal, F.S.A. . . . . 137
Sherborne Brewers in 1383 (6 Richard II. ), by E. A. Fry . . 151
The Ancient Memorial Brasses of Dorset, by W. de C. Prideaux,
L.D.S., Eng., F.R.S.M. .. .. .. 158
The Marriage of St. Cuthburga, who was afterwards Foundress of
the Monastery at Wimborne, by the Rev. Canon J. M. J.
Fletcher, M.A. and R.D. . . . . . . 167
Returns of Rainfall in Dorset in 1912, by R. Stevenson Henshaw,
C.E. .. .. .. .. .. 186
Phonological Report on First Appearances of Birds, Insects, &c.,
and First Flowering of Plants in Dorset during 1912, by
Nelson M. Richardson, B.A. . . . . . . 200
Roman Villas discovered in Dorset. Their Sites and the Relics
found therein which throw light upon the Civil Life of
their occupants, by the Rev. Canon T. E. Usherwood,
M.A. .. .. .. .. .. 216
Index to Volume XXXIV. .. .. .. .. 237
INDEX TO PLATES AND ENGRAVINGS.
PAGE OB, TO
Xewton Surmaville, Yeovil . . . . . . . . xxxviii.
Scando-Gothic Art in Wessex -
Plate A and B . . . . . . . . 3
Plate C and D . . . . . . . . 9
Plate E . . . . . . . . . . 14
The Ancient Earthworks of Cranborne Chase
British Settlement on South Tarrant Hinton Down
Knowlton Earthworks . . . . . . . . 39
Bloxworth Church Doorway and Font . . . . . . 42
Interim Report on the Excavations at Maumbury Rings, Dor-
Plate I. .. .. .. .. .. 81
Plate II. . . . . . . . . 93
Fig. 1 . . . . . . . . . . 94
Plate III. .. 95
Fig. 2 ..98
Plate IV. . . . . 101
Plate V. . . . . . . . . 103
On New and Rare British Arachnida
Plate A .. . . .. . . . . 107
The Ancient Memorial Brasses of Dorset
George Burges, 1640, Wareham ; Ann Franke, 1583, Wareham 159
William Perkins, 1613, Wareham ; Richard Perkins, 1616,
Wareham .. .. .. .. 160
Mary Argenton, 1616, Woolland .. .. .. 161
Dorothy Williams, 1694, Pimperne . . . . . . 162
Thomas Pethyn, c. 1470, Lytchett Matravers ; Margaret
Clement, 1505, Lytchett Matravers . . . . 163
John Clavell, Esq., and two wives, 1609, Church Knowle . . 165
Watural frtstorg anfc Hntiquarian ffielfc Club.
INAUGUBATED MARCH 26ra, 1875.
1875-1902 J. C. Hansel- Pleydell, Esq., B.A., F.G.S., F.L.S.
1902-1904 The Lord Eustace Cecil, F.R.G.S.
1904 * Nelson M. Kichardsou, Esq., B.A.
Vice -Presidents :
1875-1882 The Eev. H. H. Wood, M.A., F.G.S.
1875-1884 Professor James Buckman, F.S.A., F.G.S., F.L.S.
1880-1900 The Rev. Canon Sir Talbot Baker, Bart., M.A.
1880-1900 General Pitt-Rivers, F.R.S.
1880 * The Rev. O. Pickard- Cambridge, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S.
1885 * The Earl of Moray, M.A., F.S.A. Scot., F.G.S.
1892-1904 Nelson M. Richardson, Esq., B.A.
1904~ 19 2 } * The Lord Eustace Cecu > F.R.G.S.
1900-1909 W. H. Hudleston, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.L.S., Past Pres.
1900-1904 Vaughaii Cornish, Esq., D.Sc., F.C.S., F.R.G.S.
1900 * Captain G. R. Elwes.
1902 * H. Colley March, Esq., M.D., F.S.A.
1904 * The Rev. Herbert Pentiu, M.A.
1904 * The Rev. W. Miles Barnes, B.A.
1904 * The Rev. Canon J. C. M. Mansel- Pleydell, M.A., R.D.
1904-1908 R. Bosworth Smith, Esq., M.A.
1908-1909 Henry Storks Eaton, Esq., M.A., Past Pres. Roy. Met. Soc.
1909 * The Rev. Canon C. H. Mayo, M.A., Dorset Editor of " Somerset
and Dorset Notes and Queries."
1909 * E. R. Sykes, Esq., B.A., F.Z.S., Past Pres. Malacological Soc.
1911-1912 The Rev. C. W. H. Dicker, R.D.
1912 * Alfred Pope, Esq., F.S.A.
1913 * Henry Symonds, Esq., F.S.A.
1913 * His Honour Judge J. S. Udal, F.S.A.
Hon. Secretaries :
1875-1884 Professor James Buckman, F.S.A., F.G.S., F.L.S.
1885-1892 The Earl of Moray, M.A., F.S.A. Scot., F.G.S.
1892-1902 Nelson M. Richardson, Esq., B.A.
1902-1904 H. Colley March, Esq., M.D., F.S.A.
1904 * The Rev. Herbert Pentin, M.A.
Hon. Treasurers :
1875-1882 The Rev. H. H. Wood, M.A., F.G.S.
1882-1900 The Rev. O. Pickard -Cambridge, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S.
1901-1910 Captain G. R. Elwes.
1910 * The Rev. Canon J. C. M. Mansel -Pleydell, M.A., R.D.
Son. Editors :
1875-1884 Professor James Buckman, F.S.A., F.G.S., F.L.S.
1885-1892 The Earl of Moray, M.A., F.S.A. Scot., F.G.S.
1892-1901 Nelson M. Richardson, Esq., B.A.
1901-1906 The Rev. W. Miles Barnes, B.A.
1906-1909 The Rev. Herbert Peutin, M.A.
1909-1912 The Rev. C. W. H. Dicker, R.D.
1912 * Henry Symonds, Esq., F.S.A.
* The asterisk indicates the present officials of the Club.
THE DORSET NflTURAL HISTORY flND flNTlQUHRIflN
OBJECT AND CONSTITUTION.
1. The Club shall be called The Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian
Field Club, and shall have for a short title The Dorset Field Club.
The object of the Club is to promote and encourage an interest in the study of
the Physical Sciences and Archaeology generally, especially the Natural History of
the County of Dorset and its Antiquities, Prehistoric records, and Ethnology. It
shall use its influence to prevent, as far as possible, the extirpation of rare plants
and animals, and to promote the preservation of the Antiquities of the County.
2. The Club shall consist of (i.) three Officers, President, Honorary Secretary,
and Honorary Treasurer, who shall be elected annually, and shall form the
Executive body for its management ; (ii.) Vice -Presidents, of whom the
Honorary Secretary and Treasurer shall be two, ex ojficio ; (iii.) The Honorary
Editor of the Annual Volume of Proceedings ; (iv.) Ordinary Members ; (v.)
Honorary Members. The President, Vice -Presidents, and Editor shall form a
Council to decide questions referred to them by the Executive and to elect
Honorary Members. The Editor shall be nominated by one of the incoming
Executive and elected at the Annual Meeting.
There may also be one or more Honorary Assistant Secretaries, who shall be
nominated by the Honorary Secretary, seconded by the President or Treasurer,
and elected by the Members at the Annual Meeting.
Members may be appointed by the remaining Officers to fill interim vacancies
in the Executive Body until the following Annual Meeting.
The number of the Club shall be limited to 400, power being reserved to the
Council to select from the list of candidates persons, whose membership they may
consider to be advantageous to the interests of the Club, to be additional
PRESIDENT AND VICE -PRESIDENTS.
3. The President shall take the chair at all Meetings, and have an original and
a casting vote on all questions before the Meeting. In addition to the two
ex-officio Vice -Presidents, at least three others shall be nominated by the President,
or, in his absence, by the Chairman, and elected at the Annual Meeting.
4 - "The Secretary shall perform all the usual secretarial work; cause a
programme of each Meeting to be sent to every Member seven days at least
before such Meeting ; make all preparations for carrying out Meetings and, with
or without the help of a paid Assistant Secretary or others, conduct all Field
Meetings. On any question arising between the Secretary (or Acting Secretary)
and a Member at a Field Meeting, the decision of the Secretary shall be final.
The Secretary shall receive from each Member his or her share of the day's
expenses, and thereout defray all incidental costs and charges of the Meeting,
rendering an account of the same before the Annual Meeting to the Treasurer
any surplus of such collection shall form part of the General Fund, and any
deficit be defrayed out of that Fund.
5. The Treasurer shall keep an account of Subscriptions and all other moneys
of the Club received and of all Disbursements, rendering at the Annual General
Meeting a balance sheet of the same, as well as a general statement of the Club's
finances. He shall send copies of the Annual Volume of Proceedings for each
year to Ordinary Members who have paid their subscriptions for that year (as
nearly as may be possible, in the order of such payment), to Honorary Members,
and to such Societies and individuals as the Club may, from time to time, appoint
to receive them. He shall also furnish a list at each Annual Meeting, containing
the names of all Members in arrear, with the amount of their indebtedness to the
Club. He shall also give notice of their election to all Xew Members.
6. Ordinary Members are entitled to be present and take part in the Club's
proceedings at all Meetings, and to receive the published "Proceedings" of the
Club, when issued, for the year for which their subscription has been paid.
7. Every candidate for admission shall be nominated in writing by one
Member and seconded by another, to both of whom he must be personally known.
He may be proposed at any Meeting, and his name shall appear in the programme
of the first following Meeting at which a Ballot is held, when he shall be elected
by ballot, one black ball in six to exclude. Twelve Members shall form a
quorum for the purpose of election. A Ballot shall be held at the Annual and
Winter Meetings, and may be held at any other Meeting, should the Executive
so decide, notice being given in the programme. In the event of the number of
vacancies being less than the number of candidates at four successive Meetings,
the names of any candidates proposed at the first of such Meetings who have not
been elected at one of them shall be withdrawn, and shall not be eligible to be
again proposed for election for at least a year after such withdrawal. Provided
that if at any Meeting there shall be no vacancies available, it shall not be counted
in estimating the above named four Meetings.
8. The Annual Subscription shall be 10s., which shall become due and
payable in advance on the 1st of January in each year. Subscriptions paid on
election after September in each year shall be considered as subscriptions for the
following year, unless otherwise agreed upon by such Member and the Treasurer.
Every Member shall pay immediately after his election the sum of ten shillings as
Entrance Fee, in addition to his first Annual Subscription.
9. No person elected a Member shall be entitled to exercise any privilege as
such until he has paid his Entrance Fee and first Subscription, and no Member
shall be entitled to receive a copy of the "Proceedings" for any year until his
Subscription for that year has been paid.
10. A registered letter shall be sent by the Hon. Treasurer to any Member
whose Subscription is in arrear at the date of any Annual Meeting, demanding
payment within 28 days, failing which he shall cease to be a Member of the Club,
but shall, nevertheless, be liable for the arrears then due.
11. Members desiring to leave the Club shall give notice of the same in
writing to the Treasurer (or Secretary), but, unless such notice is given before the
end of January in any year, they shall be liable to pay the Annual Subscription
due to the Club 011 and after January 1st in that year.
12. Honorary Members shall consist of persons eminent for scientific or
natural history attainments, and shall be elected by the Council. They pay no
subscription, and have all the privileges of Ordinary Members, except voting.
13. The Annual General Meeting shall be held as near the first week in May
as may be convenient ; to receive the outgoing President's Address (if any) and
the Treasurer's financial report ; to elect the Officers and Editor for the ensuing
year ; to determine the number (which shall usually be three or four), dates, and
places of Field Meetings during the ensuing summer, and for general purposes.
14. Two Winter Meetings shall usually be held in or about the months of
December and February for the exhibition of Objects of Interest (to which not
more than one hour of the time before the reading of the Papers shall be
devoted), for the reading and discussion of Papers, and for general purposes.
The Dates and Places of the Winter and Annual Meetings shall be decided by
15. A Member may bring Friends to the Meetings subject to the following
restrictions : Xo person (except the husband, wife, or child of a Member), may
attend the Meeting unaccompanied by the Member introducing him, unless such
Member be prevented from attending by illness, and no Member may take with
him to a Field Meeting more than one Friend, whose name and address must be
submitted to the Hon. Secretary and approved by him or the Executive.
The above restrictions do not apply to the Executive or to the Acting Secretary
at the Meeting.
16.- Members must give due notice (with prepayment of expenses) to the Hon.
Secretary of their intention to be present, with or without a Friend, at any
Field Meeting, in return for which the Secretary shall send to the Member a card
of admission to the Meeting, to be produced when required. Any Member who
having given such notice, fails to attend, will be liable only for any expenses
actually incurred on his account, and any balance will be returned to him on
application. The sum of Is., or such other amount as the Hon Secretary may
consider necessary, shall be charged to each person attending a Field Meeting, for
17. The Executive may at any time call a Special General Meeting of the
Members upon their own initiative or upon a written requisition (signed by Eight
Members) being sent to the Honorary Secretary. Any proposition to be submitted
shall be stated in the Notice, which shall be sent to each Member of the Club not
later than seven days before the Meeting.
18. Notice shall be given to the Secretary, a convenient time before each
Meeting, of any motion to be made or any Paper or communication desired to be
read, with its title and a short sketch of its scope or contents. The insertion of
these in the Programme is subject to the consent of the Executive.
19. The Publications of the Club shall be in the hands of the Executive, who
shall appoint annually Three or more Ordinary Members to form with them and
the Editor a Publication Committee for the purpose of deciding upon the contents
of the Annual Volume. These contents shall consist of original papers and
communications written for the Club, and either read, or accepted as read, at a
General Meeting ; also of the Secretary's Reports of Meetings, the Treasurer's
Financial Statement and Balance Sheet, a list to date of all Members of the Club,
and of those elected in the current or previous year, with the names of their
proposers and seconders. The Annual Volume shall be edited by the Editor
subject to the direction of the Publication Committee.
20. Twenty -five copies of his paper shall be presented to each author whose
communication shall appear in the volume as a separate article, on notice being
given by him to the Publisher to that effect.
THE AFFILIATION OF SOCIETIES AND LIBRARIES TO THE CLUB.
21. Any Natural History or Antiquarian Society in the County may be
affiliated to the Dorset Field Club on payment of an annual fee of Ten Shillings,
in return for which the annual volume of the Proceedings of the Field Club shall
be sent to such Society.
Every affiliated Society shall send the programme of its Meetings to the Hon.
Secretary of the Field Club, and shall also report any discoveries of exceptional
interest. And the Field Club shall send its programme to the Hon. Secretary of
each affiliated Society.
The Members of the Field Club shall not be eligible, ipso facto, to attend any
Meetings of affiliated Societies, and the Members of any affiliated Society shall
not be eligible, ipso facto, to attend any Meetings of the Field Club. But any
Member of an affiliated Society shall be eligible to read a paper or make an
exhibit at the Winter Meetings of the Field Club at Dorchester.
Any Public Library, or Club or School or College Library, in England or
elsewhere, may be affiliated to the Dorset Field Club on payment of an annual
fee of Ten Shillings, in return for which the annual volume of the Proceedings of
the Field Club shall be sent to such Library.
22. Small Committees may be appointed at the Annual General Meeting to
report to the Club any interesting facts or discoveries relating to the various
sections which they represent ; and the Committee of each section may elect one
of their Members as a Corresponding Secretary.
23. No altei'ation in or addition to these Rules shall be made except with the
consent of a majority of three-fourths of the Members present at the Annual
General Meeting, full notice of the proposed alteration or addition having been
given both in the current Programme and in that of the previous Meeting.
Natural HMstors anfc Hntiquarian ffielfc Club,
INAUGURATED MARCH 2Gth, 1875.
NELSON M. RICHARDSON, ESQ., B.A.
THE LORD EUSTACE CECIL, F.R.G.S. (Past President).
THE REV. HERBERT PENTIN, M.A. (Hon. Secretary).
THE REV. CANON HANSEL -PLEYDELL, M.A., R.D. (Hon. Treasurer).
HENRY SYMONDS, ESQ., F.S.A. (Hon. Editor).
CAPTAIN G. R. ELWES, J.P.
H. COLLEY MARCH, ESQ., M.D., F.S.A.
THE REV. CANON MAYO, M.A. (Dorset Editor of "Somerset and Dorset Notes
and Queries ").
THE REV. W. MILES BARNES, B.A.
THE EARL OF MORAY, M.A., F.S.A. Scot., F.G.S.
THE REV. O. PICKARD -CAMBRIDGE, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S.
ALFRED POPE, ESQ., F.S.A.
E. R. SYKES, Esq., B.A., F.Z.S. (Past Pres. Malacological Society}.
His HONOUR JUDGE J. S. UDAL, F.S.A.
Executive Body :
NELSON M. RICHARDSON, Esq., B.A. (President).
The Rev. HERBERT PENTIN, M.A. (Hon. Secretary), Milton Abbey Vicarage,
The Rev. Canon MANSEL- PLEYDELL, M.A. (Hon. Treasurer), Sturminster
Newton Vicarage, Dorset.
Hon. Editor :
HENRY SYMONDS, Esq., F.S.A., 30, Bolton Gardens, London, S.W.
Publication Committee :
The EXECUTIVE, The HON. EDITOR, H. B. MIDDLETON, Esq.,
Dr. COLLEY MARCH, and E. R. SYKES, Esq.
Hon. Director of the Dorset Photographic Survey :
C. J". CORNISH-BROWNE, Esq., Came House, Dorchester.
Earthworks Sectional Committee :
H. COLLKY MARCH Esq., M.D., F.S.A. (Chairman}.
Numismatic Sectional Committee :
HENRY SYMONDS, Esq., F.S.A. (Corresponding Secretary).
O.M. W. CARRUTHERS, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.L.S., British Museum
(Nat. Hist.), South Kensington.
1888 The Rev. OSMOND FISHER, M.A., F.G.S., Graveley, Huntingdon.
1889 A. M. WALLIS, Esq., 29, Mallams, Portland.
1900 A. J. JUKES-BROWNE, Esq., B.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., Westleigh, Ash-
Hill Road, Torquay.
1900 R. LYDEKKER, Esq., B.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. , F.Z.S., The Lodge, Harpenden,
1900 CLEMENT REID, Esq., F.R.S,, F.L.S., F.G.S., One Acre, Milford-on-
1900 A^SMITH^VOODWARD, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., British Museum (Nat.
Hist.), South Kensington, London.
1904 Sir WM. THISELTON DYER, K.C.M.G., C.I.E., LL.D., Sc.D., Ph.D.,
F.R.S. , The Ferns, Witcombe, Gloucester. , v j TT
1904 Sir FREDERICK TREVES, Bart., G.C.V.O., C.B., LL.D., Thatched House
Lodge, Richmond Park, Kingston-on-Thames.
1908 THOM!S HARDY, Esq., O.M., D. Litt. LL.D., Max _Gate > C ^T.
1909 ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE, Esq., O.M., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., Broadstone.
LIST OF MEMBERS
jUaturaJ fyistovp ant) Antiquarian
(The initials "O.M." signify " Original Member.")
1903 The Most Hon. the Marquis of
Salisbury, M.A., C.B.
1911 The Right Hon. Gertrude,
Countess of Moray
O.M. The Eight Hon. the Earl of
Moray, M.A., F.S.A. Scot.,
F.G.S. (Vice -President)
1911 The Eight Hon. the Earl of
1902 The Eight Hon. the Earl of
1884 The Eight Hon. Lord Eustace
1903 The Eight Hon. Lady Eustace
1904 The Eight Eev. the Lord Bishop
of Durham, D.D.
1892 The Eight Eev. the Lord Bishop
of Worcester, D.D., F.S.A.
1912 The Eight Eev. the Lord Bishop
of Salisbury, D.D.
1889 The Eight Hon. Lord Digby
1903 The Eight Hon. Lord Chelmsford
1907 The Eight Hon. Lord Wynford
1907 The Eight Hon. Lady Wynford
1910 Abbott, F. E., Esq.
1893 Acland, Captain John E., M.A.,
1892 Acton, Eev. Edward, B.A.
1899 Aldridge, Mrs. Selina
1912 Alexander, Miss Constance
1907 Allner, Mrs. George
The Manor House, Cranborne
Kinfauns Castle, Perth, N.B.
St. Giles, Wimborne
Lytchett Heath, Poole
Lytchett Heath, Poole
Auckland Castle, Bishop's Auckland
Hartlebury Castle, Kidderminster
The Palace, Salisbury
18, Queen's Gate Place, London, S.W.
Warinwell House, Dorchester
Warmwell House, Dorchester
75, St. Thomas Street, Weymouth
Wollaston House, Dorchester
Iwerne Minster Vicarage, Blandford
Denewood, Alum Chine Eoad, Bourne-
The Grange, Chetnole, Sherborne
National Provincial Bank, Sturminster
1908 Almack, Kev. A. C., M.A.
1906 Atkins, F. T., Esq., M.E.C.S.,
1907 Atkinson, George T., Esq., M.A.
1907 Badcoe, A. C., Esq., B.Sc.
1902 Baker, Sir Eandolf L., Bart., M.P.
1912 Baker, Eev. E. W., B.A.
1887 Bankes, Eev. Canon, M.A.
1906 Bankes, Mrs.
1912 Bankes, Jerome N., Esq., F.S.A.
1902 Barkworth, Edmund, Esq.
1904 Barlow, Major C. M.
1894 Barnes, Mrs. John lies
1889 Barnes, Eev. W. M., B.A. (Vice-
1903 Barnes, F. J., Esq., F.G.S.
1903 Barnes, Mrs. F. J.
1884 Barrett, W. Bowles, Esq.
1906 Barrow, Eichard, Esq.
1895 Bartelot, Eev. E. Grosvenor, M.A.
1893 Baskett, S. E., Esq.
1904 Baskett, Mrs. S. E.
1 909 Batten, Colonel J . Mount, C . B . ,
Lord -Lieutenant of Dorset
1910 Baxter, Lieut. -Colonel W. H.,
1910 Baxter, Mrs. W. H.
1888 Beckford, F. J., Esq.
1908 Beiiett- Stanford, Major J.,
1910 Blackett, Eev. J. C., B.A.
1912 Blackett, C. H., Esq.
1912 Blackett, W. E., Esq.
1910 Blomefield, Commander T. C. A.,
1903 Bond, Gerald Denis, Esq.
1906 Bond, Nigel deM., Esq., M.A.
1903 Bond, Wm. Ealph G., Esq.
1910 Bond, F. Bligh, Esq., F.E.I.B.A.
1894 Bonsor, Geo., Esq.
The Eectory, Blandford St. Mary
Cathay, AlumhurstEoad, Bournemouth
Durlston Court, Swanage
Lustleigh, Maumbury Way, Dorchester
The Eectory, Witcharapton
The Close, Salisbury
Kingston Lacy, Wimbonie
63, Eedcliffe Gardens, London, S.W.
South House, Pydeltrenthide
Weymouth Avenue, Dorchester
2, Belfield Terrace, Weymouth
Sorrento House, Sandecotes, Parkstone
Fordington St. George Vicarage,
Up-Cerne House, Dorchester, and
Morniugton Lodge, West Kensington
The Wilderness, Sherborne
The Wilderness, Sherborne
Hatch House, Tisbury, Wilts
Easapeiina, McKiiiley Eoad, Bourne-
Blanchland, McKinley Eoad, Bourne-
8, Old Castle Eoad, Weymouth
8, Evelyn Gardens, London, S.W.
The Guild House, Glastonbury
El Castillo, Mairena del Alcor,
1889 Bower, H. Syndercombe, Esq.
1900 Bower, Rev. Charles H. S., M.A.
1898 Brandreth, Eev. F. W., M.A.
1901 Brennand, John, Esq.
1900 Brown, Miss
1895 Brymer, Rev. J. G., M.A.
1907 Bulfin, Ignatius, Esq., B.A.
1900 Bullen, Colonel John Bullen
1907 Bury, Mrs. Henry
1905 Busk, W. G., Esq.
1905 Busk, Mrs. W. G.
1901 Bussell, Miss Katherine
1912 Butler, Rev. E. T., M.A.
1903 Butler-Bowden, Mrs. Bruno
1911 Butlin, M. C., Esq., M.A.
1891 Carter, William, Esq.
1913 Case, H. Esq., L.R.C.P.
1905 Chadwyck-Healey, Sir C. E. H..
M.A., K.C. r K.C.B., F.S.A.
1903 Champ, A., Esq.
1897 Chudleigh, Mrs.
1894 Church, Colonel Arthur
1904 Clapcott, Miss
1892 Clarence, Lovell Burchett, Esq.
1905 Clark, Mrs. E. S.
1895 Clarke, R. Stanley, Esq.
1912 Clift, J. G. Neilson, Esq.
1883 Colfox, Miss A. L.
1878 Colfox, T. A., Esq.
1905 Collins, Stephen, Esq., M.P.
1904 Collins, \Vm. W., Esq., R.I.
1905 Colville, H. K., Esq.
1904 Coney, Major Wm. Bicknell
1912 Cooke, Rev. J. H., M.A.,
1902 Cornish, Rev. W. E., M.A.
Fontmell Parva, Shillingstone, Bland-
Childe Okeford Rectory, Shillingstone,
Buckland Newton, Dorchester
Belle Vue, Shaftesbury
Ilsington House, Puddletown
The Den, Knole Hill, Bournemouth
Catherston Leweston, near Charmouth
May field House, Farnham, Surrey
Wraxall Manor, Cattistock, Dorchester
Wraxall Manor, Cattistock, Dorchester
Thorneloe School, Rodwell, Weymouth
Okeford Fitzpaine Rectory, Shilling -
Upwey House, Upwey
7, Westerhall Road, Weymouth
The Hermitage, Parkstone
Wyphurst, Cranleigh, Surrey
St. Katherine's, Bridport
Downshay Manor, LaiigtonMatravers,
St. Alban's, Rodwell, Weymouth
The Cottage, Bradford Peverell, Dor-
St. Aldhelm's, Wareham
Trobridge House, Crediton, Devon
8, Prince's Street, Westminster,
Harbonie, St. Ann's Hill, Wands -
Stoborough Croft, Wareham
Loders Court, Bridport
Steepleton Rectory, Dorchester
1903 Cornish -Browne, C. J., Esq. (Hon.
Director of the Dorset Photo-
1891 Cother, Eev. P. L., M.A.
1886 Crespi, A. J. H., Esq., B.A.,
1909 Cnckmay, Harry W., Esq.
1884 Cross, Kev. James, M.A.
1885 Curme, Decimus, Esq., M.E.C.S.
1896 Curtis, C. H., Esq.
1897 Curtis, Wilfrid Parkinson, Esq.,
1903 Dacombe, J. M. J., Esq.
1912 Dammers, B.F.H., Esq.
1907 Daniell, G. H. S., Esq., M.B.
1907 Daniell, Miss Margaret
O.M. Darell, D., Esq., F.G.S., F.L.S.,
1904 Davies, Eev. Canon S. E., M.A.
1894 Davis, Geo., Esq.
1909 Day, Cyril D., Esq., B.A.
1904 Deane, Mrs. A. M.
1910 Devemsh, Major J. H. C.
1907 Dicker, Miss Eleanor H.
1912 Dickson, Colonel W. D.
1912 Dickson, Mrs. W. D.
1903 Digby, Major H. Montague
1911 Dillon -Trenchard, Miss Margaret
1906 Dodd, Frank Wm., Esq.,
1908 Dodmgton, H. P. Marriott, Esq.
1908 Dominy, G. H., Esq., M.E.C.S.,
1912 Dru Drury, G., Esq., M.E.C.S.,
1904 Dugdale, J. B., Esq.
1905 Duke, Henry, Esq.
1905 Duke, Mrs. Henry
1907 Duke, Miss M. Constance
1908 Duke, Mrs. E. Baruaby
Came House, Dorchester
1, Clearmount, Weymouth
Cooma, Poole Eoad, Wimborne
May bury, 12, Greenhill Terrace,
Baillie House, Sturminster Marshall,
Eversley, Durley Eoad, Bournemouth
Aysgarth, Parkstone Eoad, Poole
27, Holdenhurst Eoad, Bournemouth
Harbour House, Bridport
Dale House, Blandford
Dale House, Blandford
Hillfield House, Stoke Fleming, Dart-
Wyke Eegis Eectory, Weymouth
West Lodge, Icen Way, Dorchester
Clay Hill House, near Gillingham
Brook House, Upwey, Dorchester
Southill, Dean Park, Bournemouth
Southill, Dean Park, Bournemouth
11, Park Lane, Piccadilly, W.
The Eidge, Durlston Park Eoad,
17, Adam Street, Brooklyn, U.S.A.
Castle Gardens, Wareham
Milton Abbas, Blandford
Corfe Castle, Wareham
Sandf ord, Wareham
The Limes, Dorchester
1896 Dundas, Ven. Archdeacon, M.A.
1911 Dymond, Miss Evelyn
191C Eaton, Rev. A. E., M.A., F.E.S.
1885 Elwes, Captain G. R. (Vice-
1913 Facey, C. S., Esq., M.B.
1886 Falkner, C. G., Esq., M.A.
1884 Farley, Eev. H., M.A.
1913 Farrar-Eoberts, W., Esq.
1903 Farrer, Colonel Philip
1905 Feacey, Jem, Esq.
1912 Ferguson, Miss E. N.
1912 Ferguson, Miss Constance
1904 Ffooks, Mrs. E. Archdall
1904 Fielding, Thos., Esq., M.D.
1892 Filleul, Eev. S. E. V., M.A.
1889 Filliter, George Clavell, Esq.
1896 Filliter, Eev. W. D., M.A.
1910 Filliter, Mrs. W. D.
1901 Fisher, Mrs. J. F.
1911 Fisher, Eev. J. Martyn, M.A.
1890 Fletcher, W. H. B., Esq.
1906 Fletcher, Mrs. W. J.
1907 Fletcher, Eev. Canon J. M. J.,
1885 Floyer, G. W., Esq., B.A.
1895 Forbes, Mrs.
1897 Forde, Henry, Esq.
1910 Forder, B. C., Esq.
1893 Forrester, Hugh Carl, Esq., B.A.
1893 Forrester, Mrs. James
1910 Fox-Straugways, H. W., Esq.
1911 Fox, H. E. Croker, Esq., M.B.,
1910 Freame, Major B. E.
1895 Fry, Edward Alexander, Esq.
1903 Fry, George S., Esq.
189S Fullaway, Mrs.
O.M. Galpin, G., Esq.
Charminster Vicarage, Dorchester
Two Leas, Langtoii Matravers,
Richmond Villa, Northam, North
The Elms, Chickerell, near Weymouth
Ireton Bank, Eusholme, Manchester
Overbury Eoad, Parkstone
Plas Lodwig, St. John's Road,
Binnegar Hall, Wareham
Cullif ord Eoad, Dorchester
Elwell Lea, Upwey, Dorchester
Elwell Lea, Upwey, Dorchester
Milton Abbas, Blandford
All Saints' Eectory, Dorchester
St. Martin's House, Wareham
East Lulworth Vicarage, Wareham
East Lulworth Vicarage, Wareham
Vines Close, Wimborne
St. Paul's Vicarage, Weymouth
Aldwick Manor, Bogiior, Sussex
Wyrley, Colehill, Wimborne
The Vicarage, Wimborne Minster
West Stafford, Dorchester
Culverhayes, Shilliiigstoiie, Blandford
St. John's Cottage, Shaftesbury
2, St. Aubyn's Park, Tiverton, Devon
Chalbury Lodge, Weymouth
The Chantry, Gillingham
227, Strand, London, W.C.
Chesham, The Grove, Nether Street,
Finchley, London, N.
Childe Okeford, Blandford
Clarendon Court, Clarendon Road,
1896 George, Mrs.
1908 Gildea, Miss W. P. C.
1890 Glyn, Captain Carr Stuart
1912 Glyn, Mrs. C.
O.M. Glyn, Sir R. G., Bart.
1895 Godman, F. du Cane, Esq.,
1906 Gowring, Mrs. B. W.
1908 Greenwood, Arthur, Esq., L.M.S.,
1888 Greves, Hyla, Esq., M.D.
1904 Groves, Herbert J., Esq.
1906 Groves, Miss
1912 Groves, Miss
1912 Groves, Miss M.
1906 Gundry, Joseph, Esq.
1896 Haggard, Eev. H. A., M.A.
1912 Haines, F. H., Esq., M.E.C.S.,
1903 Hambro, Sir Everard, K.C.V.O.
1905 Hambro, C. Eric, Esq.
1913 Hamilton, Miss
1911 Hands, W. G., Esq., H.M.I.
1893 Haiikey, Kev. Canon, M.A.,
1910 Harbin, Rev. E. H. Bates, M.A.
1890 Harrison, Rev. F. T., M.A.
1898 Hassell, Miss
1894 Hawkins, W., Esq., M.R.C.S.
1903 Hawkins, Miss Isabel
1908 Hawkins, Rev. H.
1893 Hayne, R., Esq.
1889 Head, J. Merrick, Esq., M.R.I.A.,
1905 Heath, F. R., Esq.
1911 Hellins, Rev. E. W. J., M.A.,
1911 Hellins, Mrs. E. W. J.
1899 Henning, Mrs.
1913 Henshaw, R. Stevenson, Esq.,
C.E. (Hon. Editor of the Dorset
1912 Hichens, Mrs. T. S.
Fleet House, near Weymouth
Upwey Rectory, Dorchester
Wood Leaze, Wimborne
Wood Leaze, Wimborne
Gaunts House, Wimborne
Lower Beeding, Horsham
49, High West Street, Dorchester
32, Dorchester Road, Weymouth
Rodney House, Bournemouth
Thickthorne, Broadwey, Dorset
Red House, Queen's Avenue, Dor-
Molash Vicarage, Canterbury
Milton Abbey, Dorset
Pickhurst Mead, Hayes, Kent
Affpuddle Vicarage, Dorchester
130, Kedleston Road, Derby
Maiden Newton Rectory, Dorchester
Newton Surmaville, Yeovil
Burton Bradstock Rectory, Bridport
Westfield Lodge, Parkstone
Hillfield, Broadwey, Dorchester
1, Westerhall, Weymouth
Fordington House, Dorchester
Pennsylvania Castle, Portland
The Woodlands, Weymouth
Marnhull Rectory, Dorset
Marnhull Rectory, Dorset
New Road, Portland
Flamberts, Trent, Sherborne
1901 Hill, R. E., Esq.
1910 Hill, Miss Pearson
1902 Hine, E., Esq.
1902 Homer, Miss E. C. Wood
1907 Homer, Mrs. G. Wood
1888 Huntley, H. E., Esq.
1903 Jenkins, Eev. T. Leonard, M.A.
1912 Jordan, Miss
1893 Kerr, E. W., Esq., M.D.
1912 Kersley, R., Esq.
1895 Lafontaine, A. C. de, Esq., F.S.A.
1902 Langdon, Miss Mary C.
1876 Langford, Rev. Canon, M.A.
1910 Leach, F. R., Esq.
1907 Lees, Captain Edgar, R.N.
1907 Lees, Mrs. Edgar
1910 Le Fleming, E. K., Esq., B.A.,
1900 Legge, Miss Jane
1899 Le Jeune, H., Esq.
1900 Leslie, Rev. E. C., M.A.
1902 Lewis, Rev. A., M.A.
1894 Linklater, Rev. Prebendary, D.D.
1890 Lister, Miss Gulielma, F.L.S.
1905 Llewellin, W., Esq., M.A.
1900 Lock, Mrs. A. H.
1892 Lock, His Honour Judge
1893 Lock, Miss Mary C.
1911 Long, Rev. H. R., B.A.
1910 MacCormick, Rev. F., F.S.A.
1888 MacDonald, P. W., Esq., M.D.
1902 Mainwaring, Lieut. -Col. F. G-. L.
1890 Manger, A. T., Esq.
1907 Mansel, Miss Susan
1899 Mansel-Pleydell, Rev. Canon
J. C. M., M.A., R.D. (Vice-
President and Hon. Treasurer)
1896 March, H. Colley, Esq., M.D.,
F.S.A., M.R.S.A.L, F.A.I.
( Vice -President)
Long Lynch, Childe Okeford
Bardolf Manor, Puddletown
Bardolf Manor, Puddletown
Charlton House, Blandford
Leigh Vicarage, Sherborne
The Ridge, Durlston Park Road,
South Street, Dorchester
The Manor, Upwey, Dorchester
Parrock's Lodge, Chard
Southbrook, Starcross, S. Devon
Upcott, Bournemouth West
White Cross, Wyke Regis
White Cross, Wyke Regis
St. Margaret's, Wimborne
Allington Villa, Bridport
St. Ives, Upper Parkstone, Dorset
Came Rectory, Dorchester
Chardstock Vicarage, Chard
Holworth House, Winfrith
High Cliff, Lyme Regis
Upton House, Poole
53, High West Street, Dorchester
Ford Hall, Bridlington, Yorkshire
7, Blackheath Road, Oxford
Wrockwardine Wood Rectory, Wel-
Wabey House, Upwey
Stock Hill, Gillingham
Sturminster Newton Vicarage, Dorset
1901 Markham-Lee, W. H., Esq.,
1883 Harriott, Sir W. Smith, Bart.
1904 Marsh, J. L., Esq.
1911 Mason, W. J., Esq.
1911 Mason, Mrs. E. E.
1907 Mate, C. H., Esq.
1879 Maunsell, Kev. F. W., M.A.
O.M. Mayo, Rev. Canon, M.A., E.D.
( Vice -President)
1912 McDowall, A. S., Esq., M.A.
1907 Michell, Theo., Esq.
o.M. Middleton, H. B., Esq., M.A.
1909 Middleton, Miss A.
1890 Milne, Rev. Percy H., M.A.
O.M. Moorhead, J., Esq., M.A.,
1905 Morgan, Mrs.
1911 Morris, Sir Daniel, K.C.M.G.,
D.Sc., D.C.L., F.L.S.
1897 Moullin, Arthur D., Esq.
1908 Nettleton, Spencer, Esq.
1909 Newiiham, H. S., Esq.
1905 Nicholson, Captain Hugh
1906 Oke, A. W., Esq., B.A., LL.M.,
1886 Okeden, Colonel U. E. Parry
1906 Okeden, Edmund Parry, Esq.
1908 Oliver, Vere L., Esq.
1908 Oliver, Mrs. Vere L.
1904 Oliver, Weston, Esq., M.A.
1908 Ord, W. T., Esq., M.R.C.S.,
1911 Ouless, W. W., Esq., R.A.
1911 Ouless, Miss Catherine
1905 Paget, Miss Adelaide
1890 Patey, Miss
1908 Patterson, Mrs. Myles
1907 Paul, Edward Clifford, Esq.,
1907 Paul, Mrs. Edward Clifford
Wyke Regis, Weymouth
The Down House, Blandford
White Cliff Mill Street, Blandford
St. Denis, Cann, Shaftesbury
St. Denis, Cann, Shafteshury
Elim, Surrey Road South, Bourne-
Symondsbury Rectory, Bndport
Long Burton Vicarage, Sherborne
Norden, Corfe Castle
Trewirgie, 37, Christchurch Road,
Bradford Peverell, Dorchester
Bradford Peverell, Dorchester
Hornblotton Rectory, Castle Gary
The Imperial Hotel, Bournemouth
The Vicarage, Yetminster
14, Crabton Close, Boscombe
Fermain, Cranbourne Road, Swanage
West Lulworth, Wareham
32, Denmark Villas, Hove, Sussex
Greenhill House, Weymouth
Greenhill House, Weymouth
Castle House, Weymouth
Greenstead, 14, Madeira Road, Bourne-
12, Bryanston Square, London, W.
12, Bryanston Square, London, W.
Park Homer, Wimborne
Cony gar, Broadmayne, Dorchester
Eastbrook House, Upwey
Eastbrook House, Upwey
1894 Payne, Miss Florence O.
1906 Pearce, Mrs. Thos. A.
1909 Pearce, Edwin, Esq.
1901 Peck, Gerald E., Esq.
1878 Penny, Eev. J., M.A.
1894 Penny-Snook, S., Esq., M.E.C.S.,
1907 Penny-Snook, Mrs. S.
1901 Pentin, Eev. Herbert, M.A. ( Vice-
President and Hon. Secretary}
1894 Peto, Sir Henry, Bart.
1896 Phillips, Miss
1908 Phillips, Eev. C. A., M.A.
1898 Pickard- Cambridge, A. W., Esq.,
O.M. Pickard - Cambridge, Eev. O.,
M.A., F.E.S. ( Vice- President)
1908 Pickard -Cambridge, Miss Ada
1908 Pickard -Cambridge, Miss
1903 Pike, Leonard G., Esq.
1913 Pinney, Eev. Baldwin, B.A.
1913 Pinuey, Mrs. Baldwin
1903 Pitt-Eivers, A. L. Fox, Esq.,
1904 Plowman, Eev. L. S.
1896 Pond, S., Esq.
1894 Pouting, Chas. E., Esq., F.S.A.
1908 Poole, Rev. Sealy, M.A.
O.M. Pope, Alfred, Esq., F.S.A. (Vice-
1906 Pope, Alfred Eolph, Esq., M.A.
1906 Pope, Mrs. Alfred Eolph
1905 Pope, Miss Hilda
1909 Pope, Francis J., Esq.,
F.E. Hist. S.
1909 Pratt, Colonel, E.A.
1896 Prideaux, C. S., Esq., L.D.S.
1900 Prideaux, W. de C., Esq., L.D.S. ,
1905 Pringle, Henry T., Esq., M.D.
1905 Pringle, Mrs. Henry T.
1888 Pye, William, Esq.
Fore Street, Taunton
Muston Manor, Puddletown
Tarrant Eushton Eectory, Blandf ord
Nethertoii House, Weymouth
Nethertou House, Weymouth
Milton Abbey Vicarage, Blandford
Chedington Court, Misterton, Somerset
Walton House, Bournemouth
Walton House, Bournemouth
St. Catherine's, Headington Hill, Ox-
Bloxworth Eectory, Wareham
Picardy, Eodwell, Weymouth
Picardy, Eodwell, Weymouth
Durweston Eectory, Blandford
Durwestoii Rectory, Blandford
Ibberton Eectory, Blandford
Wye House, Marlborough
Chickerell Eectory, Weymouth
South Court, Dorchester
Culliford House, Dorchester
Culliford House, Dorchester
South Court, Dorchester
17, Holland Eoad, London, W.
The Ferns, Channinster
12, Frederick Place, Weymouth
Dunmore, Eodwell, Weymouth
905 Ramsden, Mrs.
1912 Eawlenee, E. A., Esq.
1905 Raymond, H. F., Esq.
1906 Raymond, Mrs. H. F.
1886 Reynolds, Mrs. Arthur
1904 Rhydderch, Rev. W.
1887 Richardson, N. M., Esq., B.A.
1901 Ridley, Rev. J.
1911 Robson, Colonel H. D.
1911 Robson, Mrs. H. D.
1886 Rodd, Edward Stanhope, Esq.
1907 Roe, Miss M. M. E.
1909 Roe, Rev. Wilfrid T., M.A.
1912 Romilly, Geo., Esq., M.A.
1907 Roper, Freeman, Esq., F.L.S.
1889 Russell, Colonel C. J., R.E.
1910 Russell -Wright, Rev. T., M.A.
1905 Sanderson-Wells, T. H., Esq.,
1913 Sauer, Hans, Esq., M.D.
1913 Sauer, Mrs. Hans
1905 Saunt, Miss
1905 Saunt, Miss B. V.
1889 Schuster, Rev. W. Percy, M.A.
1910 Schuster, Mrs. W. P.
1907 Scott, J. H., Esq., M.E.
1904 Seaman, Rev. C. E., M.A.
1883 Searle, Alan, Esq.
1906 Shephard, Colonel C. S., D.S.O.
1896 Shepheard, Thomas, Esq.,
1906 Shepherd, Rev. F. J.
1903 Sheridan, Mrs. A. T. Brinsley
1884 Sherren, J. A., Esq., F.R. Hist. S.
1911 Shield, William, Esq.
1908 Shortt, Miss E. F.
1908 Shortt, Miss L. M.
Great Bidlake, Bridestow, N. Devon
Garry o wen, Dorchester
Garry o wen, Dorchester
Owermoigne Rectory, Dorchester
Montevideo, Chickerell, near Wey-
The Rectory, Pulham, Dorchester
St. Oswald, West Lulworth
St. Oswald, West Lulworth
Chardstock House, Chard
Trent Rectory, Sherborne
Trent Rectory, Sherborne
The Grange, Marnhull
Forde Abbey, Chard
Mountside, Westbourne Park Road,
16, Victoria Terrace, Weymouth
The Cottage, Upwey
The Cottage, Upwey
The Vicarage, West Lulworth, Ware-
The Vicarage, West Lulworth, Ware-
Skiddaw, Talbot Hill, Bournemouth
Stalbridge Rectory, Blandford
Ashton Lodge, Bassett, Southampton
Shorttake, Osmington, Weymouth
Kingsley, Bournemouth West
The Presbytery, Dorchester
Frampton Court, Dorchester
Helmsley, Penn Hill Avenue, Park-
Lindisfarne, Dorchester Road, Wey-
The Manor House, Martinstown
The Manor House, Martinstown
1897 Simpson, Jas., Esq.
1895 Simpson, Miss
1912 Smith, Rev. A. Hippisley
1899 Smith, Howard Lyon, Esq.,
1909 Smith, Nowell C., Esq., M.A.
1908 Smith, Mrs. Spencer
1888 Solly, Rev. H. Shaen, M.A.
1901 Sotheby, Rev. W. E. H., M.A.,
1905 Stephens, J. Thompson, Esq.
1908 Stephens, A. N., Esq.
1900 Storer, Colonel, late R.E.
1895 Sturdy, Leonard, Esq.
1896 Sturdy, Philip, Esq.
1907 Sturdy, Alan, Esq.
1905 Sturdy, E. T., Esq.
1898 Sturt, W. Neville, Esq.
1898 Suttill, H. S., Esq.
1905 Suttill, John, Esq.
1912 Swinburne -Hanham, J. C., Esq.
1893 Sykes, E. R., Esq., B.A., F.Z.S.
1889 Symes, G. P., Esq., M.A., B.C.L.,
190-1 Symonds, Arthur G., Esq.
1904 Symonds, Henry, Esq., F.S.A.
(Vice- President and
1912 Symonds, F. G., Esq.
1901 Telfordsmith, Telford, Esq.,
O.M. Thompson, Rev. G., M.A.
1906 Thomson, Chas. Bertram, Esq.,
Mmterne Grange, Parkstone
Penolver, Glendinning Avenue, Wey-
Knowlon House, Surrey Road, Bourne-
St. Mary's Rectory, Glanville's
School House, Sherborne
Kingston Vicarage, Wareham
Southcote, Alexandra Road, Parkstone
Gillingham Vicarage, Dorset
Haddon House, West Bay, Bridport
The Wick, Braiiksome, near Bourne-
The Wick, Branksome, near Bourne-
Nor burton, Burton Bradstock, Brid-
Baytree Farm, Great Horkesley, Col-
24, West Street, Bridport
Manston , Sturminster Newton
Monksdene, Dorchester Road, Wey-
10, South Street, Dorchester
30, Bolton Gardens, London, S.W.
The Firs, Sturminster Newton
The Knoll, Parkstone
Highbury, Bodorgan Road, Bourne-
1907 Towers, Miss
189S Troyte-Bullock, Mrs.
1905 Truell, Mrs.
O.M. Udal, His Honour Judge, F.S. A.
1908 Udal, N. R., Esq., B.A.
1897 Usher, Rev. B., M.A., F.L.S.
1890 Usherwood, Eev. Canon T. E.,
1910 Vivian, S. P., Esq.
1907 Waite, Arthur H., Esq.
1887 Walker, Rev. S. A., M.A.
1905 Ward, Samuel, Esq.
O.M. Warre, Rev. Canon F., M.A.
1904 Warry, Mrs. King
1904 Warry, Wm., Esq.
1905 Watkins, Wm., Esq., F.R.G.S.
1905 Watts, Miss
1893 Weaver, Rev. F. W., M.A.,
1910 Webb, Miss
1913 West, C. E., Esq.
1895 Whitby, Joseph, Esq.
1908 Whitby, Mrs. J.
1904 Wildman, W. B., Esq., M.A.
1892 Williams, E. W., Esq., B.A.
1903 Williams, Captain Berkeley C. W.
1897 Williams, Miss F. L.
1884 Williams, Colonel Robert, M.P.
1884 Williams, Mrs. Robert
1908 Williams, Miss Rhoda
1906 Williams, Miss Meta
1912 Williams, Mrs. Arthur S.
1905 Wills, A. W., Esq., B.A., LL.B.
1910 Wingate, Rev. P. B., M.A.
1906 Wiiiwood, T. H. R., Esq., M.A.
1898 Woodhouse, Miss
1903 Woodhouse, Miss Ellen E.
1906 Woodhouse, Frank D., Esq.
1906 Woodhouse, Mrs. Frank D.
Whicham, Porchester Road, Bourne-
Silton Lodge, Zeals, Bath
The Manor House, Symondsbury,
Gordon College, Khartoum
Inland Revenue Office, Somerset
Upwey Place, Upwey
Charlton Manor, Blandford
Ingleton, Greenhill, Weymouth
39, Filey Avenue, Upper Clapton,
Westrow, Holwell, Sherborne
62, London Wall, B.C.
Milton Vicarage, Evercreech, Somerset
The Abbey House, Sherborne
South Walk, Dorchester
Hill House, Yetminster
3, Hyde Park Gate, London, S.W.
Tarrant Keynston Rectory, Blandford
Heckfield, Milford-on-Sea, Hants
Chilmore, Ansty, Dorchester
Chilmore, Ansty, Dorchester
Old Ford House, Blandford St. Mary
Old Ford House, Blandford St. Mary
1911 Woodhouse, Miss A. M. B. Norden, Blandford
1902 Wright, Eev. Herbert L., B.A. Church Knowle Eectory, Corfe Castle
1904 Yates, Eobert, Esq. Delcombe, Milton Abbas, Blandford
1910 Yeatman, H. F., Esq., M.A.,
1893 Young, E. W., Esq.
28, Cecil Court, Hollywood Eoad,
AFFILIATED LIBRARY (Eule XXI.).
1911 Central Public Library Bournemouth
The above list includes the New Members elected up to and including the
May meeting of the year 1913.
(Any omissions or errors should be notified to the Hon. Secretary.)
ELECTED SINCE THE PUBLICATION OF THE LIST CONTAINED
IN VOL. XXXIII.
PEOPOSED SEPT. 24TH, 1912.
Nominee. Proposer. Seconder.
Miss Groves, of Blackdown, Alfred Pope, Esq. The Hon. Secretary
Miss M. Groves, of Blackdown, ,,
A. S. McDowall, Esq., M.A., Miss E. Simpson W. W. Collins, Esq.
of Norden, Corfe Castle
PROPOSED DEC. lOxn, 1912.
Nominee. Proposer. Seconder.
C. S. Facey, Esq., M.B., of The The President The Rev. Sealy Poole
Elms, Chickerell, near Wey-
The Rev. Baldwin Pimiey, B. A., The Rev. Dr. J. H. The Hon. Secretary
of Durweston Rectory, Bland- Cooke
Mrs. Pinney, of Durweston ,, ,,
PROPOSED JAN. 2STH, 1913.
Nominee. Proposer. Seconder.
Henry Case, Esq., L.R.C.P., of Dr. H. Colley March Dr. W. Hawkins
The Vicarage, Abbotsbury
W. Farrar-Roberts, Esq., of Dr. T. Telfordsmith F. R. Leach, Esq.
Plas Lodwig, St. John's Road,
Miss Hamilton, of Affpuddle The Rev. H. R. Long The Hon. Secretary
R. Stevenson Heushaw, Esq., Lt.-Col. F. G. L. H. Stilwell, Esq.
C.E. (Hon. Editor of the Mainwaring
Dorset Rainfall Reports), of
New Road, Portland
Hans Sauer, Esq., M.D., of Judge J. S. Udal Alfred Pope, Esq.
Parnham, Beaminster, Dorset
Mrs. Hans Sauer, of Parnham ,,
Charles Eliot West, Esq., of G. T. Atkinson, Esq. A. D. Moullin, Esq.
Cluny Croft, Swanage
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General Index to the Proceedings. Vols. I. XXVI. Price 6d., by
The Church Bells of Dorset. By the Eev. Canon EAVEN, D.D., F.S.A.
Price (in parts, as issued), 6s. 6d., post free.
By the late J. C. MANSEL-PLEYDELL, B.A., F.G.S., F.L.S.
The Flora of Dorset. 2nd Edition. Price 12s.
The Birds of Dorset. Price 5s.
The Mollusca of Dorset. Price 5s.
By the Rev. 0. PICKARD-CAMBKIDGE, M.A., F.E.S., P.Z.S.
Spiders of Dorset. 2 vols. Price 25s., post free.
The British Phalangidea, or Harvest Men. Price 5s., post free.
British Chernetidea, or False Scorpions. Price 3s., post free.
The Volumes of Proceedings can be obtained from the Hon. Treasurer (the
Eev. Canon Mansel-Pleydell, Sturmiiister Newton) ; the Church Bells of
Dorset, from the Eev. W. Miles Barnes, Dorchester ; Mr. Maiisel-Pleydell's
works, from the Curator of the Dorset County Museum, Dorchester ; the
Eev. O. Pickard- Cambridge's works, from the Author, Bloxworth Eectory,
Wareham ; and the General Index, from the Assistant- Secretary (Mr. H.
Pouncy, Dorset County Chronicle Office, Dorchester).
SOCIETIES & INSTITUTIONS IN CORRESPONDENCE
WITH THE FIELD CLUB.
Bodleian Library, Oxford.
British Museum, London.
British Museum of Natural History, South Kensington,
British Association, Burlington House, London.
Cambridge Philosophical Society, Cambridge.
Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science.
Geological Society of London, London.
Hampshire Field Club, Southampton.
Royal Society of Antiquaries, Dublin, Ireland.
Society of Antiquaries, London.
Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society,
University Library, Cambridge.
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society.
jflaturaJ Itjistflrp anti
(FROM MAY, 1912, TO MAY, 1913.)
FIRST SUMMER MEETING.
Tuesday, 18th June.
In the unavoidable absence of the President, his place was
filled by Captain G. R. Elwes, who was accompanied by the
Hon. Secretary, the Hon. Treasurer, the Hon. Editor, and
about seventy members and visitors.
The party assembled at Brockenhurst Station, after an
interval of sixteen years since the last visit of the Field Club
to that neighbourhood. The first objective was St. Leonard's
Abbey, where the Rev. H. Pentin read a letter from Mr.
Fisher-Rowe, in which the writer regretted his absence at
Captain ELWES observed that St. Leonard's was one of the series
of granges which belonged to Beaulieu, and although locally known
as " St. Leonard's Abbey," was never really an Abbey. The Abbey
grant extended a mile and a quarter, and conveyed a right of sanctuary,
which benefited not only those who took sanctuary, but also those
who gave it, since those taking sanctuary became labour tenants of
the Abbey. At the Dissolution there were in the Abbey domain 32
men, with their wives and families, and it was a matter of regret that
these men had to be turned out. They were there under sentence
for various crimes, and it seemed curious that any communal body
like the monks of Beaulieu should have had the power to retain these
criminals, and to screen them from justice.
XXV111. BEAULIEU ABBEY.
The Rev. C. W. H. DICKER added a few observations upon the
architectural features of the chapel, the details of which were much
admired. The date was about 1350, and the geometrical tracery
of the west window was entirely characteristic of the 14th century,
especially in the great development of those chapelries belonging to
the monastic houses.
A note of the days of Nelson was struck in the appearance of Buckler's
Hard, on the Beaulieu River, whither the party next drove. Here
they saw the launching slips from which were launched the wooden
men o' war, among them four vessels that fought at Trafalgar.
Captain ELWES invited the Members to realise the time when
Buckler's Hard was one of the busiest places along the south-coast,
particularly convenient for ship-building, since the oak timber grown
in the Forest was close at hand, and the place, up that winding
creek, was well out of the way of hostile privateers.
According to a manuscript in the Cotton Library, " in the sixth
year of King John, the king built a certain monastery of the Cistercian
Order in England and called it Bellus Locus."
Captain ELWES gave a short account of the rise and history of the
Cistercian Order, observing that Stephen Harding, formerly a monk
of Sherborne, might be correctly described rather as the lawgiver of
the order than as its actual founder at Citeaux. Beaulieu was a
perfect example of a Cistercian Abbey ; and they might imagine what
wealth and powar the abbey enjoyed by the enormous area eovercd
by the church, which was originally larger than any of the cathedrals
of the kingdom, but of which, alas ! not a single stone was left. The
nagged way outside the penthouse of the cloister gave admission to the
various shops that occupied the cloister at the time when the abbey
was in full activity one that of the wood carver, another that of the
painter, yet another the school, marked by that series of steps similar
to those they might remember to have seen in Winchester College.
In fine weather the various occupations necessary to the abbey were
carried on in these cloisters. The monks had their own port for sea-
borne goods on the other side of the river, and their market for inland
goods up in a field still called Cheapside.
The party were here joined by Mr. J. W. Nash-Brown (in charge of
Lord Montagu's estate office), who acted as guide, and conducted
them over the buildings. After traversing the whole length of the bare
site of the great abbey, the party entered the parish church, where the
guide indicated the changes which had been made to adapt the refectory
BEAULIEU ABBEY XXix.
to its present sacred purpose. In the refectory on the ground floor
have been gathered together many of the relics found in the abbey,
including a canopied niche formerly placed over the arch of the gate-
house, the grave slab of Eleana, daughter of Edward I., and a collection
of the tiles, inlaid and encaustic, formerly covering the floor of the
abbey. A large number of the tiles, as Mr. Nash-Brown mentioned,
are still in place, but covered by two or three feet of earth.
By permission of Lord Montagu, the party were allowed to go over
his beautiful residence, a portion of which was formerly the Abbot's
On leaving the house Captain ELWES, on behalf of the Club, expressed
their appreciation of Lord Montagu's kindness, and thanked Mr.
Morgan and Mr. Nash-Brown for their good offices.
A pleasant drive back to Brockenhurst was followed by tea at the
Afterwards a short business meeting was held, at which four new
Members were elected.
The HON. SEC. announced six new nominations for membership.
Sir Daniel Morris, of Bournemouth, was appointed as the club's
delegate to attend the meeting of the British Association at Dundee.
The meeting proceeded to consider the proposal of Captain Acland
that the volume of Proceedings should in future be brought out, not at
the end of the year, but immediately after the annual meeting in May.
As this proposed change would involve the publication of an interim
volume to adjust matters, it might be necessary to meet the extra
expense by drawing upon the reserve fund of the Club.
On tha motion of the Rev. C. W. H. DICKER, seconded by the Rev.
T. RUSSELL WRIGHT, the proposal, after full discussion, was carried
SECOND SUMMER MEETING.
Tuesday and Wednesday, 23rd and 24:th July.
On this occasion about sixty Members and visitors accom-
panied the President on a very successful pilgrimage extend-
ing over two days.
Shortly after assembling at the Ailesbury Arms on the
Tuesday the party visited St. Peter's Church, at the further
end of the wide High Street.
Mr. E. DORAN WEBB, F.S.A., of whose services as guide the club
again had the advantage, said a few words in the church about the
history of the town, and of the tumulus known as the Castle Mound.
He also touched upon the incidents connected with St. Peter's in early
times, remarking that Cardinal Wolsey was ordained in the Chancel
From the church Mr. Doran Webb, by leave of the Headmaster,
led the party over the School, which was founded in 1843, with the
charming old Castle Inn as the nucleus of the modern buildings which
have been erected round it.
a place of exceptional interest, was next visited. As Mr. Doran Webb
pointed out, the church was subjected to severe mutilation
in the 18th Century, when the early Norman arches were
replaced by the present modern work. Attention was called to the
three small circular windows in the wall of the north arcade,
windows which Mr. Charles E. Ponting, F.S.A., regarded as being
Saxon. But the great rarity of the church is the font. The upper
part, with its quaint interweaving symbolical design, is of quite a
different date from the lower part, adorned with Norman arcading
formed of intersecting arches. The most noticeable object of the upper
and the much older half is a priestly figure wearing a kind of quilted
frock, its face quite disfigured by the driving in of a staple, and hold-
ing in the right hand a crozier-like staff. Mr. Doran Webb said he
knew of no font with so distinctive and strong a Scandinavian feeling
in the design and adornment, and Dr. COLLEY MARCH, F.S.A.,
agreed with him that the upper part was Scandinavian.
Mr. H. ST. GEORGE GRAY, assistant secretary of the Somerset
Archaeological Society, and the director of the excavations at Avebury,
had come with the party as guide in this unique village, which has
sprung up within the stone circle of the prehistoric temple. On the
club leaving the church he led them to see the manor house of the
16th Century, built by one Dunch in 1556, and told the family history
connected with it.
THE TEMPLE or AVEBURY.
Tea at the Red Lion was a welcome refreshment. Afterwards the
party set out to walk round the earthwork. Mr. Gray led them along
the huge vallum to a convenient spot overlooking the section of the
fosse in which the excavations were carried out from 1908 onwards.
Mr. GRAY delivered a concise address, giving first a general des-
cription of Avebury, and then detailing the course of the excavations.
The circumference of the place, he said was about 4,400 feet, roughly
three-quarters of a mile, and its diameter from north to south 1,400
feet four times that of Stonehenge. The stones, while none of them:
were quite so large as at Stonehenge, differed also in being rough un-
tooled sarsens, whereas at Stonehenge all the stones were dressed, and
other hard stones were to be found besides sarsens. That great em-
bankment, of a vertical height of 31 feet, enclosed an area of 28 acres
and a half. They would notice a rather unusual thing that the fosse
was inside the vallum instead of outside. Next, lying just inside
the foss, were the remaining stones of the great outer circle, which
enclosed two other circles of stones, the northern and the southern.
He pointed to five stones (two still upright and three prone)
forming an arc of the southern inner circle, in the centre of which, in
Stukeley's time, was one large monolith. In the centre of the corres-
ponding northern inner circle was the so-called " Cove," formed of
three stones, of which two were still standing, roughly at right angles,
one of the stones being 20 feet high, the tallest of those remaining.
Although Lord Avebury, the owner of the part of the work in which
the excavations had as yet been carried out, held the opinion that the
whole place was one vast cemetery, yet he himself could not admit
that it was ever used for sepulchral purposes, since, as far as he knew,
no interment had been found there. What, then, was the purpose of
the place ? Nobody knew. It could not have been for defence, for
in that case the fosse would have been outside the vallum instead of
inside. He had heard suggestions that it might have been a temple in
connection with the observation of the sun, moon, and stars, which
seemed probable. There was originally a long avenue of stones
approaching Avebury from the south, and by the turnpike cottage
they saw the last stone. Of this Kennet-avenue only 19 stones re-
mained ; but a hundred years ago Lord Winchilsea counted no less
than 78, and at one time there were 200. As to the so-called Beck-
hampton-avenue, coming from the West, to his mind it was doubtful
whether an avenue ever existed in the direction of Beckhampton ;
but, if so, all that remained now were two large stones, in a field nearly
a mile away, called Adam and Eve, Longstone Cove, or the Devil's
Points. On December 2nd last " Eve " fell. Effort was being made
to set the stone up again ; but already they had broken several steel
ropes in the attempt. Mr. Cunnington, of Devizes, had been digging
out the hole to find the socket in the solid chalk, and in doing so had
discovered a human skeleton and a beaker, or drinking vessel,
datable to the Bronze Age.
Dr. COLLEY MARCH said that, as the interment was close to the
stone and shallow, it must have been placed there after the stone was
raised. Had it been put there before the stone was raised it would
have been ground to pieces. He suggested that the interment was
made at that spot because it was sacred, and people wished to bury
their dead in or near some sacred place. As to date, the avenue was
there before the early Bronze Age.
(Also, cf. Proceedings, Vol. XXX., p. Ixiv.)
From Avebury the Club drove back to Marlborough via " Adam
and Eve " and Silbury Hill, which has the distinction of being the
highest artificial mound in Britain.
Mr. GRAY gave all the information known about the tumulus. It
is 125 feet high from the surface of the ground ; the diameter of the
base is 555 feet, and at the top 105 feet. The material was believed
to have been obtained from all round the base of the hill. In hollows
which he pointed out there are five feet of alluvial deposit, showing that
originally the hollows were very much larger ; and in that deposit
had been found flint implements of the Neolithic period. The de-
pression in the centre of the summit marked the position of the vertical
shaft which was sunk in 1777, and although it reached the very
bottom of the hill, nothing was found. In 1840 the Royal Archaeo-
logical Institute followed suit by doing the complementary work of
tunneling the hill from the Bath -road side to the centre ; and in
doing so they met the shaft. Again nothing was found except two
fragments of red deer antlers. There is, therefore, no proof that Silbury
On regaining Marlborough the Club visited the church of St. Mary,
which was shown them by the Vicar (the Rev. A. E. G. Peters). It is
an interesting if unlovely example of a church built in the Common-
wealth period. The old church having been almost entirely burnt
down in the great fire of 1653, Cromwell sent briefs through the country
asking for contributions towards the succour of the poor burghers of
Marlborough, who thus were enabled to rebuild their church in the same
year. The best feature of the church is the Norman archway of two
orders in the western tower, which happily survived the fire.
The Club dined at the Ailesbury Arms, the President (Mr. Richard-
son) being supported by a large company.
Afterwards six new Members were elected by ballot, and the HON.
SECRETARY announced three new nominations.
The party then adjourned to the Court Room at the Town Hall
w r here Mr. ST. GEORGE GRAY followed up the visit to Avebury that
day by giving a lecture on the place and the excavations, illustrated
by a series of lantern slides, made from photographs taken by himself.
Speaking with cautious reserve, in answer to the question so repeatedly
put as to the date of the place, Mr. Gray observed that, so far, the
evidence adduced pointed to it being either of the early Bronze Age or
the late Neolithic, and, if so, of greater antiquity than the better
known and more spectacular Stonehenge.
KNOWLE CHAPEL AND GRAVEL PITS.
The parish of Great Bedwyn contains this desecrated chapel, 19ft.
Gin. by 12ft. 9in., the chief feature of which is the 14th Century windows,
now bricked up. It was, said Mr. DORAN WEBB, one of a series
of domestic chapels in that neighbourhood.
Dr. COLLEY MARCH then described many points of interest in con-
nection with the gravel pit adjoining Knowle House, a spot often
visited by those in search of flint implements.
Shortly afterwards the party were standing inside a large quadrangle
of two-storeyed tenements in the mellowed brickwork of the 17th
Century. In the centre of the sward rose an early 19th century chapel,
an architectural anachronism. This quadrangle forms the Froxfield
Almshouses, as they are now generally called, or the Somerset Hospital,
founded and endowed for the benefit of 50 widows (20 of the clergy
and 30 of laymen) by Sarah, Dowager Duchess of Somerset, in 1694.
Mr. DORAN WEBB pointed out the oldest tenements, late Caroline
or James II., the gatehouse and the chapel being built in what is
known as the " Batty Langley " style.
The Duchess of Somerset also founded a system of apprenticeship
available for youths in the counties of Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, and
Devon. As for the almshouses, it was hard to conceive a better laid
out block of buildings.
A short drive brought the party to Littlecote Hall, possessing the
distinction of being the finest 16th Century house in the whole land,
with the possible exception of Haddon Hall. It was by the courtesy
of the present occupant of this historic place, Mr. Leopold Hirsch, that
the club visited it.
Mr. DOBAN WEBB traced the history of Littlecote from the 13th
century, when the owner was Roger de Calston, whose son of the
same name succeeded to the property, and in 1341 applied to the Bishop
of Salisbury for a licence to hear mass in his oratory at Littlecote.
By the marriage of the granddaughter and heiress of John de Calston
with William Darell, younger son of Sir William Darell, of Yorkshire,
the property passed into the hands of that family, who held it until
1589, when, on the death of William Darell, it went to his cousin, John
Popham, afterwards, from 1592 to 1607, Chief Justice of the Court of
Queen's Bench. The present house was built by the father of the last
William Darell, replacing an older structure.
Mr. Webb then accompanied the party in their tour through the
rooms, pointing out the objects of interest and commenting on the
many traditions associated with the building.
On quitting the house the club enjoyed a ramble through the
gardens. Before leaving, the PRESIDENT, in the name of the Club,
expressed their thanks to Mr. Hirsch for his kindness in receiving
After luncheon at the Bell Inn, Ramsbury, the Club, under the guid-
.ance of Mr. Doran Webb, visited the Church of the Holy Cross, built
practically on the site of the ancient cathedral of Ramsbury the only
West Saxon cathedral, founded at the beginning of the tenth century.
There they saw a problem in architecture worked out, for the church
was originally cruciform, but later, probably in the 14th Century,
the walls of the aisles were taken down and re -erected flush with those
of the transepts, by which means the transepts were absorbed into the
aisles, and what the church lost in dignity it gained in size. The most
interesting thing in the church is a section of the upright shaft of a
preaching cross with carving of Scandinavian type, erected probably
in 908, when the first Bishop of Salisbury was consecrated to minister
to the spiritual needs of the still half savage West Saxons.
Mr. Doran Webb and Mr. St. George Gray were heartily thanked for
their valuable services as guides, and the party then drove back to
Marlborough and took train for Dorset.
INTENDED MEETING IN THE CERNE VALLEY. XXXV.
THE INTENDED MEETING IN THE CERNE VALLEY.
On Tuesday, 21th August.
When the Field Club assembled at the S.W.R. Station, Dorchester,
to carry out the programme which had been arranged, many of the
Members heard for the first time of the fatal accident which had
befallen the Rev. C. W. H. Dicker on the previous day.
Mr. NELSON M. RICHARDSON, in announcing the sad occurrence,
paid an appreciative tribute to the memory of their Hon. Editor, and
proposed that a message of condolence should be sent by the Club
to Mr. Dicker's son and sisters. This resolution was seconded by the
Rev. Herbert Pentin, and carried.
It was also unanimously decided to adjourn the meeting for one
month, and the Members then dispersed.
XXXVi. THE UPPER YEO VALLEY.
THIRD SUMMER MEETING.
THE UPPER YEO VALLEY.
Wednesday, llth September.
The Members and their guests, who met at Pen Mill Rail-
way Station, numbered about eighty, including the three
Members of the Executive and four Vice-Presidents.
The party drove first to Trent Church, where they were received by
the Rector, the Rev. T. G. Wilton, who described the chief features of
interest. Among these were the oak screen of the 15th Century, the
carved bench -ends of a century later, the chauntry chapel built in
memory of John French, a parishioner, who was Master of the Rolls
under Henry VI., and three pre -Reformation bells. The Register
contains a reference to the battle of Babylon Hill in 1642.
The Rev. E. H. BATES HARBIN then contributed some notes on
John Coker, the supposed author of the " Survey of Dorset," and
showed that the history was in fact written by Thomas Gerard, a
resident of Trent. After the exterior of the church and the spire had
been inspected, Mr. ALFRED POPE drew attention to the mutilated
shaft of a cross, standing upon a circular calvary of 12 feet in diameter,
and mentioned a tradition that the cross had been moved from the
village into the churchyard.
The RECTOR next pointed out the chantry priest's house, a beautiful
little dwelling with 15th century windows, and the larger " Church
House," said to have been once a refectory, but for the last 300 years
the home of successive churchwardens.
Trent Manor House was then visited under the guidance of Mr. E
A. RAWLENCE, who related to the Members the stirring incidents of
the year 1651, when Charles II. took refuge with Colonel Wyndham
after the battle of Worcester. Mr. Rawlence led the way to the King's
chamber and the actual hiding place beneath the floor, which latter
had been recently discovered during the structural alterations then
A pleasant drive brought the party to the moated farmhouse which
; .s said, probably with truth, to have been used by the Abbots of Sher-
borne as their summer quarters. The manor was afterwards held by
the family of Horsey for a long period, and some documents relating
THE UPPER YEO VALLEY. XXXVii.
to these lands can be found in the Fry collection at the museum in
Dorchester. Over the main door is the date 1650, the year in which
the building was restored or altered. Among the attractions of the
place are two mediaeval barns with fine timbered roofs.
BRADFORD ABBAS CHURCH.
The Rev. Canon WICKHAM received the visitors and sketched for
them the history of the church from its construction by Abbot Brad-
ford, of Sherborne, about 1480. The style is Perpendicular throughout,
the material employed being Hamdon stone. At the eastern end of
the south wall stands a small doorway, or priests' porch, which was
much admired, as were the armorial corbels in the nave. The tower is
justly regarded as the best example of its class within the county,
indeed, those who saw it for the first time might well have believed
that they were over the border in Somerset.
Mr. ALFRED POPE commented upon the shaft and steps of the
churchyard cross, which is in a fair state of preservation, and assigned
its date to the fifteenth century.
By the permission of Mr. Daniell, who was away from home, the
Club was enabled to inspect the exterior of the Manor House and its
The HON. SECRETARY observed that they were then looking at a
portion only of the great house wherein the Horseys lived in the
sixteenth century, the builder of which was probably Sir John, who
died in the year of the Armada. The ancient gateway, attributed to
Inigo Jones, had been taken down and removed to the park at Hinton
St. George, and a portion of the main fabric was transferred ^o
Chief among the surviving architectural details is the magnificent
oriel window placed high up in the wall of the western, or garden,
front. There was, at one time, a chapel adjoining the house, but
nothing more than the turf-covered foundations are now to be seen.
Some pieces of sacramental plate are, however, still preserved in
Bradford Abbas church.
NEWTON SURMA VILLE.
The Rev. E. H. BATES HARBIN, addressing the Members assembled
near the porch of his Jacobean homo, said that he knew the unbroken
history of that manor from the period when Emma de Waie married
a member of the Norman family of Salmunvill. This lady died in
1221, owning lands in Niveton and leaving Philip de Salmunvill as
her son and nearest heir. The manor was owned by several other
XXXV111. THE UPPER YEO VALLEY.
families before it was acquired in 1608 by Robert Harbin, of Wyke,
near Gillingham, who built the existing house and finished it in 1612.
The party was then conducted through the house and had full
opportunity for examining the many treasures, artistic and literary,
which were to be seen. Among these were memorials of the Wynd-
hams, of Trent, and Charles II.
The Club was afterwards entertained at tea by Mr. and Mrs. Bates
Harbin, who were cordially thanked by the PRESIDENT for their
hospitality and kindly welcome.
A plate of Newton Surmaville accompanies the report of this
THE CERNE VALLEY. XXxix.
FOURTH SUMMER MEETING.
THE CERNE VALLEY.
Tuesday, 24:th September (adjourned from 21th August).
Mr. Nelson M. Richardson, the Rev. H. Pentin, and the
Rev. Canon Mansel-Pleydell were accompanied on this, the
last outdoor meeting of the year, by nearly eighty Members
and their friends. A start was made from Dorchester, the
first halting place being Charminster Church, where the Club
was received by the Ven. Archdeacon DUNDAS, who had
prepared a paper dealing with the architectural and historical
features of the building.
The oldest parts of the church, the ARCHDEACON observed, were the
nave and the chancel arch, dating from the third quarter of the 12th
Century. The clerestory contains, not only six Perpendicular windows,
three on each side, inserted in the 15th century, but also, between
them, four small Norman windows, two on each side. These
were discovered and opened out in the course of the successful
restoration effected in 1897 under the direction of Mr. Chas.
E. Ponting, F.S.A. The south arcade was remarkably like that
at Bere Regis, so like as to suggest that the same architect
was responsible for the design. Although the arches of the bays
were pointed, yet it was erroneous to suppose that they were of
later date than the semi-circular chancel arch. The original chancel,
28 feet deep and wider than the present one, was pulled down in the
Civil Wars under an agreement between the impropriator and the
parishioners. The existing chancel, neither large nor interesting,
was built only 80 or 90 years ago. Attention was called to such other
features as the handsome panelling in Ham Hill stone of the soffits of
the three tower arches, the hagioscope, the original stone newel stair-
case leading into the roodloft, and the two beautiful 15th Century
canopied altar tombs of the Trenchard family, now standing in the
south aisle ; the Jacobean pulpit, and the ancient texts and decorations
in fresco on the wall, including a diapering in a conventional treatment
of what Mr. Micklethwaite pronounced to be a Spanish pomegranate.
The north aisle was rebuilt, of the same width as the nave, in 1838,
when the original Perpendicular windows were reinserted. The oak
altar rails, the Archdeacon continued, were carved by the late Rev. C.
W. H. Dicker.
xl. THE CERNE VALLEY.
Outside the church door the Archdeacon pointed out the
priest's sundial, meant to show the time of the early Mass ; but chief
attention was claimed by the tower, erected about 1500 by Sir Thomas
Trenchard, of Wolfeton, whose initials, the Old English double T, in
monogram, appear in no less than 24 places.
Mr. ALFRED POPE, F.S.A., spoke upon a most interesting find
recently made a portion of the shaft of a 15th or 16th century cross,
originally an unequal-sided octagon, embedded in the western end of
the churchyard boundary wall. By the Archdeacon's leave it has
lately been taken out and placed against the southern wall of the
church a welcome addition to " The Old Stone Crosses of Dorset."
The party then drove on to Cerne Abbas, and alighted at the Abbey
Barn. Here they were received by the Vicar (the Rev. H. D. Gundry)
who acted as the Club's cicerone in Cerne. He recalled the late Mr.
Henry Moule's enthusiasm for that barn, and his computation that
not fewer than 125,000 flints, each shaped by hand, were used in its
construction. He also asked the visitors to realise the great loss
suffered in the destruction of the original timbering of the roof, although
the late General Pitt Rivers was happily able to preserve the timber
in the two porches, and did good service in having the barn solidly
re-roofed in stone tile.
From the barn Mr. Gundry led the w T ay to the parish church. Of
the lofty tower, in rich dark-brown stone, he spoke with admiration,
and then deplored the decadence of the poor debased Gothic in the
navo arcades and windows. The great Perpendicular east window
with its ancient glass, must have come from a much larger building,
probably the Abbey Church itself, since there was not room to insert
the whole of the window, and the lower part had to be sacrificed.
From the church the party walked to St. Augustine's Well, about
which the Vicar repeated the familiar legends. The HON. SECRETARY
(the Rev. HERBERT PENTIN) said he believed, with Mr. Gund>y, that
the Augustinian traditions relating to Cerne were mere fables. That
fount was not called St. Austin's or St. Augustine's Well by William
of Malmesbury, but " Silver Well."
Dr. COLLEY MARCH mentioned that the partial covering of that well
with stones indicated that probably its borders were used for "in-
cubation." The sick person came and lay there for a night or nights
until some vision appeared and gave directions for his cure.
Mr. GUNDRY next led the way to the ruins of the Abbey. He pointed
to the reputed site of the Abbey Church alongside the present
cemetery ; any digging along the wall brought to light the
encaustic tiles with which the church was paved.
THE CERNE VALLEY. xli.
The party then inspected the guest house or refectory, a building
mainly of the second half of the 15th century, with certain windows
and a doorway added at a later date. In this building occurs the
oriel window, w r hich delighted the architects who visited the place a
few years ago. Mr. H. Le Jeune had called attention to the serious
list which the building was showing, threatening the collapse of the
wall containing the oriel. This wall is now stoutly shored up with
Canon MANSEL-PLEYDELL assured the party that Mr. A. L. F. Pitt-
Rivers, the owner of the property, was as anxious as any member of
the Club could be that the structure and window should be
preserved, and would do everything possible for its preservation.
MlNTERNE AND UPCERNE.
The party next drove, via Dogberry Gate, to Minterne, where the
Rev. W. G. Barclay, in the absence of Lord Digby, showed the Flemish
tapestries which adorn the house.
On returning, the Members made a short visit to Upcerne House
to inspect its Tudor architecture. Colonel Mount Batten, who had
intended to entertain the Club at the postponed meeting of 27th
August, was then away from home.
The party took tea at the New Inn, Cerne.
Afterwards, five candidates were elected by ballot as members of
the club, and the HON. SECRETARY announced three further nomina-
xlii. THE FIRST WINTER MEETING.
WINTER SESSION, 1912-13.
The first Winter Meeting of the Field Club was held in the
Reading Room of the County Museum, Dorchester, on
Tuesday, 10th December, 1912. The President (Mr. Nelson
M. Richardson) took the chair at 12.30, and among those
present were the Hon. Secretary and the Hon. Treasurer.
Three candidates for membership were elected by ballot,
and four nominations were announced.
Sir DANIEL MORRIS, K.C.M.G., read his report as the Club's
delegate to the British Association meetings at Dundee in
The Conference of delegates of Corresponding Societies was held
under the Chairmanship of Professor F. O. Bower, F.R.S., of
Glasgow, who delivered an opening address on the work of the great
botanist, Sir Joseph Hooker, G. C.S.I., F.R.S., who was also
distinguished as a traveller and geographer, an administrator, a
scientific systematist, and a philosophical biologist.
The official list showed seventy representatives of affiliated societies
and nineteen representatives of associated bodies.
The following were among the subjects discussed at the Conference.
(a) The results obtained by the British Mycological Society on
certain Fungoid Pests, by Miss A. Lorrain Smith, F.L.S.
(6) A preliminary report on the Selborne Society's Committee for the
State Protection of Wild Plants, by Mr. A. R. Horwood.
(c) The Brent Valley Bird Sanctuary : An Experiment. Plant
Protection (with lantern illustrations), by Mr. Wilfred Mark Webb,
(d) Water Power and Industrial Development in connection with the
Highland Lochs, by Mr. Alexander Newlands.
Proposals relating to the Protection of Animals were touched upon
by Dr. Chalmers Mitchell, F.R.S., in his address as President of Section
D (Zoology) and in respect of the Protection of Plants it received the
support of Section K (Botany).
At the Conference on the second day (Sept. 10th) a resolution was
proposed by Mr. G. C. Druce, F.L.S., seconded by Mr. W. Whitaker,
F.R.S., and carried, "That this meeting cordially approves of the objects
of the Society recently established for the purpose of obtaining areas
containing interesting specimens of fauna and flora, and also objects
of geological interest." In an address by the Hon. N. C. Rothschild
THE FIRST WINTER MEETING. xltii.
on " Nature Reserves," he announced that a Society for the promotion
of reserves was in course of formation and would shortly issue its
prospectus. This was regarded as giving promise of effective practical
Mr. E. A. FRY, who had been the Club's delegate at the
Congress of Archaeological Societies in London in June last,
had forwarded his notes upon the subjects which were then
discussed. (A print of the report was already in the hands
of the Members.) The HON. SECRETARY read Mr. Fry's
observations, which more particularly referred to (1) the
indexes of archaeological papers, the utility of which merited
a larger demand by the affiliated societies ; (2) the inclusion
of Ecclesiastical buildings within the scope of the Ancient
Monuments Act, a proposal which was adopted by the
Congress ; and (3) the continued destruction or mutilation of
Captain ACLAND remarked that the Golf Club at Came were
said to have caused damage to barrows on the links ; but he
had been recently assured that only once had a small
mound been cut, and that such a thing would not be done
The PRESIDENT moved a resolution to elect Mr. Henry
Symonds as Hon. Editor. The proposal was seconded by
Colonel MAIN WARING, supported by the HON. SECRETARY,
and approved by the Members.
The PRESIDENT then announced that Mr. H. Stilwell, who
had edited the Dorset rainfall reports for many years, desired
to relinquish the office, and he asked the meeting to accord a
hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Stilwell for his work in that field
of science. A resolution inviting Mr. Stevenson Henshaw,
C.E., of Portland, to undertake the duties was proposed and
adopted, at the suggestion of Mr. STILWELL.
The following gifts had been received, of which the
PRESIDENT made due acknowledgment : Mr. E. A. Fry,
some documents to be added to the collection already pre-
sented by him ; Mr. Forsyth, a case of beetles ; Mr. Wingfield
Digby, two oak logs.
xliv. THE FIRST WINTER MEETING.
By Mr. HENRY SYMONDS, (1) an original letter of marque
issued in 1803 to the East Indiaman United Kingdom ; (2) a
cast from a half-crown of the Civil War period, showing
" S A " on the obverse, which letters had caused the coin to
be attributed to a mint at Sarum. As the general type was
very similar to that of the Wey mouth half-crowns of 1643-4
the exhibitor believed that it was struck at Sandsfoot Castle
during the siege.
By Mr. E. A. RAWLENCE, a stone corn pounder and a stone
fire-kindling pot (?) recently found near Sherborne Castle.
By the HON. SECRETARY, an original copy of a " Sermon
preached at the Anniversary Meeting of the Dorchester
Gentlemen in the Church of St. Mary-le-Bow, Dec. 1,
1691, by Tho: Lindesay A.M." (The author was a native
of Blandford, and became Archbishop of Armagh.) See
Proceedings, Vol. XXXII., pp. xxix., xxxii.
By Mr. C. G. H. DICKER, two " greybeard " jugs dug up in
his garden at Upwey in October, 1912. The PRESIDENT had
prepared the following note in connection with these vessels.
Tho two very similar jugs found by Mr. Dicker buried a very short
distance below the surface, probably date from the 17th century
They are generally known as Bellarmines or greybeards, from the fact
that the face below the spout was taken to represent Cardinal Bellar-
mine, who in the latter half of the 16th century was unpopular as one
of the strongest opponents to the Reformation, but the decoration of
a face under the spout of a jug dates from a much earlier period. The
material of the jugs is a stoneware, glazed with salt at a very high
temperature, and is very hard and impervious. The manufacture
of this ware in its more finished and refined forms was carried on at
many places in Germany and the Low Countries from the early part
of the 16th century, but coarser stoneware articles had been made
there for a long period. In the 16th and 17th centuries, and later,
articles of many different shapes were made, often decorated with
raised coats of arms, lettering, and various ornaments. The jugs like
the Upwey examples were made at more than one factory, but that at
Frechen near Cologne seems to have been their chief source. Immense
numbers of them were used in the inns of Germany and Flanders
as beer bottles, and they were also very largely imported into England
THE FIRST WINTER MEETING. xlv.
for the same purpose, so that most of those found in this country are
probably of German origin. But it is likely that they were also made
in England, perhaps in various places, though the only distinct piece
of evidence of this is the finding of a few, together with other pots, in
a walled -up room at Fulham, where one of the most distinguished of
English potters, John Dwight, worked in the latter part of the 17th
century. Other more artistic productions of Dwight's are known,
and these beer jugs were, from the circumstances, almost undoubtedly
made by him, though they are so like some of the foreign ones, that
had it not been for the fortunate find alluded to above, there would have
been nothing by which they could have been distinguished with cer-
tainty. It is now impossible to say whether such jugs as the present
ones were made here or abroad, though the probabilities point to the
latter. The only undoubted one of Dwight's Bellarmines that I have
seen (in the British Museum) is smoother in surface and not so mottled
as these, but some of the jugs found in England are much more richly
mottled, and have the dark patches much larger. The concentric
rings on the bottom of these jugs are caused by the clay being cut
through with a wire, as grocers cut cheese. I doubt whether it is
known how the jugs were corked ; perhaps with w r ooden plugs. Though
these beer jugs or bottles must 200 years ago have been in use in count-
less numbers, and though they do not look as if they would easily be
destroyed, yet now they are not often met with, and it is fortunate
that these have fallen into the hands of one like Mr. Dicker, who
appreciates their antiquarian interest, and will take every care of them.
1. Dr. H. COLLEY MARCH, F.S.A., read a paper on " Scando-
Gothic Art in Wessex, suggested by the Sculptured Stones
recently discovered at Whitcombe," which is printed and
illustrated in this volume.
2. Mr. E. A. RAWLENCE described the circumstances
attending the find of two buried oaks at Butterwick in Black-
more Vale, and exhibited photographs and plans of the sites.
The geological questions involved were discussed in some
notes kindly sent by Dr. W. T. ORD, F.G.S.
The dry summer of 1911 led to the discovery of this long-buried
timber in the bed of the stream running from Holnest to Buckshaw,
near to the point where it joins the stream from Glanvilles Wootton.
The Holnest river having become quite dry, the deposits of gravel were
being used for road purposes, and in the course of these operations
the first oak tree was found under the bed of the stream. This log,
xlvi. THE FIRST WINTER MEETING.
16ft. by 2ft. at the butt, was lying in gravel, with 4ft. Sin. of alluvial
clay and 1ft. of solid blue clay over the butt. Underneath the tree
was found a roe deer's antler. The second oak was in a similar position
in the gravel about fifty yards up stream, but the tree had fallen in the
reverse direction, viz., towards the north. Its dimensions were 20ft. Gin.
by 2ft. 6in., and the clays above it were of practically the same
thickness as those covering the earlier find. Remants of broken limbs
of the second oak were lying near, and a pointed oak pile was found
driven into the river bed below the level of the log, but not connected
with it. In each case the head of the tree lay 3ft. under the clay of the
banks. The wood of both logs was in excellent condition, the colour
approximating to that of Irish bog oak. Dr. Ord, in the course of
his notes, remarked that the points of intarest raised by these discoveries
were (a) the age of deposition of the gravel beds in which the logs
occurred, (6) whether the deposit was in its original position, or had
been washed down from higher beds of an earlier period, (c) the period
to which the pile should be assigned. He thought there could be little
doubt that the gravel was laid down by the stream, probably at a time
when the natural drainage system of the country was much the same as
at present, the period of such river deposits usually corresponding with
the Neolithic age of human occupation. The existing water shed of the
district south of Sherborne suggested that the material in which the
logs were found came from the chalk hills to the south-west ; from these
hills there would bo a fall of about 600ft. to the Oxford clay through
which the stream flowed, in less than 3| miles.
3. Mr. HEYWOOD SUMNER, F.S.A., contributed a paper
on the Earthworks of Cranborne Chase, illustrated by many
plans which he had drawn. The paper is printed in this
4. A paper bv Mr. F. J. POPE, F.R.Hist.S., on Dorset
Assizes in the Seventeenth Century, could not be read owing
to the lateness of the hour, but the communication will be
found on a subsequent page.
THE SECOND WINTER MEETING. xlvii.
SECOND WINTER MEETING.
Tuesday, 28th January, 1913.
Mr. N. M. RICHARDSON presided, and among those who
attended were the Rev. Herbert Pentin, Canon Mansel-
Pleydell, Captain Elwes, Mr. E. R. Sykes, F.Z.S., and Mr.
Alfred Pope, F.S.A. Three candidates for membership were
elected by ballot, and the HON. SECRETARY read a list of eight
The PRESIDENT exhibited " The Paraphrase of Erasmus on
the New Testament, 1548 9," a translation of the original
work in Latin written by Erasmus chiefly in 1523 and 1524,
one portion as early as 1519. In the earlier version the
paraphrase is continuous, with no text ; but in the transla-
tion the Bible text is split up into small portions, each of
which is followed by a dissertation, with prefaces, prologues,
and arguments before most of the different books. It seemed
that Queen Catherine Parr had much to do with the initiation
and carrying out of this work, and the first five dedications
were to her. Perfect copies were rare, as the book was much
used, and few Church copies were likely to have survived
Mary's reign, as all English Church Bibles were then ordered
to be destroyed.
Lieut. -Colonel Mainwaring brought the larva and pupae of
the Cicada, or singing grasshopper, found in Central America.
The male insect possesses considerable vocal powers, but the
female is mute. Specimens of the smaller English Cicada
were also exhibited by the President.
Captain Acland, F.S.A., produced a series of photographs of
the excavations carried out at Maumbury during August and
September, 1912 ; these plates will accompany Mr. Gray's
report printed in this volume. Captain Acland then drew
attention to a model of the earthwork lent by the Brighton
xlviii. THE SECOND WINTER MEETING.
Museum, to which it had been presented by the late Mr. Charles
Mr. Alfred Pope, F.S.A., exhibited a charm of lapis lazuli
worn by Hindoo women, with a calendar and the signs of the
Zodiac inscribed upon it.
Canon J. M. J. Fletcher read a paper on " St. Cuthburga of
Wimborne Minster," based upon a translation which he had
made of a Latin manuscript now in the Lansdowne Collection
in the British Museum, and formerly preserved in Romsey
Mr. J. S. Udal, F.S.A., read a paper entitled " Dorset
Weather Lore ;" several members took part in a discussion
upon the subject.
The Rev. 0. Pickard-Cambridge contributed a paper on
" New and Rare British Arachnids," which was read by the
President, in the absence of the author.
Mr. Richardson also read the introduction, prepared by
himself, to notes upon the Lepidoptera of Purbeck, by
Mr. Eustace Bankes.
A paper dealing with the brewers of Sherborne in 1383, by
Mr. E. A. Fry, was read on his behalf by the Hon. Secretary.
Mr. W. de C. Prideaux had promised a further instalment of
his descriptions and rubbings of Dorset memorial brasses,
but illness in his family prevented him from attending the
THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING. xlix.
ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING.
Tuesday, 6th May, 1913.
This meeting was held in the reading room of the Dorset
County Museum, the chair being taken by the President,
Mr. Nelson M. Richardson, at 12.30. Among those who
attended were the Rev. H. Pentin, Canon Mansel-Pleydell,
Captain Elwes, and Mr. Clement Reid, F.R.S.
Seven new members were elected by ballot, and six nomin-
ations for membership were announced by the Hon. Secretary.
Mr. W. de C. Prideaux exhibited a number of rubbings of
memorial brasses and described their points of interest, calling
particular attention to the brass of Dr. Nathaniel Highmore,
an anatomist of the 17th century.
The President then delivered his ninth annual address,
which is printed in this volume.
Mr. Clement Reid, in proposing a vote of thanks to the
President for his valuable address, remarked that Mr. Richard-
son had modestly omitted any reference to his own research
work, but they all knew how much he was doing for the
advancement of science. The proposal was seconded by
Canon Usherwood and carried with applause.
Canon Mansel-Pleydell, the Hon. Treasurer, presented a
statement of the accounts for 1912, which showed that the
year ended with an increased credit balance. Captain Elwes,
in moving the adoption of the accounts, congratulated the
Treasurer on the satisfactory result, and the President
expressed his appreciation of the management of the Club's
The Rev. Herbert Pentin reported, as Hon. Secretary,
that the number of members during the past year had
fluctuated between 390 and 400, the limit. Mr. Pentin also
referred to the successful meetings of the previous summer,
and produced an audited account of the expenses, showing
a balance in hand.
1. THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING.
The report of the Hon. Editor as to the forthcoming
volume was read by Mr. Henry Symonds, who observed
that the Club was indebted to Dr. Colley March, Mr. Hey-
Avood Sumner, and the Maumbury Excavation Committee for
providing or contributing towards the cost of the illustrations
for their respective papers.
Mr. C. J. Cornish Browne, the Hon. Director of the Photo-
graphic Survey, reported that 107 photographs had been
added to the collection since the last annual meeting, viz.,
25 by the Rev. J. Ridley, one by Mr. C. Mate, and 81 by the
Mr. T. H. R. Winwood read the following notes prepared
by Captain Acland, the Curator of the Museum, concerning
the additions to the Library and Museum during the past
I have much pleasure in taking this opportunity of bringing to
the notice of the Dorset Field Club some of the acquisitions to the
County Museum since the last Annual Meeting.
In the Geological section the Oxford Clay Fossils have been examined,
and where necessary re-named by Dr. A. Morley Davies, of South
Kensington, in accordance with the most recent classification, who in
returning them drew special attention to one specimen, saying " this
Ammonite belongs to a genus Reineckia, very rare in England ; it is
a beautiful specimen showing the mouth border on one side, and it
should be given a place of honour."
Printed labels will now be attached to this series, in the same manner
as was done to some others with the help of the late Mr. Hudleston
and our President, Mr. Nelson Richardson.
As additions to our collection of birds we have had a Golden Oriole,
taken at Wrackleford, and two specimens of the Little Owl, one from
Came, the other from Owermoigne. It is of interest to note that during
last summer another of the same species was taken near Wool, and a
fourth was seen at Kingston Russell.
A folio Volume, an Herbarium dated 1766, has at last found a home
in the Museum. It contains botanical specimens collected by Dr.
Hawkins, of Weymouth, which are considered of much value, as they
belong to such a distant period. They are, however, by no means all
found in Dorset. The book is presented by Mr. Winwood.
Some pieces of ancient buried oak exhibited here recently by Mr.
Rawlence were presented by him to the Museum ; the details of their
discovery will appear in the Volume of Proceedings.
THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING. li.
We have also acquired, through the kindness of Mr. Forsyth, a
collection of beetles, which have been placed in the cabinet of
Lepidoptera, under the special care of Mr. Richardson.
With the exception of a few more objects from Maumbury Rings,
nothing of special interest has been acquired for the collection of either
Roman or prehistoric antiquities ; but of objects nearer to our own
time we have obtained some good exhibits, viz., a large and terrible-
looking man-trap from Pydeltrenthide ; a massive pole hook for
clearing thatch off the roofs of burning houses ; the barrel of a musket
from the Chesil Bank, completely covered with shells and sea pebbles ;
a good example of a metal tinder box, found under the eaves of an
old house in Dorchester ; and a XVI. or early XVII. century chair
retaining the original leather, presented by Mr. de Lafontaine.
The Library has been enriched by some volumes worthy of mention,
partly by purchase, but partly also by the kindness of donors. Among
the former I may mention Mr. Abercromby's " Bronze Age Pottery,"
finely illustrated and containing plates of a large number of the
Sepulchral Urns now in the Dorset County Museum, and of objects
found with the burials. This work is described by the author as an
attempt to arrange in chronological order the chief types of cinerary
urns, beakers, and food vessels, and will probably become a standard
book. The Dictionary of National Biography has been completed by
the purchase of the three supplementary volumes, which deal with
the years 1901 to 1911. The only Volume yet published of the County
of Dorset in the Victoria History of the Counties of England has been
obtained ; curiously enough, it is called Volume Two ; it deals with
the Ecclesiastical History, Political History, Sport, Industries, &c.
And partly by purchase, partly through the generosity of Dr. Colley
March, we have added 31 Volumes to the series of Archseologia. The
Library now contains a set (51 Vols.) of these valuable books, from
Vol. 28, date 1840, to Vol. 62, of 1911. Haydn's Dictionary of Dates
and many books of reference useful to Members and Subscribers to
the Museum have been acquired.
The Borough Surveyor of Dorchester has presented an interesting
set of plans and sections measured while the surface drainage scheme
in Dorchester was being carried out in 1911-1912. These sections
may prove of much value in any future discussion of the exact site of
the Roman defences of Durnovaria. They will probably show that
the Roman Wall on the south side of the town did not run exactly
parallel to the present avenue and South Walks.
In addition to the Volumes of " Archseologia " given by Dr. Colley
March, we have to acknowledge the handsome volume of British
Miniature Painters by and from Mr. J. J. Foster ; two numbers of
" Vetusta Monumenta," from Mr. J. S. Udal ; and from the Bishop of
Hi. THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING.
Durham a volume of photographs illustrative of buildings and scenes
in Dorchester now passed away, presented (as he says) " with heartfelt
affection for his native place, the home of his first 40 years of life."
At the same time Dr. Handley Moule gave an interesting little book
entitled " Recollections of Two Coronations," printed for private
circulation only, together with a framed photograph of himself in
Coronation robes. The Bishop of Durham has the hereditary right
to be one of the supporters of the King at the Coronation service,
standing at his right hand, and no one bishop has supported two
successive Kings of England since the accession of Queen Anne, and
with that solitary exception, Dr. Moule remarks, " we must go back
nearly five centuries to find a Bishop of Durham privileged like myself
to act at more Coronations than one."
In conclusion I must allude with pardonable satisfaction to the
marked increase in the number of visitors to the Museum. During
the year 1912, 6,140 persons paid for admission, and in addition to
this number several classes from elementary or secondary schools
were brought by their teachers for educational purposes. The
admissions for the last three or four years show a continued and steady
JOHN E. ACLAND.
Dr. Colley March, in presenting a report from the Earth-
works Sectional Committee, expressed regret that so small a
number of replies had been received in answer to the enquiry
forms, and hoped that other members would send in the
desired particulars of earthworks in their respective localities.
" MANSEL-PLEYDELL " AND " CECIL " MEDALS.
The President, in the absence of Lord Eustace Cecil, an-
nounced that the Mansel-Pleydell medal and prize had been
awarded to Canon T. E. Usherwood for his essay on " Roman
villas in Dorset," and that the essay would be printed in the
next volume of Proceedings. Mr. Richardson then presented
the medal and prize to the successful competitor.
The President also announced that the Cecil medal and
prize had been won by Mr. Charles Roper, of Chickerell, the
subject of his essay being " The known sources of supply of
petroleum oil and its various products." Mr. Roper attended
the meeting and received the medal and prize at the President's
THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING. Hii.
ELECTION OF OFFICERS.
Captain Elwes having proposed that Mr. Nelson Richardson
should be re-elected as President of the Club, the resolution
was seconded by MX. Alfred Pope and unanimously approved.
Canon Usherwood proposed, and Mr. J. S. Udal seconded,
a resolution that the Rev. Herbert Pentin be asked to continue
in the office of Hon. Secretary, with a hearty vote of thanks
to him for his services in past years. Mr. Pentin, in assenting
to the wishes of the members, desired to name Mr. H. Pouncy
as assistant secretary.
The re-election of Canon Mansel-Pleydell as Hon. Treasurer
was proposed by Canon Fletcher and seconded by Mr. Udal.
On the motion of Mr. Alfred Pope, Mr. Henry Symonds was
re-elected as Hon. Editor.
The next business was the appointment of the sectional
The Hon. Director and the committee of the Photographic
Survey were re-elected, as was the Earthworks committee,
Mr. T. H. R. Winwood being added to the latter.
The Numismatic sectional committee was also re-appointed.
The President then nominated the existing Vice -Presidents,
with the addition of Mr. Henry Symonds and Mr. J. S. Udal,
and the resolution was adopted.
Mr. Nigel Bond and Mr.-E. A. Fry were appointed as dele-
gates to represent the Club at the Congress of Archaeological
Societies in union with the Society of Antiquaries of London.
Mr. Alfred Pope was asked to attend the forthcoming meeting
of the British Association as the Club's delegate at the meetings
of the Corresponding Societies on that occasion.
It was resolved to hold a two-days' meeting in the district
of Malmesbury, and three single-day meetings, during the
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By NELSON MOORE RICHARDSON, Esq., B.A.
(Read May Gth, 1913.)
N speaking, as I usually do, at the beginning of
my Annual Address of those whom we
have lost by death during the past year,
the name that will come first to myself
and to all the older Members of the Club
is that of Mrs. Mansel-Pleydell, the widow
of our first President and founder, whose
memory we shall always hold in the greatest
reverence. Mrs. Mansel-Pleydell very often accompanied
her husband to the Meetings and took the greatest
interest in everything connected with the Club ; but
of late years her health has been such as to prevent any
active exertion, though I know that her interest has never
ceased. And I am happy to say that we still have a
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. Ivii.
very valued representative of the family with us as our
The tragic news of the death of Rev. C. W. H. Dicker,
which was broken to many of us as we assembled for our
Cerne Meeting, is fresh in our minds. Considering all that he
did for the Club in different ways, including his three years'
Editorship of our Volume and the varied knowledge which
he imparted to us both in papers and at our outdoor meetings,
it is difficult to believe that he was only a Member for eight
years ; but some men will do more in such a short period
than others in a lifetime. Rev. C. R. Baskett, who was also
suddenly taken from us, when occupied in the noble work of
starting in life in Canada those who would probably otherwise
have never had any opportunity of starting at all, was a
much older Member, having joined our ranks in 1886. He
had seen, like Mr. Dicker, much of other countries and had a
great taste for and knowledge of some branches of
archaeology. In his later years when settled at Monkton,
he generally attended the Winter Meetings of the Club and
took part in its doings. I regret to say that my list this year
also contains the names of six others of our Members, of
whom Miss Bessie Mayo, a Member since 1902, has
been, I think, the most amongst us, and Avas a
frequent attendant at our Meetings. The others are
Mr. H. B. Batten, who joined in 1889, Mr. W. E.
Brennand in 1885, Lt.-General J. P. Carr Glyn in 1898,
Mr. James Cull in 1890, and Mrs. Alfred Smith in 1906.
Since writing the above I deeply regret that I have to add to
this long list the names of no less than four prominent
Members of our Club. Sir John Charles Robinson, the
distinguished Art Critic and Collector, joined our ranks in
1890, and will be specially remembered by us as a Club in
connection with a meeting at Swanage, where he entertained,
I believe, the largest number that were ever present at a
Field Club luncheon and shewed us all the beautiful treasures
that his house contained. But we are all individually still
more indebted to him for a vast number of treasures in the
Iviii. PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
South Kensington (now the Victoria and Albert) Museum,
acquired by him when he was Director of that Institution,
and which it would now be impossible to get together, as well
as for many other acts done by him in his public capacities.
He has enriched our Dorset Museum with a valuable collection
of Roman glass, an almost unique fossil turtle's head, and
other gifts. Some years ago I had much wished to make
him a Vice-President, but he asked to be excused, as he felt
that at his age he could not do much for the Club. It is in
connection with the Dorset County Museum even more than
the Field Club that the work of Mr. W. Albert Bankes, who
joined us in 1887, the same year as myself, will be remembered.
In its early days, it was he who, as Hon. Secretary, was the
moving spirit of it, and worked hard and continuously in
conjunction with Mr. Henry Moule, its Curator, to build it up
towards its present state of excellence, in which it takes a
high rank amongst local Museums of its class. Besides this,
Mr. Bankes was always ready to help on any good work that
was on hand, whether it were Charminster Church rest oration,
or Arts and Crafts, in which he took a special interest, and
always endeavoured to promote amongst the working classes.
When a few months ago Mr. Henry Stilwell gave up the
Editorship of the Dorset Rainfall Returns, I little thought
that he would be with us for so short a time. The full and
accurate Rainfall Reports since 1903, during which period
the number of stations has increased from 50 to 66, bear
witness to the excellent work he has done for the Club. He
was a frequent attendant at our Meetings, and will be missed
in other ways besides his special work. He became a
Member in 1903. Mr. Walter John Fletcher was one of the
very few remaining original Members of our Club, and has
contributed to our Proceedings and taken part in our Meetings
when he could spare the time from his duties as County
Surveyor, which post he has held for about 40 years, and
from his numerous engagements as Architect, to his attain-
ments in which profession there remain many existing
monuments. He also interested himself in various local
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. lix.
matters, in connection with which his loss will cause a
The Origin of Life a subject which has probably occupied
the brains of many of the deepest thinkers of all ages since
men began to speculate at all on such matters is the one
which was chosen by the President of the British Association
last year for his Address. His own view is that living matter
was probably gradually evolved from non-living substances,
a theory which rests at present on evidence of the most
superficial nature, there being absolutely no direct evidence
of the evolution of life from mineral substances. One of the
chief points brought forward is the resemblance of the move-
ments of some living bodies to those of inorganic
matter, such as drops of oil, which is, after all, an organic
product, and may still possess some of the qualities of life.
The Address is very learned, but not convincing. The
growth of crystals forms another link in the chain. The
sections of Zoology and Botany carried on the subject in a
joint discussion ; but there seemed to be a general feeling
that the question was at present so purely speculative as to
be hardly worth arguing about, and even the form which life
first took when it did come into existence on the earth was a
point on which there appeared to be great differences of
opinion. From their probable nature, it is almost impossible
that any fossils of these earliest living beings should have
been preserved, as one would expect them to be little more
than masses of a jelly-like substance, so that, as far as we can
see at present, the question is likely to remain permanently
Whilst speaking of this Address by the President of the
British Association, there is one remark in the nature of a
protest that I feel called upon to make. In our Club and
other Societies with similar objects, including, I should have
supposed, the British Association, it is an understood rule
Ix. PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
that no discussion is to take place on the subjects of Religion
or Politics, whatever views may be held by individual
Members, and if any statements were made tending to
provoke such discussion, I should certainly feel it my duty
to call upon the Member making them to withdraw them. I
can only regret and offer my protest, in which I am sure that
I should be supported by the great majority of our Club,
against the tone of the remarks on portions of the Bible
made in this Address, which would certainly be offensive to
many of his hearers, and might well have been omitted
altogether, especially as he states that he places no reliance
upon the records to which they refer.
Beginning with the lowest forms of life with which we are
at present acquainted, there are about 18 diseases known,
including yellow fever and rabies, which we have every reason
to connect with minute parasites, but of so very small a size
that they will pass through a porcelain filter and cannot be
detected by microscopes. A great deal of information
has now been obtained about these and many other diseases,
both of man and animals, where the parasite is visible in the
microscope. An interesting Address on this subject, as
regards animals, was given by the President of the South
African Association for the Advancement of Science, that
part of the world being particularly fertile in such plagues.
The Infusorian Paramoscium aurelia, has now been
parthenogenetically cultivated for more than five years,
giving more than 3,000 generations from a single individual
which was originally isolated. In contrast to this enormously
rapid increase there are individual sea anemones now living,
which have been in captivity for more than 50 years. Much
has lately been discovered about the formation of pearls,
which have either some external particle or parasite for a
nucleus, or are due to internal causes within the oyster itself.
A new and very fine addition to our sea fauna is a large
spider-crab (Homola cuvieri), a specimen of which was taken
off the Cornish coast and presented to the Plymouth Marine
Biological Laboratory. Its legs when stretched out cover a
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. Ixi.
width of about four feet, and its usual habitat is the seas to
the N. of Africa. The account of the habits of a fish-eating
spider (Thalassius spenceri, P.-Cambr.) from Natal, is new
to me and interesting. The body is small with long legs,
and when in quest of prey, it places its two hind legs on a
stone and the other six on the water, watching for fish. When
a small one comes within reach, it plunges head and legs
beneath the surface, holds the fish with its legs and pierces it
with its poisonous fangs. It then retires to land and eats it.
The second Entomological Congress was held in 1912 at
Oxford, and brought together Entomologists from many parts
of the world with many interesting papers, amongst which I
may mention one by our member, Sir Daniel Morris, dealing
amongst other things with the method of reducing insect
pests by introducing their natural enemies, parasitic or
otherwise. A valuable collection of Foreign Lepidoptera,
containing about 150,000 specimens, has been left to the
nation, enriching the large collections already contained in
the Nat. Hist. Museum. In the theory of Mimicry in
Butterflies, a great deal naturally depends upon the assumed
fact that they are much used as food by birds, but the catching
or even pursuit of a butterfly by a bird is an incident not
often witnessed, and the observation of the proceedings of a
wag-tail, which in 25 minutes caught and ate about 23
butterflies which had settled on the damp sand by a stream
in E. Africa, is, I should think, almost unique. The bird
rejected one butterfly, an Acrcea, as unpalatable. Experi-
ments in Canada shew the response made by the females of
luminous insects to a flash by the male when flying above
her, possibly this occurs in the English glow-worm. Everyone
must have noticed the dead flies which sometimes stick to
the windowpanes and elsewhere, covered with a white mould.
Attempts have lately been made to cultivate this fungus
with a view to the destruction of flies, but though the cultiva-
tion has been successful, there may be difficulties in applying
it to the fly, which takes the infection by eating the spores.
Stomoxys, the biting fly, very like the common housefly but
Ixii. PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
with a long, sharp, biting apparatus, is also said to be subject
to this mould ; but I think much less so, as I do not remember
to have seen one affected by it. It comes, however, much
less indoors, and it is there that one generally sees the dead
victims to the disease. The only creature that I have to
mention in the fish line (if that be its real position) is a sea-
serpent, which was seen by several people on board the
Dover Castle in the Gulf of Guinea on Oct. 17 last. The
head and neck extended at least 14 feet above sea level, and
were seen six times in two minutes at a distance of about
1J miles. What the animal was is of course problematical,
but it is suggested that the object might have been the arm
of one of the gigantic squids which are known to exist, as
their bodies have been actually found ; or it may, of course,
have been one of the monsters unknown to science, which it
seems probable that the sea contains, from the many accounts
of their appearance. A new bird, the Terek Sandpiper
(Terekia cinerea), of which four were killed in Kent, has been
added to the British list, and the Dartford warbler has been
recorded for the first time in Ireland. Still more interesting
is the capture at Utrecht, Natal, on Dec. 23, 1912, of a swallow
which had a ring placed on its leg in May, 1911, in Stafford-
shire. As very little seems to be known of the nesting habits
of that curious duckbilled quadruped, the Platypus, I refer
to an account of the investigation of three of its burrows,
which are made high up in the river bank. One contained
two eggs, another one, the third a female and two lately-
hatched young, one of which clung very firmly to its mother.
When the young are hatched, the female blocks the burrows
in two or three places with earth, either against water or
enemies. It is satisfactory to be able to state that a thriving
colony of the Elephant seal, which was threatened with
extinction through being killed in large quantities for its
oil up to about 1852, has been lately found on the island of
Guadalupe, California, and will be protected. The first
living specimens of the Pigmy hippopotamus (H. liberiensis)
have reached Europe, and one is established in the Regent's
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. Ixiii.
Park gardens. An Indian elephant has been born in the
Copenhagen gardens, this being only the third instance of
the kind in Europe, one of which was in London in 1903.
The Field of Nov. 9 last contains a photograph of the nest
or sleeping platform of an ourang-outang made by it in a
tree near its cage in the London gardens on the evening of
Nov. 3. An account has lately been published of the work
done in the N. Atlantic during the cruise of the " Michael
Sars." Besides investigation of ocean currents, the deposits
of stones, some glaciated, on the ocean bed, have been sampled,
much new information as to the early stages of eels has been
obtained, and the extraordinary abundance of minute plant
life in some parts of the sea has been shewn, the plants being
so small as to pass through the finest silk net. In his Address
to the Zoological Section of the British Association the
President gives particulars of a melancholy list of animals
recently persecuted to extinction by man, and of others
which are on the verge, and recommends strict game laws
and the establishment of large sanctuaries which would be
in the widest sense developments of the Zoological Gardens,
in which in all ages it has been the amusement and interest
of princes and others to keep the strange animals of foreign
countries. It would seem, through information supplied
on schedules which were circulated, that a decrease has been
taking place during the last few years in certain British
migratory birds, especially the whitethroat, redstart, martin,
swallow, and wryneck. The cause of this is suggested to be
shooting and netting on the Continent, but considering the
great variation which occurs in the number of specimens
of such birds in any district in different years, we may still
perhaps hope that the decrease is only temporary and due
to natural causes. Our Hon. Member, Mr. R. Lydekker, has
lately brought out a book on " The Sheep and its Cousins "
in connection with the work he has done at the Nat. Hist.
Museum of collecting together many rare forms of the different
breeds of sheep (as well as other domestic animals) which are
now on view there and are described in his book.
Ixiv. PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
Probably all who have ever had to do with gardens are
aware that different seeds vary very much in the time they
take to germinate, from the mustard and cress which when
children we used to put on damp flannel before the fire in
the fond hope that it would spring up in a night, to such
seeds as Canna, which, enclosed in a very hard skin, take
months. A paper on some experiments in germination of
278 seeds was lately read before the Royal Dublin Society,
hawthorn taking a year and a-half. I am not aware that
the question of the dormant state in which some seeds are
believed to remain for many years when deeply buried has
ever been satisfactorily solved, but certainly when new
ground is turned up, fresh plants do sometimes appear either
from freshly imported or long dormant seeds. Another
recent set of experiments was detailed to the Linnean Society
on the pollination of hardy fruits. Strawberries can produce
good fruit without the aid of insects raspberries, currants,
and gooseberries require them. In some fruits a flower
cannot be fertilised Avith its own pollen but requires pollen
from another blossom or even another tree. 19 only out
of 65 apples were self fertilising ; in pears four out of 30 ;
in plums 21 out of 41 ; in cherries 5 out of 12. Thus it
might happen that in a garden containing only a few apple
trees, all might be sterile from this cause. Of 3,000 insects
visiting various fruit blossoms, 88 per cent, were hive bees,
5J per cent, humble and other wild bees, and 6J per cent,
flies and other insects, which last chiefly ate the pollen and
did not carry it usefully to other flowers. In a botanical
garden, so far as I have seen them, it is generally attempted
to grow all sorts of flowers, whatever their natural habitat,
and the difficulties incident to this are more or less overcome
by greenhouses, heated to various temperatures, ponds, &c.
But in Japan a botanical garden for the Alpine flora has been
lately established in the mountains, thus providing the natural
habitat of the plants in a way which could not well be done
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. ixv.
for mountain plants at a low altitude. The question
of State forestry in this country has been debated,
but as yet I believe very little has been done,
though there are large suitable tracts of land available.
Though it is an investment that takes a long time to shew
profit, it is a valuable one for the future, and would give
employment to many unskilled labourers in the present.
The State can look forward a generation or two with much
more satisfaction than private individuals, and many countries
have found it most profitable. Improvements have lately
been made in the varieties of Indian wheats and cottons
which tend to benefit the Indian farmer. In America some
cacti are used as food for cattle, the chief objection being
the quantity of saline matter contained in them. A curious
experiment carried out at Woburn shews that the presence
of grass underneath a tree interferes with its growth, even
when the grass is not growing in the soil but in pans of earth
resting on it. The heating of soil to a temperature con-
siderably above that of boiling water appears greatly to
favour the growth of plants in it, but the cause, which is
ascribed in some way to bacteria, does not seem clear.
The catalogue of earthquakes compiled by Prof. Milne
from various historical records from the beginning of our
era to the end of last century is necessarily defective in the
earlier portions, but would probably contain most of the
more violent earthquakes in the then more civilised portions
of the earth and would help in any attempt to ascertain any
laws of periodicity which may govern them. Some of the
oldest records are in Corea where they date back to 57 B.C.
A very destructive earthquake occurred in Turkey on Aug.
9 last, the epicentre lying somewhere to the N.W. of the Sea
of Marmora. It affected an area of about 20,000 square
miles and killed 3,000 persons. With regard to the luminous
Ixvi. PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
appearances which were observed in the Valparaiso earth-
quake of Aug. 16, 1906, and to which I alluded in my address
last year, the evidence, on being sifted, has proved somewhat
contradictory, and as a storm was raging over part of Chile
at the time, it is considered that there is no sufficient proof
that the luminosity was connected with the earthquake in
any way. A violent eruption took place at Katmai in the
Aleutian Isles on June 6 last, when a terrific explosion is
said to have taken place, followed by a steady stream of
volcanic fragments and ash which are estimated to have
covered 300 square miles of fertile country and fell in a thick
layer on the decks of a vessel 70 miles away. The Address
of the President of the Geological Section of the British
Association dealt with the relation between the Cambrian
faunas of Scotland and N. America, and is full of interest
to geologists, one of the conclusions being the resemblance
of the Lower Cambrian fauna of the N.W. Highlands to that
of N. America, whereas it differs essentially from the Lower
Cambrian fauna of the rest of Europe. From this and other
facts the arrangement of land and water at that period is
deduced, reference being made to our Hon. Member, Mr.
Jukes-Browne, whose work in this branch of Geology is well
known. From a boring near London were lately obtained at a
depth of over 1,100 feet specimens of Upper old red Sandstone
with characteristic fossils. Recent discoveries in Texas
and New Mexico have demonstrated the existence in the
Permian strata of reptiles and amphibians, which have
also been found elsewhere of this very early date, thereby
complicating the theories of descent in these groups and
making us hesitate to express opinions until more facts have
been brought to light. The development of the higher
fossil plants seems equally unknown, and Angiosperms have
lately been found as far down as the Lower Greensand.
In Cambrian rocks in British Columbia, at an elevation of
about 8,000 feet, there is a spot where the fossils are in a most
wonderful state of preservation. They consist chiefly of
crabs, marine worms, and even jelly fish, which latter actually
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. Ixvii.
shew the details of the thread-like swimming muscles. In
the worms one can see not only the external formation and
markings, but the details of the interior intestine and the long
proboscis, which are all wonderfully preserved. After such
finds, one may look forward to finding even earlier forms of life
and improving a little on our almost absolute ignorance of its
first beginnings ; but these beautifully preserved low forms
of life are, I believe, very uncommon. To go to a higher
sphere, a fine skull of the horned reptile Triceratops has just
been added to the Natural History Museum. The skull is
about six feet long, but its brain has a length of only six
inches. It comes from Upper Cretaceous beds in Wyoming,
U.S.A. Remains of huge fossil Tortoises (Testudo robusta),
and what is believed to be a still larger species, have lately
been found in Malta.
The eclipse of April 17, 1912, came so near to our last
Annual Meeting that though I was able to mention some of
the circumstances and results connected with it, there were
naturally many others which had not yet been published.
Though, as I said in my last address, the extent of the eclipse
was not in this country sufficient to affect animals and plants
in general, yet at Paris, where it was much more nearly total,
it is stated that birds and certain plants behaved as they
usually do at nightfall. Observations on the total eclipse of
Oct. 10 last in Brazil, were unfortunately prevented by heavy
rain. Further observations have been made in Algeria, as
well as on Mount Wilson, in California, on the supposed
variability of the sun, which are not considered quite con-
clusive, but tend to assign to it an uncertain period of 5 10
days, with a variability of 5 to 10 per cent. To turn to the
moon, which has hitherto been supposed to be unchangeable
in its features, signs have been seen of the alteration in form
and size of a small hill on its surface, but this appears to
Ixviii. PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
require confirmation. The diameter of Neptune, the furthest
of our planets from the sun, has been measured and found to be
about 50,000 kilometres. The period of rotation of Uranus
has also been found to be 10 hours 45 min. The number of
known minor planets has now risen to 732. Several meteorites
of interest have been recorded. A wedge-shaped fragment of
a meteorite, weighing about 1,900 grams, was found in
Kansas, U.S.A. ; on Dec. 18 a bright meteor was seen by
several observers at Manchester and in Yorkshire. It is
described as having a diameter half the size of the moon, and
leaving a bluish trail. After travelling some distance it
divided into two portions, of which one seemed to fall towards
the earth and the other to continue its course. A large
detonating meteor passed over Patagonia on Feb. 10, and
was seen and heard over a considerable area. But the most
interesting occurrence was a shower of meteoric stones near
Holbrook, Arizona, on July 19 last. A large meteor was
seen to pass over Holbrook with a loud noise which lasted for
about half a minute, and numerous stones were seen to
fall near Aztec, raising puffs of dust in the sandy desert,
more than 14,000 being found, weighing from one gram
to 141b., over an area of three miles by half a mile. It
seems probable that the new comet 1912b may be identical
with the Tuttle comet, which, approaching Jupiter too
closely, has had its course shortened by 86 days. The spectra
of Nova Geminorum and Nova Persei have been successfully
obtained and carefully studied, and appear to present no
striking differences from each other or from those of Nova?
in general. Hydrogen is the chief feature, with calcium,
iron, and other constituents. A recent theory with regard
to temporary stars, or one class of Novse, is that the star has
somewhat cooled down, and a thin crust has formed over its
surface. A break occurs in the crust, and the liquid fiery
contents flow out in a sort of gigantic volcano. This produces
the appearance of a temporary star, and may occur at
intervals. The Pole star has been believed to be variable,
and from measures secured on 17 nights a variation of 0'078
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. Ixix.
magnitude is shewn. This is rather less than that obtained
by other methods. The speeds of stars through space vary
from about 12 to 34 kilometres per second,so far as determined,
our sun having a velocity of 19 J kilometres. Their tempera-
tures vary from 400,000 Centigrade for 7 Pegasi to 2,150
for a Tauri, the sun being 4,950. But different observers
have varied in their results, especially in the hotter stars.
Stars like Sirius in their spectra are about 50 times as bright
as the sun, orange stars about one-sixth as bright, red stars
only one-fiftieth. But these data can only be obtained for
stars the distances of which can be measured. There would
appear to be in the Milky Way, and possibly elsewhere, masses
of gas of such a dark nature as to hide the stars behind it, and
in this way the existence of blank spaces is explained. Many
very fine photographs of Nebulae, shewing beautiful forms,
have been taken with the large reflector at the Lick Observa-
tory, and are contained in Bulletin 219 of their publications.
Though the law of average can usually be relied upon to
give much the same results when any fairly long series of
years are taken into consideration, it is not often that a hot,
dry summer like that of 1911 is followed immediately by what
one may call an absence of summer like that of 1912, when
cold and rain were almost perpetual, and though the tempera-
ture of July is shewn by the thermometer to have been
slightly above the average, which will certainly be a surprise
to those who experienced it, it is well made up on the other
side by the cold months of June, August, and September.
August was the coolest August ever recorded and the wettest
month of the year, and wetter than any August in the past 57
years, except in 1878. I am speaking so far of the Greenwich
records, but they are applicable to most other places. The
yearly rainfall was greatly in excess of the average in Dorset
and elsewhere, except in the West of Scotland. To counter-
Ixx. PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
balance this to some extent, the past winter has been remark-
ably mild, but has shewn a considerable excess of rainfall
with deficiency of sunshine. In the British Isles generally,
the rainfall amounted to 14 per cent, above the average. A
very exceptional fall occurred at Norwich on Aug. 26-27, of
6'32in. in the 12 hours from 4 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Aug. 26, and
lin. in the following 12 hours. This amount has very rarely
been surpassed in the British Isles, though in Assam we
have records going up to 40' Sin. in 24 hours, and in
Jamaica more than 30 inches. From measurements
which have been carried on for 14 years on the amount
of water passing over a weir on the river Derwent,
it has been found that the river absorbs on an
average almost exactly three-quarters of the rain falling
upon the area drained by it, the rest being carried off
by evaporation, plants, &c. It has been suggested that the
cold summer of 1912 was due to the abnormal ice-drift in the
Atlantic, to which the sad fate of the " Titanic " called public
attention. This has also caused investigation of the laws
affecting icebergs in general, with some interesting results,
but I think that some of them require more testing and
working out before they can be accepted as reliable. It
would appear from certain observations that the temperature
of the sea increased on approaching an iceberg, the explanation
being that the water which was chilled by the iceberg sank
through becoming denser, and a surface current flowed in
from all sides to replace it. This surface water would be
warmed by the sun and slightly higher in temperature than
the general body of water. But there are complications
arising from the lightness of the fresh water melted from the
iceberg which make satisfactory conclusions difficult. A
more practical solution in regard to the dangers from icebergs
is the agreement between the Board of Trade and the principal
Atlantic Lines to join in providing an ice observing vessel
fitted with wireless apparatus for keeping in touch with
shipping. Scientific observations will also be made by
trained observers on board.
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. Ixxi.
Two Commissions appointed by the International Meteoro-
logical Committee met in London last September to deal
with questions concerning International Weather Telegraphy,
storm warnings, and other matters. They recommended,
amongst other things, that all ships equipped with wireless
apparatus should transmit observations to certain centres at
Greenwich noon, and should receive in return forecasts and
warnings from those centres. At the British Association,
one of the most interesting points dealt with was the velocities
of wind at different heights, a considerable increase taking
place in the higher positions. The actual minimum rate of
wind occurs in September, the rate then rises rapidly to
December, and falls rapidly between March and June. It
seems rather inconsistent with these statements (which,
however, only apply, I believe, to the United Kingdom) to
state that a cyclone of unparalleled violence in Canada
passed over the city of Regina on July 4, and, though lasting
only three minutes and having a width of 300 feet, did
immense damage, overthrowing numerous buildings in its
course. Such storms have sometimes occurred in Dorset,
though not of such magnitude, and when they come usually
overthrow any trees in their course. There are references
to them in our volumes of Proceedings, the one I best
remember having taken place at Ranston, where a path was
literally cut through a wood, all the trees in it lying on top of
each other. On Mar. 23 last a very destructive tornado did
great damage in Nebraska and some of the central parts of
the United States, and was followed by the worst floods ever
experienced in the Ohio and Mississipi valleys, occasioning
great loss of life and property. In a report on extensive
observations of trees struck by lightning in the United States,
the usual belief that some kinds of trees are more likely to be
struck than others is not supported, the conclusion being
that the height and isolated position of trees render them
more liable, independently of their species. In Europe, oak
and poplar are considered more liable, and birch and beech
Ixxii. PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
In Electricity, wireless telegraphy and its developments
still continue to hold the foremost place of interest, and
though the distances traversed since I last addressed you
have not strikingly increased, being about a quarter of the
earth's circumference, or 6,000 miles, improvements continue
to be made, especially in wireless telephony, which advances
slowly. The International Radio-telegraphic Conference,
which met in London last June, occupied itself chiefly with
regulations for wireless telegraphy on ships, and suggested
various rules, amongst others that all ships should be obliged
to be fitted with suitable apparatus for this purpose. Perhaps
the latest special use of this means of communication is
between aeroplanes and earth stations, the distances over
which it can be worked reaching at present to 50 or 60 miles.
Another application of Electricity on a large scale is carried
out chiefly in Norway to produce nitrogenous products,
which are in great demand for agricultural purposes, to supply
the deficiency experienced in the natural nitre, which has
hitherto been sent from Chile in great quantities, but is now
becoming used up. Such plant placed near our coalfields
might be also desirable for producing nitre for military
purposes, should other supplies fail. At Niagara there is a
gigantic electric installation for chemical purposes, and
England would doubtless follow suit were there more natural
mechanical power available. A new use for Electricity is a
method of measuring wind velocity by the aid of a small bare
wire Wheat stone bridge, having arms of manganin and
platinum. The cooling effect of a current of air lowers the
resistance of the platinum, but does not affect the manganin,
and an increased current is therefore required to effect a
balance, the measure of which shews the wind velocity.
Recent discoveries in Chemistry, chiefly in connection
with radium and radio-active substances, have so upset the
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. Ixxiii.
established ideas and beliefs in this branch of science that
even the foundations on which it rests have been disturbed,
and we cannot now talk of atoms as if they were certainly
indivisible and constant for each elementary substance, as
we have numerous cases of what would have been looked
upon as an element turning gradually into some other
substance. The old alchy mists have been ridiculed for a
similar belief, but the day may not be far distant when some
commoner substance may be transmuted into gold, as
uranium is believed to be finally changed into lead, though
further evidence is still wanting. Lately both neon and
helium have appeared in vacuum tubes under the influence
of X-rays in such a manner as to suggest that they have
been transmuted into these elements from other substances,
but the cause of their appearance does not yet seem quite clear.
Thirty-four radio-active substances are now known, 14 of
which have been discovered as such in the last seven years.
From calculations which have been made in regard to the
heating power of the radium found in rocks, it would appear
that the earth ought to be becoming gradually hotter, instead
of cooling down, as all geological evidence leads us to believe.
This shews either that there are other as yet undiscovered
forces at work acting in the other direction, or that there is
some flaw in our facts or deductions. There is some reason
to believe that radium exists in the chromosphere of the sun,
but the spectroscopic indications are somewhat uncertain.
On plants radio-active water causes a prompt germination
and rapid development up to a certain strength, but beyond
this it is harmful. Leaving for the present this very fertile
subject of radium, I come to an investigation which will
interest more the Antiquarian Members of our Club, namely,
the pigments used by the ancients in illuminated MSS. from
the 7th to the 15th Century. These include vermilion, red
lead, orpiment, ultramarine, azurite, malachite, verdigris,
lakes, a Tyrian purple, and an undetermined copper green.
These results are being published in detail by the Society of
Antiquaries, and may be sometimes useful in helping to fix
the dates of MSS. In connection with colours it may be of
interest to mention that a coloured photograph of the moon
shews a general surface of olive green with spots which have
orange, purple, and blue tones. Attempts have been and
are being made to produce a light which shall exactly resemble
daylight, and enable certain trades which require daylight
to be carried on at other times ; but no perfect success has
yet been obtained, though much has been done. The pro-
duction of india rubber synthetically has been accomplished,
at a price to compete with natural rubber, to which it will be
a serious rival. Another valuable discovery is that of
" non-flaming " celluloid, which possesses all the other
properties of celluloid, but burns in a safe manner and is free
from the dangers hitherto associated with that substance.
The Engineering subject which is still most occupying
public attention is probably aviation, both in regard to
aeroplanes and airships, though I do not think that any
really important improvements have taken place in either
during the past 12 months. , But the untried and possibly
very important effects which these may have in case of war
have given rise to a great deal of discussion and speculation.
In the wars that have taken place since their introduction,
the opposing forces have not been by any means in the front
rank in aviation, and this fact may account for the com-
paratively small part which it has played in the conflicts
still, aeroplanes have been used with sufficient effect to shew
that they are likely to be important munitions of war in the
future, both for prospecting and offensive purposes. At the
International Aero Exhibition early this year, many different
types were shewn. The lifting power of aeroplanes has
reached a high pitch, but the lateral stability leaves much
still to be desired, and is more or less dependent on the skill
of the pilot. Until this has been overcome, either by the
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. Ixxv.
use of separate propellers for vertical and horizontal motion,
or by some other device, they can scarcely cease to be a very
risky mode of progression. The great disaster which took
place in the sinking, through collision with an iceberg, of
the " Titanic," a monster ship which was considered to be
absolutely safe on account of its water-tight compartments
and other precautionary arrangements, and the great loss of
life which followed, has caused much investigation into the
safety of ships at sea, and various more effective regulations as
to lifeboats to be carried, the supply for the Titanic having been
most insufficient, and the difficulties of launching them from
so great a height as the ship's side being serious. The further
subdivision of the watertight compartments for passenger
ships is also desirable, so that if two or three are injured the
ship may still float. This appears to have been made a
special feature of in the " Aquitania," an immense ship
just launched in the Clyde, in which there are stated
to be 41 watertight compartments in the double bottom
and 84 above. A pumping pontoon for the Manchester
Ship Canal has been constructed of ferro-concrete, and is the
first vessel of this material in this country. At the British
Association a paper was read describing experiments on the
suction caused by passing vessels, which at distances of less
than 100 feet was found to be considerable. Aluminium has
presented difficulties in working, especially in regard to being
soldered, which cannot, I believe, at present be done success-
fully ; but it can be satisfactorily welded, though its alloys
are not so amenable to this process. I have not yet seen or
heard a film-parlant or speaking kinematograph, but the
difficulties connected with these are said to have been to a
great extent overcome, and synchronisation produced to
satisfy the spectator's eye and ear. One of the great
problems that will have to be faced in the future is a
substitute for coal and petroleum, both of which will in time
be exhausted. The most promising results appear to have
come from the heat of the sun, which in warmer countries has
an immense power stored up in it, and has already been used
Ixxvi. PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
with success on a small scale. In this country I fear we should
be badly off in a year like 1912. The last discovery of
petroleum appears to be in New Guinea, where an extensive
bed of oilbearing sandstones was found by, I believe, an
Australian Expedition to that island.
Last year I had to record the successful journey to the
South Pole of Captain Amundsen ; this year we can claim
the same honour for an Englishman, Captain Scott, but
with results to himself and his brave comrades which we all
deplore. From his journal we learn all that they did and
suffered under a series of difficulties and misfortunes which
would seem unusual even in those inhospitable regions, in
which, as in the Arctic zone, so many have lost their lives
without having had the satisfaction of reaching their goal.
Amongst the results of this unfortunate expedition are
additions to our geological knowledge of the neighbourhood
of the Pole, from whence the party brought back specimens
of the rocks, confirming the existence of coal, and exhibiting
fossils of Cambrian and other early formations. In the
results of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition there
have now been found to be no less than 18 new genera and
263 new species of marine animals collected between the
surface and a depth of 2,000 fathoms, the novelties occurring
especially at the greater depths.
ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHAEOLOGY.
At the British Association Meeting the President's Address
in this section consisted of a somewhat speculative discourse
on the evolution of man, who, he considered, could be traced
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. Ixxvii.
back to an animal something like the little ghostlike tarsier
of Borneo and the adjacent islands. The tarsier is a queer
little jumping creature about the size of a small rat, with a
long tail with a brush on the end, long hind legs, suckers on
the tips of its toes, and enormous round eyes. Coming to
more recent and undoubted ancestors, a description was given
of a fragment of a human jaw found in Kent's Cavern,
Torquay, in 1867, but previously undescribed. This was
considered to belong to the Neanderthal type, and unless this
be so, I believe no Neanderthal remains have been discovered
in this country, the ancient skeletons which have been found
belonging to a type more like that of the present day, though
said to be contemporaneous with or immediately succeeding
the Neanderthal race. The great antiquity of the Ipswich
skeleton, alluded to in my last Address, which from its
position was looked upon as pre-glacial, seems to be only
partially accepted, though I do not know that anything has
been definitely proved to counteract the positive evidence of
the finders. Numerous flints have been found in the sub-
Crag detritus bed, to which their finders ascribe a human
origin, but about which, as about other Eoliths, there exists a
difference of opinion, and their evidence, unless supported in
other ways, could hardly be relied on for the existence of man
at that period. A very important recent discovery is that of
a fragment of a skull, comprising the greater part of the brain
case and one imperfect mandibular ramus, which was found
near Piltdown Common, Fletching, Sussex, in gravel 80 feet
above the present level of the river Ouse. Teeth of elephant,
mastodon, and hippopotamus, and bones of deer, beaver, and
horse were found near to the human remains, and of the same
age. The very thick skull closely resembles that of a young
Chimpanzee, with teeth of the human pattern, and is very
ancient, though the exact date is a matter of discussion.
The forehead is much steeper than in the Neanderthal type
with only a feeble brow-ridge. These appear to be the
earliest human remains yet discovered in England. Another
skeleton, probably of late Palaeolithic or early Neolithic date,
Ixxviii. PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
was found near Rochester, and on the same level but at some
distance from the burial were hearths with charred wood,
bones, and flints. Interesting excavations have also been
made in Jersey. Investigations into the study of early man
in Argentine territory tend to upset the claims of extreme
antiquity of man in that region and to shew only the former
presence of the comparatively modern Indian race, and
nothing seems yet to have been proved as to the
existence of very early man in any part of South America.
This applies also to the recent discovery of supposed ancient
remains at Cuzco, Peru. Two bones of a prehistoric horse
have been found at Bishop's Stortford, similar to the discovery
made there some years ago. Paintings, consisting of ten
red bands about a foot long and one or two inches broad,
arranged in a fan-like pattern, and covered by a thin coating
of stalagmite, \vere found in Bacon's Hole, Gower, and
supposed to be prehistoric ; but further evidence throws
great doubt on this assumption. There are many of these
caves along this coast, which I used to know well as a boy,
and though I never observed any paintings, the stalagmite
was in great abundance and apparently still forming, to
judge by the dripping state of the cave, so that any paintings,
&c., might soon get covered with it. For the first time, clay
figures of Palaeolithic date have been met with, three having
been found in a cave in Montesquieu -Aventes, France. Two
of them, 26in. and 30in. long, represent a bull and cow bison,
and had been apparently attached to the wall of the cave,
the third was more roughly modelled. Many footprints of
Palaeolithic men and bears were found, and the same cave
also contained mural paintings of animals. Near Prerau, in
Moravia, has also been found the best carved Palaeolithic
example known of an ivory statuette of a mammoth, about
4Jin. long. Mr. R. Lydekker has described, from an ancient
Assyrian sculpture, an antelope of African type, not now
known either in Assyria or to science, and Egyptian
sculptures of the 6th dynasty have been found of the Dorcas
Gazelle, the white oryx, and the Nubian ibex, tied up by
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. Ixxix.
ropes round their necks, suggesting that they were kept as
domestic animals at that period. Many interesting discoveries
of a later age have been made in a Hittite excavation at
Sakje-Geuzi, at Carchemish, in Malta, in Egypt, and else-
where. In Egypt the earliest type of mummy has been
found in 2nd or 3rd dynasty tombs at Sakkara. What
appears to be a very valuable work on the pottery and history
of the Bronze Age has lately been published, which will have
a special interest for us from the fact that the author, Hon.
John Abercrombie, spent a considerable time in examining
the fine collection of prehistoric pottery in our Dorset Museum.
He dates the Bronze Age in this country from about 2,000 to
200 B.C. It has been lately discovered that three large lifts
were in operation in the Imperial Palace on the Palatine Hill
in Ancient Rome, and that a system of hot and cold water
supply, closely resembling our modern arrangements, existed
in Pompeii. To turn to present times, a tribe of white
Eskimos is reported to be living in the neighbourhood of
Victoria Island, who are supposed to be descendants of an
ancient Norwegian Colony. An account of white Eskimos
was given by De Poincy in 1658, which may refer to the
same people. The publication, " Man," for last March,
contains an article describing certain obsolete English utensils,
and advising the preservation of such things in Museums, as
they will before long be unobtainable. There are a good
many specimens in our Dorset Museum of things that have
recently gone out of use, and they might be added to by our
Members. In this connection I may mention one small
article which I had never myself heard of except in the song,
" My lodging is on the cold ground," namely, a " rush ring,"
nor did I know exactly to what it referred. But I have
lately acquired, and have now brought for exhibition, a deed
of 1494 with five seals, each of which was apparently made
by taking a small lump of beeswax, perhaps hardened with a
little resin and coloured red, in a leaf, and squeezing it into
the desired round, flat shape. After this a small ring, made
by twisting a rush, was pressed down on the top, and the seal
Ixxx. PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
was impressed inside it. In this case portions of the leaves
are still adhering to the backs of the seals, and three of the
" rush rings " are in situ, the other two having come off. I
feel that this must be the " rush ring " of the song, "I'll
marry thee with a rush ring " ; it is so appropriate in
size and otherwise, and looks as if it might have been made
round the finger ; but perhaps some of our Members more
learned in these matters can. enlighten me.
The Royal Society celebrated last July its 250th
anniversary, a great number of foreign delegates being
present from all parts of the world. In this enlightened age
we may sometimes be tempted to undervalue and even to
smile at some of the knowledge which passed for science 250
years ago ; but we must remember that to start anything
that ultimately proves worth having is a much more difficult
thing than merely to elaborate something already in existence
the man who draws an original beautiful pattern out of his
head shews much greater talent than he who copies it with a
few improvements. Even in our own time scientific ideas
have undergone great changes by such discoveries as that of
radium, and there is no knowing how much the next genera-
tion of scientists may scorn the science of 1913, through fresh
wonderful discoveries. In one way the early members of the
Royal Society differed much from more recent ones there was
comparatively little specialism, but each took a general
interest and probably knew a good deal about other things
besides his own special hobby. Now specialists seem
necessary if any new discoveries are to be made, for the mass
of information and literature in all branches is so enormous
that no man could probably master it all, and could do but
little unless he confined himself to that branch. But it is a
misfortune that it must be so, for you cannot draw a
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. Ixxxi.
hard and fast line between different branches of science, and
each must often suffer if the others are ignored. This point
was brought up at the British Association Meeting at Dundee,
but I do not see any remedy. On June 26th last, at Cardiff
the King laid the foundation stone of the National Museum
for Wales, which is intended primarily, if not altogether, to
illustrate Welsh history and Welsh natural history. A new
and very useful institution in the British Museum of Natural
History is that of a guide, who makes two tours of the Museum
daily, explaining the various exhibits. There is also one at
the British Museum. A Scottish Zoological Garden has been
established at Edinburgh by the Zoological Society of
Scotland, and a good site secured ; and in the London
Zoological Gardens terraces with rockwork are being provided
for some of the larger animals, which will be more of an
approach to their natural state and shew them better in
every way. Sanctuaries for birds, beasts, and flowers have
been reserved at Blakeney Point, in Norfolk, a space of
about 1,000 acres, also Marsh Island, Louisiana, containing
about 75,000 acres, hitherto a great resort of birds, and also
of gunners, who slaughtered vast numbers for the markets.
In Switzerland attempts are being made to prevent the
destruction of beautiful scenery by the setting up of huge
advertisements and other things, which take away from its
attractiveness. In the earlier days of tobacco, its use was
considered most healthy, and even young boys were enjoined
to smoke for the benefit of their health. Now the opposite
is the law of schools, and this would appear to be supported
by an investigation lately made into the advantages enjoyed
by smokers and non-smokers in various ways, the non-
smokers having distinctly the best of it, both amongst
athletes and scholars. An important meeting of the Inter-
national Time Conference was held lately in Paris, and
decided that Greenwich time should be used universally, that
signals should be sent out at exact hours from nine stations
in different parts of the world, an agreed wave length to be
used in the transmission by wireless telegraphy. A medal
Ixxxii. PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
has been offered by the Mexican Astronomical Society to any
Astronomer who discovers a comet, and I end my Address
with congratulations to the recipient of the Wollaston Medal
for this year, which has been awarded by the Geological
Society to our Honorary Member the learned and veteran
Geologist,. Rev. Osmond Fisher.
By H. COLLEY MARCH, M.D., F.S.A.
(Read 10th December, 1912.)
JpWO of the stones that were found in Whitcombe
Church last winter have an incised
decoration that occasioned, in this room,
an interesting conflict of opinion. One
expert declared that the design was
Saxon, that is pre-Norman, and another
said that it was undoubtedly Celtic, and
To give the matter a full discussion is
desirable, if not now, on some other occasion when time
might permit. But assuredly we should at once endeavour
to ascertain the type of this embellishment, to infer the
nationality of the artist, and then perhaps, of his work, to
determine the date.
What are the characteristics of CELTIC ORNAMENT ? The
presence of the trumpet -pattern ; of the divergent spiral,
whether single, double, or triple, which was originally
developed in metal-work ; of the regular intersections of
stepped designs derived from textile fabrics ; and of a
multitude of intrecci, skeuomorphic, phyllomorphic, and
zoomorphic. Such interlacements of animal forms, all biting
2 SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX.
themselves or each other, are, however, not truly Celtic, as I
have elsewhere shown.* They originated in Egypt, where they
had a religious significance, and came, through Byzantium,
Italy, and Gaul, to Ireland and Britain, losing by degrees
their symbolic meaning, and retaining at last only an
ornamental value. But, for us, the most important feature
of this type of art is its geometrical basis, the fact that all its
details are symmetrically arranged.
In this regard, reference may be made to the Irish
Illuminated Manuscripts, the Book of Durrow and the Book
of Kells, which are assigned by Haddon and Stubbs | and by
Dr. Reeves to the early part of the IX. century. But it
should be noted that the pigments used in Irish and in
Byzantine manuscripts are precisely the same ; that in the
Book of Kells may be seen Byzantine arcading ; that the
phoenix has become a peacock, and represents the beatified
soul ; and yet that the interlaced animal forms resemble
designs from the North of Europe.
True Scando-Gothic art, on the other hand, is altogether
destitute of symmetry, for the simple reason that it is every-
where based on national legend. Always, even through later
flamboyant interlacements, one can read the story the
struggle of gods and heroes against the foes of earth and of
heaven, against the causes of disaster, destruction, and death,
against Midgarthorm, the world serpent, and Fenris the
The Danish Monk could not forget them ; Norwegian
churches, down to the close of the XIII. century, on porch
and panel, still told of Fafni and Sigurd ; and after such
decoration had become little else than an unsymmetrical
intreccio, the point of a sword could still be seen piercing the
body of a serpent ; while to-day, on many a Scandinavian
sanctuary, the dragon's head towers far above the cross.
* Proceedings of this Club, Vol. XXI.
Ecclesiastical Documents, Vol. I., p. 190.
SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX. 3
The most interesting example of this pagan-Christian
overlap is to be seen, in the Stockholm Museum, on a circular
font of granite. It belonged to the old church at Ottrava,
West Gotland, Sweden, and it dates from the close of the
X. century.* Its surface is divided into eight fields, and all
but one are carved with Christian subjects, like the crucifixion,
while the other represents the god Thor (fig. A). Three
stigmata mark his brow, the scars of three wounds inflicted
by the flint axe of the Giant Hrungni whom Thor slew. In
his left hand, as Ruler of the Waves, the god holds his
steering-oar, and with his right hand, guarded by his impene-
trable gauntlet, he raises, as the Friend of Man, his
omnipotent Hammer over the head of a dragon, Midgarthorm ;
while above are seen, in full flight, Fenris-wolf and Garm
It may well be that the inherited faith of Scando-Gothic
converts was upheld for a time by the Vulgate translation
of the Hebrew Bible, f by the Gothic version of Ulfilas,J or by
that in Anglo-Saxon of .ZElfric. where they would have read
" that the Serpent, more subtil than any beast || beguiled our
" first mother and was cursed by a deadly mutual antipathy ;
" She shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt entrap her
" heel. "If And who, more clearly than an artist from Sweden,
* Ottrava is in the diocese of Skara, where was a great pagan temple,
and a Mootplace of the Goths.
f Anno 405. J Made from a Greek original in the 4th century.
Circa 990. || Gen. iii., 1, 13, 14, 15.
^| Inimicitias ponam inter te et mulierem et semen tuutn
Ic sette feondraedene betpeon J?e & J?am pife & Jrinum ofspringe
et semen illius : Ipsa conteret caput tuum
& hire ofspringe : Heo tobryt Jnn heaf od
et tu insididberis calcaneo ejus. Vulgate.
& Jni syryst ongean hyre ho. ^Elfric's version.
Here, the words insidiaberis and syryst mean trap or ensnare ; and
in the Islandic Bible, ed. 1747, the words are PU skallt bita hann
i heelenn " thou shalt bite him in the heel," and this indeed, the
dragon on the Avebury font seems to be doing (fig. B).
4 SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX.
could see " an Angel come down from heaven, with a great
" chain in his hand, and lay hold on the dragon, that old
" Serpent, and bind him." *
And what could better suit the Danish temperament than
to learn that " Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf ; in the morning
" he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall divide the
The men whom we call Saxons, or Anglo-Saxons, who
swarmed over into this country in the fifth century, and were
largely converted to Christianity in the sixth, included Jutes
and Friesians as well as Angles. A warlike race they were,
but not artistic. Their coinage was rude in the extreme. J
Their architecture was barbarous, and their sacred edifices
were made of wood and covered with reeds and straw.
The cathedral church of York, that was constructed by
Edwin of Northumbria, fell to pieces in 40 years, and was
then rebuilt in stone by St. Wilfred. And though they
continued to grow in skill, and were greatly helped and
instructed by foreign monks, to the very last, until the
Norman Conquest, their sculpture and their decorative
carvings, destitute of any trace of Folk-lore, not only lacked
the element of beauty, but were often truly grotesque.
The Normans, however, were of Scandinavian descent,
and promptly on their arrival, as William of Malmesbury
tells us, " you might see churches rise in every village, and
" monasteries in the towns and cities, built after a style
" unknown before." || But even the Normans placed on their
earliest capitals the Hammer of Thor. TJ
* Rev. xx., 1-2. f Gen. xlix., 27.
Anno 670 ; vide Lingard, p. 141.
|| Videas ubique in villis ecclesias, in vicis et urbibus monasteria novo
sedificandi genere consurgere. III. 246.
^[ The Tau-cross (T), the pagan -Christian sign of consecration, as in
the early crypt at Canterbury, at St. Nicholas, Caen, &c.
SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX. 5
Thorpe, the last translator of what are called the Anglo-
Saxon poems of Beowulf, * regards the Scop or Gleeman's
Tale as an heroic Saga composed in the south-west of Sweden,
and as probably brought to this country during the sway and
for the delectation of the Danish dynasty.
What interest, he asks, could an Anglo-Saxon feel in any
valorous deeds of the Northmen, his deadly foes ; or in the
encounter of a Scando-Goth with a fire-drake or a dragon ?
And the answer he gives is " None whatever." f
Moreover, Beowulf, though he wrote in the Anglo-Saxon
tongue and introduced allusions to Christian belief, was
himself of Gothic parentage, and lost no opportunity of
praising Hermanric, the illustrious Gothic ruler. J
The Swedes in earlier days inhabited only the central part
of Modern Sweden. It was the Malar Lake that separated
them from the Goths, who, under the designation of Hreth-
goths, dwelt along the shores of the Baltic. Reithgotarland
was the name for Denmark, and Beowulf called the Danes
Hrethmen, while the English included in the term " Danes "
both Swedes and Norwegians.
When did these pagan Danes begin gravely to harass the
Christian inhabitants of Wessex ? When did it first become
possible for individual Scandinavians, peaceful and con-
verted, to enter English monasteries ?
It -is sad to learn that our own Dorchester is not once
mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. We read there,
undoubtedly, that in the year 635 Cynegils was baptised by
Birinus, the bishop at Dorchester ; that, in the following
year Cuichelm was baptised at the same place ; and that in
the year 639 Cuthred also was baptised " on Dorceceastre."
* Published 1855.
f Thorpe, Preface, p. ix.
} Ramsay ; Gothic Handbook, pp. 14-10.
Cynegils King wear* gefullad fram Berino }>sem bisceope on
6 SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX.
And it is true that the eminent antiquary Kemble, in Appendix
C to his work on The Saxons of England, * assigns the
Dorceceastre, of the three years just mentioned, to Dorset,
although he remarks of the Dorceceastre in Oxfordshire that
" it was for some time a bishop's see for Wessex."
Any doubt as to Kemble 's error is dissipated by a reference
to Beda, who records that " the two Kings (Oswald of
Northumbria and Cynegils the subregulus, after his con-
version) gave to the Bishop Berinus (who had come to this
country from Pope Honorius in the year 634) the city called
Dorcic, there to settle his episcopal see." f Stevenson, the
editor of the Latin translation of Beda for the " English
Historical Society," as well as of the English translation of
" The Church Historians," together with Bishop Stubbs, both
agree that this Dorchester was in Oxfordshire.
Beortric succeeded to the Kingdom of the West Saxons in
784. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle relates that, in the follow-
ing year, " Pope Adrian [the First], in order to renew, in
" England, the Faith and the Peace, sent messengers from
" Rome, who were received with honour. And in 787 there
" came in three ships for the first time [to Wessex] Danish
" men. And the Reeve rode to meet them, thinking to drive
" them to the King's Vill, but they slew him."
With this account, which names no places, that by Florence
of Worcester agrees ; but Ethel ward } tells us that ' : the
" Northmen landed on Portland, and that Beaduheard the
" King's Reeve happened to be staying in Dorchester.
" Apprised of the invasion he rode hastily to the port, thinking
" the Danes to be traders rather than pirates, and ordered
" that they should be forcibly conducted to the King's Vill.
* Vol. II., p. 553.
f Da sealdom him & geafon Jam B. (isceope) began Fa
cyningaseardung stowe & biscop setl on Dorceceastre [Beda
J Proem to Book III.
SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX. 7
"But they fell upon him and his retinue and put them all
" to death." *
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle further relates that in 833
" King Ecgbright fought against the crews of thirty-five ships at I
" Carrum [CharmouthJ and after great slaughter the Danes held the
" field." " In 835 they landed in Cornwall and joined the Welsh
" [or British] forces ; but Ecgbright fought against them at Hen-
" gestesdun [Kingston Down] and put them all to flight." f " In
" 836 Ecgbright died, and his son ^Ethelwulf succeeded to the kingdom
" of the West Saxons. In the following year the Ealdorman Wulf heard
" fought at Southampton against the crews of thirty-three ships, and
" after great slaughter gained the day. And in the same year the
" Ealdorman ^Ethelhelm, with the Dorset men, fought against a
" Danish army at Portland, and for a good while had the better of it ;
" but the Danes held the field, and slew the Ealdorman." J
" In 840 King ^Ethelwulf fought at Charmouth against the crews
" of thirty-five ships, and was defeated."
" In 845 the Ealdorman Eanulf with the men of Somerset and Bishop
" Ealhstan, and the Ealdorman Osric with the men of Dorset fought at
" the mouth of the Parrot (in the Bristol Channel) against a Danish
" Army, and defeated them." ||
"In 851 the Ealdorman Ceorl, with the men of Devon, defeated the
" Danes at Wieganbeorh " [perhaps Wembury on the coast.]
It should be noted that "in the same year came three
" hundred and fifty ships of Danes to the mouth of the
" Thames." And this was part of the fleet of Rorik, a
nephew of the Danish Harald Klak who, in 826, had received
We may suppose, then, that some of the Danes coming to
this country were no longer pagans. And we may suppose,
* The King's Vill or town at this time, 787, was probably Wareham,
though ^Ethelstan's concession to Middleton is stated to have beeu
given, Anno DCCCXLIII. [more likely 939] "in villa regali quse
f See also Fl. Wig. J See also Fl. Wig.
See also Fl. Wig. II See also Fl. Wig.
If Lappenberg, II., 22.
8 SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX.
further, knowing as we do the passion of Christians to make
converts, that all through these wars in Wessex many of
those Northmen who surrendered as hostages, as well as
those who were taken prisoners, would receive priestly
attention, and would be glad enough, in some cases, to enter
the safe service of a monastery.
Asser tells us that " in the year 876 a pagan army under
" Guthrum, Oskytel, and Anwynd, entered a castle called
" Wareham, where there is a monastery of holy virgins,
" between two rivers Fraun [Frome] and Trent in the Saxon
" district Thomsaeta [doubtless Dornsaete, the people of
" Dorset] placed in a most secure situation except that it
" was exposed to danger on the western side, owing to the
" nature of the ground." [Fl. Wig. calls the rivers Fraw
With this army King Alfred made a solemn treaty that
they should depart out of his Kingdom. And they gave
hostages and swore an oath over Christian relics. * But at
night these pagans sallied forth and slew all the King's
horsemen, and went to Exaenceaster. And thereafter, as
Lappenberg remarks, Exeter and Wareham became the chief
centres of attraction for the Danes. |
In the year 877 J a great storm drove the Danish fleet
[perhaps on its way to Wareham] into Swanewic, or Swanage,
and the crew^s landed. And King Alfred, endeavouring to
attack them, rode after them as far as Exeter, where he
* The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says " they swore on the holy ring,"
on }?am halgan beage ; and Prof. Stevens is doubtless right in taking
this to mean " the holy ring of Thor." (Thunor the Thunderer, p. 40.)
Such a ring of silver, which must weigh not less than two ounces,
lay on any altar that was dedicated to that god, and was used by the
priest in administering an oath. That this ring, through which
the attestor passed his hand, was really a torque or bracelet is
shown in the Eyrbyggja Saga, where it is called motlauss, meetless,
t Vol. II., 50. J A. S. Chron.
SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX. 9
found they had made themselves secure in their fastness.*
But in the following year, in Wessex, in Devon, a pitched
battle was fought, for which King Alfred had made great
preparation. And he defeated the Danes and took from
them a standard which they called the Raven. And Asser
tells us that they claim it to have been woven in one day by
three daughters of Lodbrok ; and that when the Danes were
to be victorious the ensign fluttered like a living thing, but
hung motionless before defeat.^
The Raven was Odin's Mark, the Holy Bird of Odin, who
was called Hrafna god, the Lord of Ravens. Their croaking
betokened disaster, and they fed on the slaughtered foe.
We see the legend on the Avebury font (fig. B).. And it is not
difficult to suppose that the place in Wilts once called
Hraefnesbyrig, and now Ramsbury, owes its name to a
conflict where the Danish flag once flew, and where a
dragon's head can still be seen amidst the unsymmetrical
Scando-Gothic intreccio that used to decorate a cross (fig. C).
And within ten miles of Ramsbury are the remains of
Wolfhall, called in Domesday Book, Ulfela, which is the
Gothic diminutive of Wolf.
And the baptism of Danes continued. In the same year
when their standard was taken in Devon, in 878, King Alfred,
with the men of Hants, Somerset, and Wilts who had
assembled at the Stone of Ecgbright [Brixton (Deverill)],
marched to Edington [near Westbury] and defeated the
* hie on J>am fastene waeron.
f Asserii Annales Scriptores XV., p. 167.
ibique acceperunt spolia non minima, in quo etiam
acceperunt illud vexillum quod Reafun [Raefn] nominant. Dicunt
enim quod tres sorores Hinguari & Aubbae, filiae videlicet Lodebrochi
illud vexillum texuerunt & to turn, paraverunt illud uno meridiano
tempore. Dicunt etiam quod in omni bello ubi prsecederet idem
signum, si victoriam adepturi essent appareret in medio signi quasi
corvus vivus volitans ; si vero vincendi in future fuissent, penderet
directe, nihil movens. Et hoc saepe probatum est.
10 SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX.
pagans under Guthrum, their King. And then, with thirty
chosen men, Guthrum came to Alfred and was baptised. The
holy chrism was poured upon him at Aller, near Athelney,
in Somerset, and Alfred was his sponsor, when Guthrum
received the name of ^Ethelstan. And the chrismal fillet
was removed, eight days after, at Wedmore, Alfred's Vill.*
Subsequently a treaty was made between the two Kings,
which determined the boundary between Wessex and East
Anglia which for fourteen years had been in the possession of
the Danes ; whilst another enactment ensured a continuance
of the spiritual dignitaries in that province under the
suzerainty of Wessex. f
But, with other Danes, other battles had to be fought
in 980 at Southampton, in 981 in Cornwall, in 982 in Portland,
in 988 at Watchet, in 997 in Devon, in 1001 and 1003 at
And now, in spite of the fact that Norse converts sometimes
assumed, on baptism, Anglo-Saxon names, is there any
direct evidence that in the years we have spoken of, Danes
were living in Wessex as citizens and as monks ? Yes ; a
good deal. Professor Anderson } makes the luminous
assertion that " when [air, or Thor, appears in compound
" names in Anglo-Saxon deeds or charters which pretend to
" be older than the Danish invasion of the IX. century, it is
"a sure sign of forgery." From this, two inferences are
inevitable ; first, that such forgeries were the work of Danish
monks ; and second, that in Wessex all such names of persons,
at whatever period they occur, belong to Norsemen. But we
may extend these inferences to other patronymics, such as
those compounded of Rafn, raven ; and of Ketill, the Holy
Cauldron used at sacrifices, and as sacred to the Scandinavians
as the Chalice is to us.
* his crism lysing waes set Wedmor : A. S. Chron. See also Asser.
f Lappenberg II., 56, 58.
J Norse Mythology, p. 459.
SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX.
And we must include in this list of appellations, besides the
names of well-known Visigoths, those that are to be found in
the Landnamabok, which, with an account of the discovery
and settlement of Iceland, contains a record of the families
who lived there. *
Armed with these weapons we may now advance. There
were ten bishops of Ramsbury from 909 to 1045, when the
last was consecrated, and he died in 1078. Of these we may
say, with some show of reason, that four were Anglo-Saxon
and six were Scando-Gothic.
Ethelstan . . 909 A Saxon.
Odo . . . . 927 Oddi and Oddr, common in Land-
Aelric . . Contraction of Egill-rik, common in
Osulf . . 952 A Saxon.
Elf stan . . 974 Corruption of Eyulf and Eyolf (Wolf),
Old Norse, common in Landnamabok.
Wulfgar . . 981 A Saxon.
Siric.. .. 985 Contraction of Sigeric, Liber Vitae
Eccl. Dunelm. a monk. A subregulus,
a Thane, in Wilts, 901. Kemble's
Elfric . . 990 cf. Elfstan. Eyolf. Old Norse.
Brihtwold ..1005 A Saxon.
Herman ..1045 Gothic, Hermanric, or Ermanaric, a
Gothic King. Hermandr, common in
An important and convincing charter, not quite too late for '
our purpose, is one under the hand of Cnut King of England,
Denmark, and Norway. He was born 994 and died at Shaftes-
bury 1035. He was baptised when under 20 years of age, and
* The author of this work was Sturla Thortharson, a judge in the
Higher Court, who died in 1284.
12 SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX.
received the name of Lambert, and almost at once invaded
this country, when perhaps he constructed, or renewed, our
own Lambert's Castle. In 1024 he gave seven hides, or 700
acres, of the cultivated land of Portesham, together with
tenants' houses, to his servant and friend [ministro atque
amici] Ore or Orcy , who lived (at Abbotsbury) two miles away,
with his wife Thola. Ore was not a f rater religiosus but a
Housecarl, a steward of Cnut's mansion, and his name is
Norwegian, from the Old Norse Orkn, a grampus or seal,
and his wife's name, Thola, is an abraded form of Thorleif,
" a relic of Thor," and so is allied to Thora, the name of
Lodbrok's wife, who was the heroine of a well-known
Of the 36 signatories of Cnut's charter, some, perhaps, had
changed their Danish names on baptism, but many have
distinctly Scando-Gothic patronymics, thus :
Hacun, dux. Hacon was a King of Norway.
Thorth, minister (or military servant), compare with
Thortharsen, a Norse name.
Thurstan , ,
Thurcyl, hoga, minister. This is a contraction of Thurcytel.
Hoga is " a hill " where, perhaps, Thurcyl
lived. At a witenagemot held at
Cheddar, in Somerset, anno 968, an
Abbot called Thurcytel was present.
Ulfcytel was a common name for monks.
Kartoca, minister. Kar is frequent in Landnamabok
Tovi ,, Tofa occurs ,,
Bovi ,, Bodvar occurs ,, ,,
and may be compared with the name Bovey, local
and personal, in Devon.
Among the many manors that came into the possession of
this Abbey were one in Ramesbere and one at Odstoke,in Wilts.
SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX. 13
The last Abbot of Middeltun was Agelricus [Egelricus, or
Egeilricus]. The name Egill occurs frequently in Land-
namabok, and Agila was a Visigothic King.
In conclusion, we may look again at the drawings on the
wall, in order fully to realise the links of a remarkable chain
of Scando-Gothic art. We can begin with two fonts, one
in Gotland (fig. A) and the other in Wessex (fig. B), each
adorned with a dragon that resembles the other so closely
that they must have been sculptured, if not by the same
hand, then by a monk of the same nationality and almost
of the same period. And each dragon is being assailed, one
by a Christianised Thor with his Tau-cross and the other by
a Christianised Sigurd with a pointed Crozier ; and a Raven
is ready to devour the carrion.
Then we come to the fragments of two crosses. On the
one at Ramsbury, in Wilts, we see a serpent's head among
the asymmetrical coils of its death-struggles (fig. C), and on
that at Whitcombe in Dorset, amid similar throes, if we
cannot see the head we can recognise one of the limbs of
the dragon's writhing body (fig. D).
And then at last we arrive at Milton Abbey, but only to
witness a typical intreccio, in which the characteristic art
remains, but the legend has vanished.
In founding Milton Abbey, yEthelstan gave " duas hidas terree cum
" pertinentiis suis apud Wydecombe."
The signatories were
Wulfhelmus Dorobernensis (Winchester), ^thelredus, Cenwaldus,
^Elfredus, Cayman, Egwynus, Radulphus, Brinstanus, ^Ella (or Alia)
Osferdus, ^Elfledus, ^Ethelmundus.
Acta est hsec nostra doiiatio et concessio. . . . anno DCCCXLIIL,
in villa regali quse dicitur Dorcacestria. [Kemble, in his Codex
Diplomaticus, gives as the true date 23 April, 939. The Anglo-
Saxon version, which he dates as 16 April, 928, bears the same Latin
conclusion as the above. The name Alia would seem to be Gothic, as
in Alaric, from Alareiks : All-ruler.]
14 SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX.
Domesday Book gives the following, under " Abbatia Middel-
tunensis " : Ipsa ^Ecclesia tenet Widecome. T.R.E. geldabat pro
VI. hidis. Terra (cultivated land) est VI. carucatarum (a hide or
carucate is about 100 acres). De ea sunt dominio IV. hidae, et ibi I.
car. et II. servi (bondmen) et VII. villani (laborers) et V. bordarii
(cottagers) cum III. car. Ibi V. acrse prati, et pastura XIII. quarenten.
long, et II. quarenten. lat. (a quarentena is 40 perches, and one perch
is 20 feet).
Valet IV libras et X solidos.
It may be well, in a POSTSCRIPT, to call attention to a
font (fig. E) in the church of St. John the Baptist at
Stone, near Aylesbury. The sculpture has been said to
represent the Three Persons of the Christian Godhead ; but
who can seriously contend that a Ravenous Bird is the
Holy Ghost, or that an Undraped Warrior, with a bitten
hand, is the All Father ?
On a Golden Horn, of the IV. Century, found in North
Jutland, are similar nude persons, who wield precisely
similar swords, and who are surrounded by similar snakes
The legend on this Christian font is a pagan overlap. In
the centre of the sculptured group stands the god Tyr, or
Tew, whose name is preserved in our " Tuesday." A son
of Odin, he was the most daring and intrepid of all his fellows.
He was the inspirer and protector of brave men, and was
called " the one-handed god of War."
We read in Snorre's Edda how Fenris-w r olf was bound.
The gods craftily promised, when called upon, to loose his
fetters. But he said " First let one of you lay his hand in
my mouth, as a pledge that you are not deceiving me."
And Tyr was the only one who had the courage to do so.
Then Fenris-wolf struggled in vain to get free, and all the
* Stephens' Handbook of Runic Monuments, p. 85
'/ ^ - v. ,.1 *-:..
SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX. 15
gods laughed at him, except Tyr indeed, who lost his
Thereupon a sword was thrust into the Wolf's mouth in
such wise that while it pierced up to its hilt his under jaw,
its point reached his palate.
And the sculpture on the font shows one or the gods
preparing to do so, whilst the hungry raven is eager to devour
the flesh of the doomed monster, whose knotted tail shows
that he is hopelessly bound.
The Scando-Gothic Monk has Christianised Tyr into
Christ, Who, though He grievously suffered in His conflict
with the Powers of Evil, was finally victorious, aided by
His faithful followers, who are represented by the lower
and smaller human form. Christ, raising His sword over
the terrified head of a worse foe than a lion, is treading
upon an asp.| His valiant disciple stands upon a single
leaf, and its nervature and shape strengthen the assumption
that it belongs to the Laurus nobilis. The branches of the
Baytree have long been regarded as Victory's attribute.
They graced the brows of Heroes. In Sicily they were a
security against thunder and the thunder-bolt. Among the
Greeks they were used as a charm against poison and witch-
craft, and, as a token of the Resurrection, they are still
strewn over the floors of churches on the day before
Easter Sunday. And, not a little remarkable, in the
present interpretation, is the statement made by Pliny
that " the Laurel is the only one among all the trees a
single leaf of which has a distinct name of it? own, laurea" %
The three decorative interlacements may indicate a
Byzantine influence. Such designs had much vogue in
Italy during the VIII. Century, and were brought to the
north of Europe by Italian Monks. The intreccio that runs
* See also Loka-senna, 38 ; Corpus Poeticum Boreale I., 106.
fPs. xci., 13.
% Naturalis Historia, xv., 30.
16 SCANDO-GOTHIC ART IN WESSEX.
round the rim of the font is threefold, and represents the
Trinity in Unity ; that on the (heraldic) right, having
neither beginning nor end, means Eternity ; whilst the
other, an endless band interlacing a circle, teaches that
Infinity is controlled by a Unity. And how effectively
this Eternal Power coerces and restrains all pernicious
beings, whether human or bestial, is made manifest by
their tortured and woebegone faces.
Quatrefoils and other floral details, when not purely
decorative, may indicate the Rose of Sharon.
Fishes, though pagan in origin, often find their place in
Baptisteries and on fonts, since they represent the children
Indeed, at Saint-Germain-des-Pres, in the chapel which
contains the font, are sculptured two sirens, one female and
the other male and bearded. Both of them hold fishes in
their arms, and other fishes play in the surrounding waters, j
* Nos pisciculi secundum ICHTHUN nostrum Jesum Christum, in
aqua nescimur, nee aliter quam in aqua permanendo salvi sumus.
Tertullian, De Baptismo, Cap. 1.
f Didron's Christian Iconography, edited by Margaret Stokes, Vol. I.
c8 in tljc Jefoenteentt)
By F. J. POPE, F.R.Hist.S.
fact that the Assize-Records of this period
have been but little used for historical purposes
is not surprising. So long as the books of the
Court remained in the custody of the clerks of
the various circuits, they seldom or never saw
the light, and it is only within the last year
or two that the transfer of the books to the
Public Record Office has rendered them easily
accessible. The maxim that " Record-makers
are not good Record-keepers " seems true at least as regards
these books, of which only a remnant still exists. The Bail
Books for Dorset do not begin till 1654, the Gaol Books not
till 1670, while the Order Books cover only the period 1629
to 1687, with a gap during the Civil War, 1642 to 1646. The
first are of no great value, merely containing the names of
a certain number of Dorset people and indicating some of
the less serious indictments. The Gaol Books are of greater
interest, since they show the crimes prevalent in the county
and the punishments inflicted. The Order Books deal with
a great variety of subjects, including matters connected with
18 DORSET ASSIZES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.
general administration, and are perhaps the most valuable
of the series. The material for this paper has been derived
from these Assize-Books and from a few references to pro-
ceedings at the Assizes scattered through the Domestic State
Papers. Of civil suits there are no records except some
Postea Books, which, since they give only the bare titles of
the suits, seem to be of no value for any purpose. There
being a preponderance of references to crime in the records
which survive, it will be desirable to deal first with such
criminal matters as came before the Judges.
It must be confessed that the Gaol Books form somewhat
dry reading. At Assize after Assize comes the same dreary
record of murder, stealing of sheep and horses, highway rob-
beries, burglaries, and larceny, interspersed of course with
entries relating to less common offences. Sometimes murder
cases were especially numerous (there were seven in the
Autumn of 1679), and at other times the criminal class seems
to show a particular tendency to appropriate other people's
sheep or horses. The most distressing feature of the tale of
crime in Dorset at this period (no doubt it was the same in
other parts of the kingdom) was the great frequency of
murder of infants by their mothers, generally with the assist-
ance of one or two other persons. The punishment meted
out by the Judges naturally varied with the circumstances.
The death sentence was carried into effect for murder, sheep-
stealing, horse-stealing, highway robbery, and burglary, and
there are isolated instances of the same penalty for picking
pockets and for stealing a watch ; but there was no invariable
rule, and many a perpetrator of grave crime escaped with his
or her life. Some of the unhappy mothers to whom allusion
has been made, and whose children presumably died of neglect,
received no other punishment than a few weeks in the house
of correction, and others who, since they were sentenced to
be hanged, were surely guilty of wilful murder, were respited
and either transported or pardoned after a few months in
prison. Such commutation of the death-penalty was fre-
quently granted to all kinds of felons, and a common method
DORSET ASSIZES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 19
of exercising leniency was to admit the criminal to " Benefit
of Clergy." Above the entry of such an one in the Gaol Book
may be read two sentences in contracted Latin signifying
"Asked for a book" and "Read as a cleric," and in the
margin is written the word " Clergie." And this loophole
of escape was, if offered, open to all men and, towards the end
of the century, to women also. The test of reading, as appears
from text books on the subject, consisted in repeating, with
open Bible in hand, the 1st verse of the 51st Psalm, appro-
priately called " the neck verse," a feat which, it would
seem, could easily be accomplished even by the most illiterate.
The names of scores of persons may be found in the Dorset
Gaol Books who, as was pretended, saved their lives in this
fashion. All w r ere branded in the hand, the letter "M"
being used for murder, and " T " for theft. A gentleman
named John Davis, who in 1671 was found guilty of the
" murder " of Mr. John Dawbeny by striking him with a stone,
was allowed the " Benefit " and branded, but suffered no
other punishment. And a man, convicted of no less than
seven cases of sheep-stealing, was also found to be a cleric.
Sheep-stealing, it may be remarked in passing, was often
carried out on a large scale. In 1642 a thief stole as many as
70 sheep from the common fields of Nether Cerne, and there
was nothing unusual in a conviction for taking a couple of
score or more, sufficient, it may be observed, to bring small
stockowners to ruin, and in all likelihood the depredators
were frequently not discovered. In pronouncing sentences,
Judges were much influenced by the money value of goods
stolen. Two burglars, who entered a house with intent to
steal but got nothing, were fined 40s. each, and in a similar
case another burglar paid but 10s. One who broke into Sir
John Strode's mansion house (? at Parnham) and stole 31
bottles of claret was condemned to death, but respited on his
expressing " his desire to be transported." Culprits of
smaller offences, such as taking a neighbour's pigs, poultry,
or small personal belongings were almost invariably whipped.
It is a somewhat extraordinary fact that while sheep-stealing
20 DORSET ASSIZES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.
was often punished by death, pig-stealing was treated as
Three or four deeds of violence are recorded, which must
have made considerable stir in the county at the time of their
occurrence, and thus call for particular mention. When we
read in the Gaol Book for 1684 that Matthew Burt, charged
with murder, pleaded guilty to the homicide of John Colling-
don with a fowling piece, and that Burt had " Benefit of
Clergy," and except for branding went scot-free, we see
nothing remarkable in the entry. But when we know from
other records that Matthew Burt, a j^eoman of Mapperton,
suffered from a load of debt and that his neighbour John
Collingdoii was a bailiff, there naturally follows the con-
jecture that the bailiff was shot in an attempt to arrest Burt
for debt. An incident which happened just beyond the
Dorset border, at Crewkerne, suggests that the courts regarded
bailiff-shooting under such circumstances as an almost venial
offence. At Crewkerne Fair in 1597, as appears from some
proceedings in the Court of Chancery, a bailiff named Fox
tried to arrest Thomas Merefield, who shot and killed his
would-be captor without serious consequence to himself. In
fact. Merefield duly received his pardon. But this was not
the end of the matter. Thirty-six years later, in 1633, some
members of Fox's family contrived to have Merefield
arraigned for the murder at the Somerset Assizes, when the
Grand Jury ignored the bill, and the dead man's relatives
were promised imprisonment if they troubled Merefield again.
It should be observed that neither Burt nor Merefield was in
a position to exercise influence in high places, and neither
was capable of raising a large sum of money for securing
Next may be mentioned two highwa} T robberies, one in
1674 and the other in 1696. In the former year the Exeter
carrier called " Mr. John Mathew," coming from London,
was stopped near Milborne St. Andrew by four men, who
took over 800 from the waggon and decamped. Mathew
followed the robbers until they told him that " hee should
DORSET ASSIZES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 21
leave them unles hee would loose his life before his time,"
on which the unfortunate carrier went back to his waggon.
It was considered that the robbers showed remarkable bold-
ness, owing to the fact that the Judges on their way to the
Assizes at Dorchester had passed the spot only half an hour
previously. A coachman named Kinge was suspected of
being concerned in the robbery, but was acquitted at the
Assizes, and neither robbers nor money were ever discovered.
The perpetrators of the other highway robbery in 1696 were
not so lucky. On this occasion William Sampson, John
Dampier, and Robert Everett were escorting a horse carrying
750 of money belonging to the Royal Treasury (probably
tax money) on the King's highway, when a party of four des-
cended on them and carried off the whole of the treasure.
It must have been evident that somebody had to suffer for
such a daring exploit, and three men (it is to be hoped the}''
were the real culprits) were hanged for the robbery and one
transported. It is a curious circumstance that the three
tax-gatherers (if such they were), shortly after losing the
money entrusted to them, met with another gang of thieves
who relieved them of the horse, some small sums of money
in their pockets, and, attracted by some silver buckles, left
one of the wayfarers shoeless.
Perhaps the most remarkable crime recorded in the Assize
Books was the murder or manslaughter of Robert Knight, a
collector of hearth tax at Bridport. In an Order Book under
the date 1668 it is stated that a large number of Bridport
people had a share in the matter, and that some of them had
been indicted, some were in gaol, and others had not been
discovered. An inquiry was to be held by certain Justices,
a Coroner, and some officials of the borough. The result of
the inquiry does not appear, but a letter among the Domestic
State Papers throws some light on the affair. The writer
" From first entring into the Towne the greatest part of the Towne,
men, women, and children, followed them (the tax-collectors) about
the streets throwing stones at them, and little appearance of the
22 DORSET ASSIZES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.
magistrate to quell the Tumult. One stone from them hitt Mr.
Knight, one of the hearth men, upon the forehead and knocked him
downe, riseing againe another stone hitt him in the hinder part of the
head and soe was caryed into a howse and the same day seven night
dyed of the wound. Its said all this dosignd before ther comeing and
the non-appearance of the magistrate shows it too much."
There being no Gaol Book of this date, no information is
available as to how all these people of Bridport were dealt
with, but the Bail Book for 1668 gives the names of some
half dozen men of Bridport who were admitted to bail, perhaps
charged with participating in the attack on Knight. Some
of the names were, and still are, well known at Bridport.
Among the less frequent indictments may be included those
for arson, the illegal export of wool, cheating, vagrancy,
witchcraft, offences against the Church, the passing of false
coins, clipping coins, sedition, and high treason. A woman
who in 1684 burned a dwellinghouse was executed, but another
who a dozen years later, wishing to destroy her neighbour's
houses, adopted the curious expedient of setting fire to her
own house, was fined 20 nobles. Vagrants received very
stern treatment. In 1657 two very dangerous and suspicious
men were to be taken by the Sheriff to Shaftesbury and
" there be whipt on their naked backs until they bleed and
from thence be sent from tythinge to tythinge by passes to
the several 1 places of their births." Some of these wanderers,
had travelled far from home. A family of four adults and
four children had come from Derby, and another vagrant,
Dunkin Mackanon, was a Scottish highlander. They were
usually branded on the left shoulder " according to law."
There are but three references to witchcraft. Alice Abram
alias Browning, of Tolpuddle, said to be a witch, was in 1655
admitted to bail, eleven men of the neighbourhood being
bound over to prosecute. A little later, in 1660, a committee
was appointed to enquire with all speed into " the busines
concerninge witchcraft and consultacon with the Devill and
Evil Spirits at Sherborne." The latest mention of witchcraft
occurs in 1687, when Deanes Grimmerton, accused of
DORSET ASSIZES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 23
bewitching Nathaniel Scorch, was apparently acquitted. For
speaking against the Church in 1673 a fine of 3s. 4d. was
imposed, but even this small sum was remitted ; and by way
of contrast it may be stated that absence from church for
three weeks was punished by a much heavier fine, 26s., and
that three men who in 1675 had worked on " The Lord's
Day " were kept in prison till the following Assizes. Cheating
and uttering false coin were not considered serious crimes,
but the clipping of coin was a very different matter, con-
stituting in fact an act of high treason, and clippers were
always drawn and quartered.
It will be convenient for present purposes to take the
more important cases of sedition and high treason together,
although in legal eyes they were of course by no means the
same thing. Probably many Dorset men were implicated in
Penruddock's rising in Wiltshire in 1655, and the names of a
few occur in the Bail Books of 1655-6, the most prominent
being Roger Coker, of Keyneston, and Thomas Bragge, vicar
of Horton. In Charles the Second's reign there is nothing
but a few paltry accusations of speaking seditious words, and
a prosecution of 14 men for joining in a seditious assembly at
Sherborne in 1674. Ib is not until the coming of the Duke of
Monmouth that there is anything worth recording, and then
in the Gaol Book of 1685 may be found page after page filled
with the names of those indicted for levying war against the
King. So much has been printed respecting the Monmouth
rebels, that it will be sufficient to note here that the charges
of levying war number 321, and that opposite 57 of the names is
drawn a hieroglyphic resembling a wheel, the words " Ts et
Ss," signifying that these 57 wretches were drawn and quar-
tered. But, besides the actual rebels, there were 21 convicted
of lesser offences in connection with the rebellion, such as
spreading false news, uttering seditious words, recruiting for
the Duke's forces, or entertaining rebels. The false news was
generally to the effect that the King was dead, or that Mon-
mouth was not dead and would come again, and in an utter-
ance of Thomas Pitt's we have a specimen of the rumours
24 DORSET ASSIZES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.
that were flying about the country. " Hampshire," he
related, " is upp in armes for the Duke of Monmouth. I saw
both horse and foote souldiers on the hill neere Christchurch.
Argile is much increased in strength and is on his marche in
England and within Ix miles of London." Sedition of this
petty type was in most cases expiated by a whipping and a
fine of five marks, but for some reason a few speakers of
sedition were subjected to the pillory. William Dowell w r as
sentenced to remain an hour in this instrument of torture in
each of the towns of Dorchester, Sherborne, and Cerne Abbas,
and a member of a notable Weymouth family, Henry Cuttance,
suffered similarly at Melcombe Regis. Hugh Green, a gentle-
man of Nether Compton, was fined 3 for reading the Duke's
Declaration in public, and compelled to find bail for good
behaviour during the rest of his life. In the year following
the rebellion, two men, who cut down rebels' quarters, were
pilloried for an hour on a Saturday at Dorchester. At the
accession of William and Mary there were still a few of the
rebels in Dorchester Gaol, and these were at once released, the
flight of King James coming in the nick of time to save at
least one of them from transportation. Later than the
Monmouth Rebellion there was little inducement for Dorset
folk to join in treasonable or seditious practices, but in 1689
one William Clarke was so out-of -fashion as to announce his
love for the expelled James in these words : " King James,
a poore innocent harmless King was wrongfully driven out of
his Kingdom by a company of Rogues and Traytors that did
endeavour to destroy King and Kingdom. I will list men to
fight for King James and restore him againe. A health to
the late King James and Prince of Wales, and confusion to
he other. King William is a rebell and have noe right to
the Crowne." The Court could afford to treat the Jacobite
with leniency. He had to pay five marks, and was kept in
prison for a short time.
Before leaving the subject of crime, it will be well to men-
tion that, although it is impossible to gauge the amount of
crime that went unpunished, it was undoubtedly very large.
DORSET ASSIZES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 25
Indications of this may be found in the considerable number of
bills thrown out by the Grand Jury, and in the not infrequent
fines inflicted on tithings for suffering the escape of murderers,
who were moreover known and named. The fines were
collected by distraint, or threat of distraint, on one of the
principal inhabitants, who was allowed to recoup himself in
part by levying a rate on his neighbours.
Attention may now be directed to the work carried out at
the Assizes in connection with the civil administration in the
county, as depicted in the Order Books. The orders refer to
disputes between parishes as to the settlement of paupers,
refusals to take apprentices appointed by parochial officers,
the repair of highways and bridges, the erection of cottages
without sufficient land attached, the appointment of coroners
and of constables of Hundreds, suppression of alehouses, and
some other subjects which can hardly be classified. One
of the disputes concerning paupers is perhaps worth a passing
notice. Robert Way was born at Wimborne, and eighteen
years later went beyond the seas, but returning again to his
native place, lived there for some short time, and then moved
to Ringwood, where he rented some land, and at Ringwood
Way fell on evil days and seemed likely to become a charge
on the parish. Under these circumstances, the people of
Ringwood drove Way out of their town, and put pressure on
his landlord to prevent the (possible) pauper being brought
back. The Court decided that Ringwood would have to
maintain Way if the necessity arose. Disputes of this kind
were exceedingly frequent, and indeed the whole subject of
pauperism must have been one of the most pressing problems
with which the authorities were confronted. In 1635 a large
number of the inhabitants of Sturminster Marshall were
turned out of their houses, the result, it may be imagined, of
a quarrel about the title to an estate, and were living under
hedges, and were " like to perish for want of succour." Two
Justices were ordered to make immediate arrangements for
their relief. The apprenticing of poor children was also the
cause of a good deal of trouble, for employers naturally
26 DORSET ASSIZES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.
preferred to choose their own apprentices, and objected to
the coercion applied by the overseers. Henry Stone, of Min-
terne, was paid 40s. for taking from the parish a boy who
turned out to be a bad character. He stole 5 from his master,
and was in consequence burned in the hand and put in prison.
Stone was then ordered to pay back the 40s. to the parish,
and the boy was to remain in prison until the parish found
him another master. Refusals to take such apprentices
were evidently justifiable in some cases.
When roads or bridges fell into disrepair, the authority
of the Assize Court was often employed to enforce the duty of
putting them in order. Both owners and occupiers of land
had a custom, when troubled with surplus water, of diverting
water courses into highways, the consequences being decidedly
unpleasant for travellers, and the offenders, whatever their
social status, were promptly called to account. The
responsibility for the repair of bridges was sometimes a
delicate question, depending partly on ancient custom. In
or before 1636 there had been a process against the
Hundreds of Badbury and Cogdean for the repair of
Julian Bridge. In 1647 the inhabitants of Wareham
were presented at the Assizes for not repairing the south
bridge of their town, " being a very great bridge con-
sisting of seaven arches and of a very great length," and
later the Wareham people petitioned that the work might be
done by the county. An enquiry into the matter was to be
made by two gentlemen of the Grand Jury. In the same
year a sum of 80 was to be raised by the county of Dorset to
repair the " Common bridge over a great river near Yeovil,"
broken down by soldiers during the Civil War, whereby the
lives of travellers had been endangered, some of them falling
into the river. It is added that the road served by the
bridge is the great road running from the West to the City of
London. Other County bridges referred to are Craford
Bridge (in 1640) and Stocking Bridge (in 1641). There is
also mention of a few parish bridges, viz. : Julian Bridge and
Fivebridges in Sherborne Hundred, Hossey Bridge in Manston,
DORSET ASSIZES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 27
Parsons Bridge in Pulham, Crickmore Bridge in the Hundred
of Cogdean, a bridge in Marnhull, and a footbridge at Wool,
all in the period 1637 to 1651.
There are signs that the ancient system, already
obsolete, on which the county was divided for administrative
purposes, was found to be a hindrance to the proper per-
formance of police duties. The borough of Blandford ad-
joined and was intermixed with " divers habitations
called the Warnership of Pimperne," and when persons of
ill behaviour w r ere hunted out of the borough they took
shelter in alehouses in the Warnership, and there defied
the constables in safety. An order in 1637 enacts that
the constables of Blandford shall be permitted to enter the
Warnership, and that borough and Warnership shall join
together in their watches and wards for His Majesty's
The duty of watch and ward is often emphasized. In 1646
any persons refusing this service were to be bound over to
appear at the next Assizes, and in 1651 ib is noted that there
had been great neglect in this respect, and the number of
men usually so employed were to be doubled. Four years
later the Court speaks of ' ' the manyf old dangers and incon-
venience which doe dayly happen in those places which lye
neere unto the sea coast, by reason of the multitude of idle
persons, who can give noe good account of theire beings,
makeinge that theire place of refuge." Constables are to see
that watch and ward are duly kept in such places, with a
view to all wandering persons being examined, and to report
their proceedings to the justices.
Another duty imposed on all during some part of the cen-
tury was the observance of the last Wednesday in every
month as a day of solemn fast and humiliation. It is stated
in 1646 that the practice had fallen into disuse in many parts
of the country, and that the Lord's Day was often profaned.
Also the statute of the first year of Elizabeth's reign, enforcing
attendance at the parish church on Sundays and holidays,
was in 1640 often evaded, and constables were to present the
28 DORSET ASSIZES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.
names of persons not frequenting their respective churches
to justices, who would inflict a fine of 12d. for every Sunday
There was considerable difficulty, about the middle of the
century, in finding men both willing and qualified for the
office of coroner. It is repeatedly asserted that three coroners
were required for the whole county, but often not more than
one was available. Henry Clapcott, on being selected for the
office, claimed exemption on the ground that he was an
attorney of Common Pleas, an excuse that had to be admitted.
John Randoll, of Piddletrenthide, objected that he was not
well versed in the laws and had no freehold in the county.
George Savadge, of Dearie, was quite willing to serve, and
filled the office for a short time, but was discharged for neglect
of duty. Thomas Younge, another willing occupier of the
post, was removed owing to the discovery that he was deeply
in debt, and that, since he was frequently being chased by
bailiffs, his duties (as might be imagined) suffered. Thomas
Gollop, of Caundle Marsh, stopped the gap for seven years,
generally working single-handed, but at the end of that period
found that he was not properly qualified, not being a free-
In conclusion a short account will be given of a vigorous
campaign against drunkenness, apparent in the Order Books,
during the second quarter of the century, when great efforts
(unavailing, it is to be feared) were put forth with the object
of making Dorset men more sober. It began, so far as the
records now under reference can show, in 1628, with an attempt
to abolish Church and other Ales. " All publique Revells,
Church Ales, Clerkes Ales, and other Ales " were to be utterly
suppressed. Three years later the order had not been obeyed,
and the gentlemen of the Grand Jury and constables of
Hundreds and Liberties were then to present at the Grand
Inquest all cases of Ales, with a report of " the Keepers of
the said Ales and Revells, tiplers, and mynstrels resorting
unto and Keepinge tiplinge and mynstrelsy there." This
seems to have marked the end of Ales, for no more is heard of
DORSET ASSIZES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 29
them, but the number of alehouses increased by leaps and
bounds. In 1632 Thomas Bartlett, of Puddletown, was dis-
tinguished by the illrule and drunkenness in his alehouse,
which was to be suppressed. But Bartlett was not an easy
man to deal with. He abused the constables who came to
carry out the orders and successfully resisted them, no doubt
with the assistance of some of the villagers, for Puddletown
possessed only this one alehouse, and its suppression would
have meant total abstinence from beer on the part of most of
the smaller householders. After the lapse of several months,
and when another man was ready to take his place, Bartlett
was removed, but little was gained by getting rid of this
particular offender. A very few years later, Puddletown
was able to boast of four alehouses, besides an inn, and the
place was then said to be very disorderly. There were few
parts of the county where similar measures were not required.
Wambrook, Chardstock, Hawkchurch, Netherbury, the Hun-
dred of Buckland, Sturminster Newton, Shaftesbury, and
Wareham all earned especial orders from the Court. Also, in
a petition from the ministers of Yetminster and adjacent
parishes, complaint was made that the excessive number of
alehouses occasioned much drunkenness on the Sabbath as
well as on weekdays. They add that from this cause " the
word of God looseth its fruit, God is dishonoured, men's
estate exhausted wch should be spent on their families, and
for the intollerable abuse of the Creatures a famine, without
God's especial mercy, is justly to be feared." But nothing
effectual was accomplished. Subsequent to all these orders
for suppression comes the old complaint, this time from the
Grand Jury in 1646, of the multiplication of alehouses and the
increase of abuses and disorders ; and there are still later
entries in the Order Books showing that the want of a licence
did not always deter an alehouse keeper from carrying on his
business. So far as the Assizes were concerned, the campaign
against alehouses was abandoned soon after 1650. It would
appear that the people wished to drink to excess, and no
power on earth could stop them.
30 DORSET ASSIZES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.
A perusal of the Assize Books leaves the general impression
that a great part of the inhabitants of Dorset in the 17th
century were addicted to crime, drunkenness, or other vice,
or were submerged in poverty ; but there is at least the
redeeming fact that those in power fought strenuously,
according to their lights, against all these evils, and such
records as these serve to remind us of how much the present
generation owes to the improvements in social conditions
effected, little by little, in past centuries.
By HEYWOOD SUMNER, F.S.A.
HE plans which I am submitting for your
inspection to-day are an attempt to put
into practise the preaching of the Archseo-
logical Committee on Ancient Earthworks.
This committee has urged that plans
and schedules should be made of our
Ancient Earthworks throughout England ;
that a definite area should be undertaken
by each worker ; and that the plans should
be made on the 25 inch scale. My daily
view extends over Cranborne Chase, and curiosity had often
led me to investigate its varied earthworks. In so doing
I had felt the w r ant of a complete record of their plans.
Thus it came to pass that two years ago I ventured to
undertake a definite survey of the Ancient Earthworks on
Cranborne Chase, the results of which you see before you.
It is curious that the old cartographers, Saxton, Norden,
and Speed, did not mark camps and earthworks in their
surveys. Speed records a few in his letterpress descriptions
32 ANCIENT EARTHWORKS OF CRANBORNE CHASE.
of the counties, and in writing of Dorset he mentions
Maumbury, Poundbury, Maiden Castle, and Badbury but
that is all. Evidently they were held in small estimation by
our ancestors, a neglect that increases the debt of gratitude
that we owe to Dr. Stukeley, whose " Itinerarium Curiosum "
(published in 1724) was the first contribution to a study of
these priceless relics of our history by means of plans.
When maps were few, and surveys scant, how exciting
must have been the search for Ancient Earthworks ! Imagine
a description of Dorset as Speed describes it with never a
word about the camps on Hambledon Hill, or on Hod Hill,
and with no mention of Bokerly Dyke ! And then think of
riding afield as a roving enquirer, and coming upon these
forgotten earthworks that express such indomitable energy,
and that confront us with such great problems of prehistoric
life. This was the happy fortune of the antiquary in the
18th Century. What Dr. Stukeley began, Sir Richard Colt
Hoare continued. In the early years of the 19th Century he
gave up hunting foxes in favour of hunting earthworks, and
the ardour of his new chase led him across the borders of his
native Wiltshire into Dorset and the district of our survey.
His folio volumes on " Ancient Wiltshire " contain most
beautifully engraved plans of several of the earthworks on
Cranborne Chase ; but their accuracy is not equal to their
execution. Mr. Charles Warne's " Illustrated Map of Dorset-
shire " also includes some of these earthworks, but this
admirable map only locates sites ; it is on too small a scale
to give any details of plan. In " Ancient Dorset," by the
same author, there are a few wood-cuts of camp plans that
are scarcely worthy of their purpose. The most accurate
plans of Earthworks on Cranborne Chase are to be found in
General Pitt Rivers' works ; but they only include the sites
of his excavations. Accordingly, if we wish to study plans
of the various earthworks in this district, we must obtain
about 40 6-inch Ordnance Survey sheets whereon they are
recorded. The Ordnance Survey is a most admirable and
exact work, from its own point of view, but it is not the
ANCIENT EARTHWORKS OF CRANBORNE CHASE. 33
court of final appeal in matters of antiquity. There are
omissions, and there are misunderstandings, and so the
antiquary has still got his part to play, and may still help to
perfect such a record.
The method that I have adopted in making this survey
has been first, to make a tracing of the 25-inch O.S. sheet
that records the earthwork under examination. Then to
study the 6-inch O.S. sheet of the same place, in order to
note the rise and fall of the land, which are shewn by contour
lines on the 6-inch scale, but not on the 25-inch. Then to
examine the site with both the 25-inch tracing and the 6-inch
sheet, in order to verify the record, and to supplement
omissions. And finally to measure up typical sections of the
In one case the large pastoral enclosure on Rockbourne
Down I have made an original survey, as it is not recorded
in any of the maps of the Ordnance Survey.
The limits of this district of Cranborne Chase have been
the cause of much contention. But with this we have no
concern. The outer bounds or extreme limits of the Chase
as recorded by the Perambulations, 29, Henry III., and 8,
Edward I., and in two maps of A.D. 1618 by Richard
Hardinge and Thomas Aldwell respectively, are the bound-
aries of our survey. These boundaries, though mediaeval, are
founded upon natural features, that have always tended to
impart a certain local and separate character to this district.
Even now Cranborne Chase is a peculiar district. It lies
apart from railroads, and apart from most of the road traffic
that passes through Ringwood, Wimborne, Blandford,
Shaft esbury, or Salisbury. It is a solitary tract of down-
land, corn-land, wood-land, and w r aste. Dry valleys run far
up into the steep flanks of the Oxdrove Ridgeway that is the
backbone of the Chase. Streams emerge with intermittent
flow in the lower slopes of these valleys. The present villages,
with the exception of Whitsbury and Ashmore, are in the
lowlands. While, on the uplands will be found the sites of
many ancient British villages. Barrows, both long and
34 ANCIENT EARTHWORKS OF CRANBORNE CHASE.
round ; camps of defence ; boundary banks and ditches ;
pastoral enclosures ; cultivation banks ; Roman roads ; and
dykes of defence, all testify to the former habitation and
desirability of this now solitary land. On the East it was
bounded by the New Forest. On the South by the Holt
Forest and the heathland of Dorset. On the West by the
Forest of Blackmore ; and on the North by the forests and
swamps of the valley of the Nadder. Amid such surroundings
the rolling downs of Cranborne Chase must have emerged
as desirable land. Its chalk soil suited the requirements of
the early camp makers, and it was well watered ; for the
rainfall we believe to have been greater then than now, and
the evidence of General Pitt Rivers' Roman well at Woodcuts
shows that the water level in the chalk has sunk since this
well was in use 1,600 years ago. Think of the Tarrant, the
Allen, the Long Crichel, and Gussage brooks, the Crane,
the Martin Allen, the Rockbourne brook, the Ebble, the
.Donhead, the Iwerne, and Pimperne brooks. Think of all
these streams flowing constantly from 50 to 100 feet above
their present rise, and we get a very different conception of
the prehistoric pastoral and agricultural value of this tract
of country. A truly desirable land when contrasted with its
These natural conditions may account for the large number
of great hill -top camps within the area of this survey, that
are probably among the most ancient as they are certainly
the most conspicuous earthworks on Cranborne Chase.
They also account for the later pastoral and agricultural
earthworks, and for the numerous British village sites, which
are specially frequent in the centre of the Chase.
The following list will give an idea of the number and
variety of these earthworks.
Hod Hill, 50 acres ; Hambledon Hill, 25 acres ; Castle
Ditches, near Tisbury, 23 acres ; Badbiiry Rings, 18 acres ;
Whitsbury Castle Ditches, 16 acres ; Winkel-bury, 12 J acres ;
ANCIENT EARTHWORKS OF CRANBORNE CHASE. 35
Castle Rings, near Shaftesbury, 11J acres ; Buzbury Rings,
11 acres; Chiselbury, 10 acres; Clearbury Ring, 5 acres;
Damerham Knoll, 3| acres ; Penbury Knoll, 3J acres.
(Twelve in all.)
CAMPS ON HIGH GROUND.
Bussey Stool Park, 5J acres ; Odstock Copse, fragment,
3 1 acres ; Mistleberry Wood, 2 acres ; Thickthorn Down,
fragment, f acre.
ENCLOSURES, PROBABLY FOR PASTORAL PURPOSES.
Rockbourne Down, 96 acres ; Soldiers' Ring, 27 acres ;
Chicken-grove, 12 acres ; Vernditch, fragment, 8 acres ;
South Tarrant Hinton Down (1) 8 acres, (2) 5 acres ; Tarrant
Hint on Down, 6 acres ; Knight on Hill Buildings, 2J acres ;
Martin Down, 2 acres ; Bussey Stool Park, 1 J acres ; Wood-
cuts (2) ; Pimperne Down, fragment ; Prescombe Down,
f acre ; South Lodge, Rushmore, f acre ; Haiidley Hill,
J acre ; Knighton Hill, J acre ; Oakley Down, J acre ;
Fifield Down, J acre ; Chettle Down ; Mountslow. (Twenty-
one in all.)
BRITISH VILLAGE SITES.
Gussage Down ; Tarrant Hinton Down ; South Tarrant
Hinton Down ; Chettle Down ; Blandford Race Down ; Oakley
Down ; Middlechase Farm ; Marleycombe Hill ; Berwick Down ;
Rotherley; Woodcuts; Woodyates; Fontmell Down; (?)
Swallowcliffe Down ; Blackbush on Pentridge ; Tidpit Down ;
(Sixteen in all.)
DEFENSIVE DYKES AND DITCHES.
Bokerly Dyke ; Charlton Down ; Hatts Barn ; Melbury
Hill ; Fontmell Down ; Tennerley Ditch ; Half -Mile Ditch
(White Sheet Hill) ; Row Ditch ; Buxbury Hill ; Burcomb
36 ANCIENT EARTHWORKS OF CRANBORNE CHASE.
BOUNDARY BANKS AND DITCHES.
Grim's Ditch ; Banks and Ditch running N.E. from Whits-
bury Castle Ditches to Breamore Mizmaze ; Banks and
Ditch running E. from Whitsbury Castle Ditches, towards
Whitsbury Common, now only discernible in a wood called
Rowdidge ; Banks and Ditch running over Martin Down,
E. of Bokerly Dyke to Vernditch, excavated by General
Pitt Rivers and proved to be of the Bronze Age ; Banks and
Ditch crossing Laimceston Down ; Banks and Ditch between
Blandford Race Down, Buzbury Rings, and dying away
pointing for Spettisbury Ring or Crawfurd Castle.
EARTHWORKS OF EXCEPTIONAL CHARACTER.
Circle within which stands the ruined Church 1} acres
Partially effaced circle within which stand
New Barn Buildings . . . . . . 8J acres
Almost effaced circle to the North-West of
circle No. 1 . . . . . . . . 1 acre
Almost effaced circle beside the above. . i acre
Cranborne Castle. Castle Green, Shaftesbury.
THE PRINCIPAL LONG BARROWS.
Giant's Grave, near Clearbury ; Giant's Grave, near
Breamore Mizmaze ; Duck's Nest, near Rockbourne Down ;
Grans Barrow and Knap Barrow on Knoll Down (?) ; Round
Clump, near Great Yews ; near Tidpit Common Down ;
near Bokerly Dyke (2) (?) ; Down, near Waterlake, beneath
Pentridge Hill ; Wor Barrow ; Oakley Down ; Gussage
Down (2) ; Thickthorn Down ; Launceston Down ; near
Tarrant Hinton Down ; Chettle Long Barrow ; Blandford
Race Down ; Pimperne Long Barrow ; Langton Down ;
Whitesheet Hill ; Hambledon Hill (?). (Twenty-three in all.)
ANCIENT EARTHWORKS OF CRANBORNE CHASE. 37
Roman Road, from Sarum to Badbury, where one branch
goes on to Dorchester and another to Poole ; another road
turns off to the north-west from Badbury, through Eastbury
Park to Ashmore, pointing for Donhead, and the Groveley
Ridge ; the inner camp on Hod Hill ; Hemsworth Villa ;
Barton Hill Villa ; Iwerne Minster Villa.
The sequence of such a long list of varied earthworks
bristles with debatable points, and demands a book rather
than a short paper ; but the clock compels me merely to give
general conclusions tentative conclusions for considera-
I think that the Hilltop camps probably represent the
actual sites of the pre-Roman Tribal habitations on Cranborne
Chase, at a period when wealth consisted in flocks and herds,
and when Tribal hostility was frequent ; and that the great
scale of their banks and ditches is mainly original, though in
several instances the defences seem to have been enlarged or
That the open British village sites represent a later and a
different phase of Tribal life ; when there were planters of
corn on a considerable scale, as well as tenders of cattle, and
when men counted on reaping where they had sown.
That the low Boundary Banks and Ditches represent a
period when areas of occupation were decided by mutual
agreement, and that their parallel duplication and triplica-
tion, which happens near British village sites, may represent
That here, in this district of Cranborne Chase, the Roman
occupation represents a period of peace and prosperity, and
that the British villages were Romanized.
And finally, that the great defensive Banks and Ditches,
such as Bokerly, Half-Mile Ditch, Charlton Down, &c.,
represent the period of the oncoming West Saxon A.D. 552
to 577, when imminent danger came from one direction
from the East, as their banks testify. And to this period
38 ANCIENT EARTHWORKS OF CRANBORNE CHASE.
also I am inclined to suppose may belong the great earth-
works on the South-Eastern approach of Hambledon Hill ;
the uneven height that appears to have been added to the
inner bank of the camp on Hod Hill ; and the high, narrow-
topped inner bank on the Eastern side of Whitsbury Castle
^(e^ansocL Strnvne^ ."3ft(y. 19 1 1, x //
. (1 chaun. =22 ^a*U>.) 2O.
"AiA bo/wk cmUitiut* to Ou.'a>e*t < fr6o
S^nCht Soatft-rficU.it HA* 6. cut cwwctu.
ANCIENT EARTHWORKS OF CRANBORNE CHASE. 39
NOTES DESCRIPTIVE OF THE FOREGOING PLANS.
(Respecting the plan conventions. The shading lines that indicate
earthwork banks show the top of the bank by the thick end of the line,
the bottom by the thin end. Dotted spaces indicate the bottoms of
ditches and depressions. Numbers and contour lines indicate the
height of the land above the sea.)
1. Badbury Rings Of the five principal Hill-top camps within the
district of my survey Hod, Hambledon, Castle Ditches, Tisbury,
Whitsbury Castle Ditches, and Badbury Rings the last stands lowest
above the sea ; yet Badbury Rings are so isolated, and are situated in
such a spacious tract of lowland, that their pine-crowned summit of
327 feet tells as a landmark for miles around a distinction that Castle
Ditches, Tisbury, miss, though this latter camp area rises to 630 feet
7 feet higher than Hambledon.
Badbury Rings may serve as a fine specimen of a Hill-top Camp.
They have been described in the Dorset Field Club Proceedings,
Vol. XXVII., and in " Ancient Dorset," by Charles Warne. So far as
I know, their varied occupation has not been proved by excavation,
but their origin is generally accepted as Celtic. They are surrounded
by a triple ring of great banks and ditches. There is a wide space
between the outer and middle earthworks. The Eastern entrance is a
straight-forward passage through the three lines of defence. There
are two entrances on the Western side. One, like the Eastern, straight-
forward, the other winding through the berm defence of the middle
bank. It seems possible, in view of Mr. and Mrs. Cunnington's
excavations on Knapp Hill, that the straight -forward Western entrance
may be original, used for driving cattle in times of danger, and the
entrance gaps then stockaded. The earthworks of the Rings do not
show any signs of Roman adaptation, though the site must have been
occupied by the Romans, for three of their roads converge here.
Probably this was the site of " Mons Badonicus," see " Origines
Celticce" Vol. II., p. 147, by Dr. Guest. The wasted earthwork
outside the Rings on the Western side do not seem to have any
intelligible connection with the camp defences.
2. Buzbury Rings are about two miles distant from Blandford and
the Upland road, thence to Wimborne, passes through the outer part
of the camp. The inner camp appears to have been the place of
habitation, and here you may pick up in half an hour more pottery
shards than your pockets will hold. The outer camp extends on the
Northern and Eastern sides of this inner camp, and shows no sign of
habitation, but was probably used for pastoral purposes. Buzbury
Rings have been cut about by road-makers and by cultivators, but their
general disposition are still fairly discernible. The camp shows no signs
40 ANCIENT EARTHWORKS OF CRANBORNE CHASE,
of having been strengthened, and its broad-topped low banks (six foot
average height) and shallow ditches give us an idea of an Early British
Tribal camp that combined safety with pastoral requirements. Many
of the pottery shards to be found in the inner area are of the Early
British type, hand-made, imperfectly baked, and made of clay mixed
with siliceous granules. Banks and ditches of the Grims-Ditch type
branch out from Buzbury Rings. The O.S. marks one that approaches
the Rings from Langton Long as " supposed British Trackway ; " but
its superficial measurements compare with Grims-Ditch, through which
I have cut sections on Damerham Knoll and on Gallows Hill, and in
both these cases the bottom of the ditch was 4 feet 6 inches below the
surface and only a foot wide, with steep sides, showing no signs of use ;
indeed, it would be impossible to use such a ditch as a way. These
Banks and Ditches appear to be boundary divisions for pastoral
purposes. Similar branching of such earthworks from a centre of
habitation may be noted on Blandford Race Down, South Tarrant
Hinton Down, Gussage Down, Middle Chase Farm, and Whitsbury
3. The British Settlement on South Tarrant Hinton Down is
specially interesting. Here are two oval enclosures, surrounded by
low earthworks the outside banks never rise above 4 feet that are
separated from each other by a shallow down valley in which pre-
sumably the water came out when these enclosures were made.
The upper enclosure shows no superficial signs of ancient habitation,
but there is a sunken way leading down to the little valley that suggests
cattle usage. It should be noted that outside the entrance on the
Eastern side are the wasted remains of two detached banks that appear-
to be defences covering the opening, and that the Northern enclosure
bank (the Southern has been destroyed) widens into a pear shape at
the entrance a form that often occurs at camp entrances. The
all-over measurements of the bank and ditch show, however, that this
can never have been a camp of much account, and I am inclined to
regard it as a pastoral enclosure with slight defences.
The lower enclosure is the larger of the two, and the area is covered
with humps and hollows that suggest habitation. The entrance is on
the South-Eastern side. On the North-Eastern side there is a semi-
circular depression strongly banked, and approached from the area by
a sunken way. This compares with somewhat similar earthwork
forms on Tarrant Hinton Down (near Eastbury Park), Chettle Down,
and Swallow-Cliffe Down. Their purpose could only be conjectured
by excavation. Two large mounds may be barrows. The duplication
of the single bank and ditch which for the most part surround their
enclosure on the South-Western and lowest side of the site is another
puzzle that needs solution. A ditch between double banks (of the
ANCIENT EARTHWORKS OF CRANBORNE CHASE. 41
Grims-Ditch type) starts from this South- Western side and can be
traced for some distance over the hill towards Pimperne.
4. Knowlton It is doubtful whether Knowlton was within the
ancient outbounds of Cranborne Chase. The place names of the
Perambulation are dubious here. But we may take the benefit of the
doubt, for benefit it is, as it enables us to consider a most remarkable
site. Nowhere else on Cranborne Chase, excepting in barrows, and
specially in the disc barrows near Woody ates, do we find any earthwork
expression of what is supposed to be prehistoric formular religion.
Circles, either marked by stones or wrought in earth, are signs of the
unknown reverence of our forefathers. Here, et Knowlton, we have
four circular earthworks, only one of which, however, is still fairly
perfect the others have been destroyed by cultivation. From the
remnant that remains we cannot suppose that purposes of defence or
of habitation, or of cattle enclosure, were the motives of the makers of
these rings. v The two apparently original entrances of the one perfect
remaining circle are opposite each other. The wide ditch is on the
inside. The bank is unusually broad and precise in its circle. There
are no other earthworks of similar construction on Cranborne Chase,
but in certain particulars they compare with the Rings at Thornborough
Moor, near Ripon, and with Figsbury Ring near Salisbury (see " Earth-
work of England," by Hadrian Allcroft). Within the area of this
earthen circle stands the ivy-clad ruin of a little stone church. With-
out, these Knowlton circles are surrounded by barrows ; but this site
does not now appear as the barrow centre of the district, as Stonehenge
is the barrow centre of Salisbury Plain. That distinction belongs to
Oakley Down, below Pentridge, near Worbarrow, that was excavated
by General Pitt Rivers.
,31 Kanimsccim* of
(Tijc J,itc Bet). C. HI. ft). Dicker,
smite Obscrbatums on
By the Rev. 0. PICKARD CAMBRIDGE, M.A., F.R.S.
CANNOT suppose that the following few lines
will be otherwise than acceptable to the
members of our Field Club, the more
especially as they relate to, probably, the
last that our lamented member, the
Rev. C. W. H. Dicker, ever did or wrote
in connection with any work on our behalf.
In order to make this intelligible to you,
I must premise that Mr. Dicker (in his paper on " The Normans
of Dorset," Dors. Field Club Proceedings, Vol. XXXI., 1910,
p. 125) mentions that " Norman Porches are very rare ; I
only know of three in Dorset Sherborne, Bloxworth, and
Bdchalwell." I wrote at once to Mr. Dicker that this was
evidently a mistake so far as Bloxworth was concerned, where
the church porch certainly was not Norman. In the short
THE LATE REV. C. W. H. DICKER, R.D. 43
correspondence that ensued Mr. Dicker acknowledged that
he had not himself visited the church, and had been mis-
informed ; but that he would shortly pay me a visit and
inspect the church himself.*
Time went on, one thing and another delayed Mr. Dicker's
kind intention, until in the afternoon of Thursday, August
22nd last, he paid me his long-promised visit (in company
with the Rev. A. L. Helps, Vicar of Puddletown). I was
unable to accompany him to my church, but he made a close
and thorough inspection of it under the guidance of one of
my sons. He had no time to give me a report on it at the
moment ; but on the following morning (Friday, August 23rd)
wrote to me the result of his examination of several points of
interest, including the Norman doorway. Saturday and
Sunday, August 24th and 25th, intervened ; and then early
on Monday, August 26th, the sudden and lamentable
catastrophe occurred in which we have to mourn his
I feel sure that no one of us will under the circumstances
object to enter into a little detail of what thus occupied
Mr. Dicker's last scientific consideration. I therefore make
no apology for quoting, almost verbatim, his letter to me,
dated August 23rd, 1912. " Dear Mr. Pickard-Cambridge,
" I was much interested in your church, and am very glad to
" have seen it. The porch is particularly a good bit of
" Jacobean building ; the architect has adopted a nice 14th
" Century moulding in the outer arch probably a copy of
" work in the older building. I am not sure that the lower
" stones of the jambs are not part of the original. The
" doorway is much more like a Norman Chancel Arch than a
* Mr. Dicker appears to have been unaware that the Field Club paid
me a visit on Aug. 19th, 1886, when I pointed out that " the only
remaining portion of an original Norman Church was the Doorway."
See report of F. Club Proc., Vol. VII., p xxiv., 1886 ; also that in a
paper on Bloxworth Church read at the meeting above mentioned and
published Vol. VII., p. 99, this doorway is again remarked upon.
44 THE LATE REV. C. W. H. DICKER, R.D.
" door arch. The doors one finds in village churches of the
" 12th Century are very much narrower, and the imposts
" (with * nail-head ' ornament) look exactly like those of a
" typical chancel arch of the period. I have seen some
" chancel arches about that width, though now removed from
" their old position.
" The Font seems to me a piece of undoubted Early English
" work. Its bit of foliage and mouldings are quite of the
" Early 13th Century style. It is not mentioned in Dr.
" Cox's list of Dorset Fonts. With kind regards, yours very
"truly, C. W. H. DICKER."
The above, then, being the subject which so immediately
preceded Mr. Dicker's untimely decease, has, I think, a
melancholy though real interest for us all ; I therefore
presume to make a few remarks upon it. It will be noted
that the idea of Bloxworth Church Porch being Norman is
quite given up ; and whether the opinion that the architect
of it adopted, in his design, the course Mr. Dicker mentions, I
must leave to experts ; but I must remark that there is no
proof of there ever having been a porch to the original Norman
building. The opinion that the " doorway " (which is
undoubtedly Norman) is the Chancel Arch of the original
Norman church I am hardly qualified to criticise. It would
have been most interesting and useful to us if Mr. Dicker had
added to his note upon this point the names of the churches
where he had seen some similar arches removed from their
original positions, and so become " doorways." I have noted
on the plate accompanying this paper the exact dimensions
of the doorway as it now stands. My own opinion is certainly
against the idea that it formed the chancel-arch of the original
With respect to Mr. Dicker's opinion that the Font is an
undoubted " Early English " work, I cannot say that I am
convinced upon this point. I have always thought it to be
partly Jacobean, mixed with some of the materials of an
original Norman Font ; but I do not profess to be an expert
on such points. I will only say that the Font has been
THE LATE REV. C. W. H. DICKER, R.D. 45
examined by more than one who have professed to be experts,
and they have invariably been doubtful. Perhaps what I
have said above may lead some one of our members competent
to give an opinion (and assisted by Mr. Dicker's remarks as
well as the sketch I have given of the Font as it stands) to let
us know more about it, and to confirm or otherwise the
opinion that the " doorway " is the chancel-arch of the
original Norman building.
Supplement to tl)e
a of tlje Esle of ftarbctk*
COMPILED FROM THE NOTES OF EUSTACE R. BAXKES,
By NELSON M. RICHARDSON, B.A.
I WING to the unfortunate illness of my
friend, Mr. Eustace Bankes, I have been
asked to edit the valuable notes made by
him on the additions to the Lepidoptera of
the Isle of Purbeck since the publication of
the 1st Supplement in Vol. X. of the Pro-
ceedings of the Dorset Field Club (1889),
the original list being contained in Vol. VI.
of the same Proceedings (1885). The notes from which the
present list is made carry on the records to the end of 1910,
the last entry being dated Nov. 27th, 1910. The bulk of the
captures were made by Mr. Bankes himself, and where he
has had to depend on those made by others, he has always
either identified the species himself or relied upon some
recognised authority for its correctness. Amongst the
insects in the present list are some of great or considerable
rarity, such as Vanessa antiopa, Sterrha sacraria, Notodonta
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 47
trepida, Leucania vitellina, L. albipuncta, L. extranea, Micro,
parva, Catocala electa, Lemiodes pulveralis, Epischnia bankes-
iella, Simcethis vibrana, Euposcilia manniana, Tinea richard-
soni, Micropteryx aruncella (probably merely a variety of M.
seppella], Yponomeuta rordlus, Argyresthia atmoriella, Litho-
colletis triguttella (Mr. Bankes brings evidence to prove this
to be merely a variety of L. faginetta), Nepticula fulgens, N.
confusella, Trifurcula pallidella, besides other interesting
species. Altogether, no less than 171 species are now added
to the list, which swells the number found in Purbeck (after
allowing for all corrections) to the very large total of 1,197,
an extraordinarily rich Lepidopterous fauna for so small a
tract, which it probably owes to the varied nature of the land
comprised in it. Heath and bog, sand-hills and salt marshes,
woods and downs, fertile fields and rocky cliffs and sea-shore
are all found, and each contributes the different species that
A few corrections of previous lists and records are necessary.
In Entomologist XXX., Ill (1897), Hesperia paniscus and
Sesia muscceformiswere recorded from Swanage by Mr. J. H.
Fowler, but in Entom. XXXII., 309 (1899), he withdrew both
records. Although he could not say what the supposed
H. paniscus of his informant could have been, it is quite
incredible that it could have been H. paniscus, unless
proved indubitably by the production of the specimen. A
list of Delenda et corrigenda in the first List of Purbeck
Lepidoptera and the first supplement, a few of which
have already been noticed in the first supplement, is here
DELENDA ET CORRIGENDA.
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. (Proc. D.F.C.,
Vol. VI., pp. 128177.)
p. 141. Delete " EUPITHECIA MINUTATA, G., Corfe."
p. 147. 1. 4 and 12, for " about the year 1845 " read " in
the year 1844."
48 LEPIDOPTEEA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
p. 148. 1. 23, 24, and 37, for " about the year 1845 by Sir
Frederick Lighton " read " in the year 1844
by Sir Christopher Lighton."
p. 158. For : ' PHYCIS SUBORNATELLA, Z." read " PHYCIS
ADORN ATELLA, D." See note under the
latter species in 1st Supplement (Proc. D.F.C.,
,, For "PHYCIS ABIETELLA, 8.V" read "PHYCIS
SPLENDIDELLA, H.-S" See note under the
latter species in the present supplementary
p. 160. For " PENTHINA SORORCULANA, Ztt." read " PEN-
THIN A BETULJETANA, Hw." Merrm, in his
list, which was followed, erroneously enters
betulcetana, Hw., under the name sororculana,
Ztt., which should stand for what Merrin calls
p. 163. For " RETINIA PINICOLANA, Dl>." read " RETINIA
BUOLIANA, $.F." The former species, which
had not been found in Purbeck until the
date of its record (1901) in the present
supplementary list, was inserted by mistake
for the latter species. (See also 1st Supple-
mentary List, Proc. D.F.C., X., 204.)
For " CARPOCAPSA GROSS AN A, Hw." read " CAR-
POCAPSA SPLENDANA, H." The former species,
which has not yet been found in Purbeck,
was recorded by mistake for the latter.
p. 166. Delete " YPONOMEUTA PLUMBELLA, S.V., Studland.
The grey var. of Y. padella, L. was mistaken
for this species, which was not found in
Purbeck until 1891, as recorded in the present
p. 167. Delete " DEPRESSARIA PROPINQUELLA, Tr., Stud-
land, Corfe ; rare." The entry was made on
the strength of specimens taken by Rev.
C. R. Digby and E.R.B., which have since
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 49
turned out to be merely forms of subpro-
pinquella, Stn., and both the captors were
in 1894 sure that they had never taken
propinquella, Tr. in Purbeck or anywhere
in Dorset. Neither is it recorded from
Purbeck in the present Supplementary List,
p. 167. Delete " Corfe " as a locality for DEPRESSARIA
p. 168. For " GELECHIA NANELLA, H." read " GELECHIA
ALBICAPITELLA, Z." The former species has
not yet occurred in Purbeck. (See 1st Supple-
mentary List, Proc., D.F.C., X., 208.)
p. 174. 1. 14. For " on Ulex." read, in a fresh line, " LITHO-
COLLETIS MESSANIELLA, Z., Corfe, Studland,'
on Ilex. (See 1st Supplementary List, Proc.
D.F.C., X., 212.)
Delete " LITHOCOLLETIS EMBERIZ^PENNELLA, Bou.,
common among honeysuckle." This was
entered by Rev. C. R. Digby, who afterwards
found that L. trifasciella, Hw., had been
mistaken for it. It has not yet occurred in
p. 175. Delete " NEPTICULA ULMIVORELLA, Frr., Studland."
This species has not yet occurred in Purbeck.
p. 176. 1. 7 and 8 from bottom, delete " with the exception
of P. Globularise," and the whole of the
bottom 6 lines referring to that species.
(Note by E.R.B.) In the " Lepidoptera
of Dorsetshire " Mr. C. W. Dale says
" A specimen in my collection was taken
at Langton Matravers in 1853, by Dalton
Serrel (Serrell), Esq." If this moth has
been rightly identified as globular ice, this is
the only instance known of the occur-
rence of this species outside the counties
of Kent and Sussex, and is therefore very
remarkable. [Although Mr. E. R. Bankes
50 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
admitted this record into his list, he thought
on further consideration that it should be
omitted as being too doubtful. I agree with
him in this view, as the identification of the
species of this genus is somewhat difficult.
N. M. RICHARDSON.]
FIRST SUPPLEMENT TO THE " LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF
PURBECK." Proc., D.F.C., X., 197-213.
p. 200. Delete BOMBYCOID.E. ACRONYCTA, Tr. Acronycta
tridens, S.V., Corfe. E.R.B. says that this
was entered on the strength of specimens
taken by him which he had thought to be
A. tridens, but which he has since identified
as only A. psi.
p. 205. Delete " Dicrorampha Saturnana, G., Kimmeridge
,, 1. 8, 9. For " one specimen, which has been identified
by Mr. Warren as this rare species, was taken
by the author on June 16th, 1884 " read
" four specimens, of which one alone was
identified by Mr. Warren as this rare species,
were taken by the author on June 16th,
1884, and many others since."
Delete " Dicrorampha Tanaceti, Wlk., Kimmeridge
p. 208. Delete " Gelechia Artemisiella, Tr., Swanage coast ;
occasional]y taken on the downs." The
specimens on which the entry was made
were merely forms (caught) of G. anthyllidella
(recorded Proc., D.F.C., VI., 169) and both
E.R.B. and Rev. C. R. Digby are quite sure
that they have never taken G. artemisiella
For " Gelechia Affinella, Hw." read " Gelechia
Similis, Dgl." This entry was made on the
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 51
authority of Rev. C. R. Digby, but E.R.B.
has carefully examined all the specimens
(now in coll. G. W. Bird) taken by him in
Purbeck, and supposed to be affinella, Hw.,
and they are all undoubtedly similis, Dgl.,
as are all the specimens that E.R.B. has
taken or bred himself in Purbeck. On his
mentioning these facts (1894) to Rev.
C. R. Digby, he said that he had no doubt
that the correction was right.
p. 209. For " Gelechia Ligulella, Z.," read 4< Gelechia
Vorticella, Z." See under GELECHIA VORTI-
CELLA, Z., in the present 2nd supplementary
p. 213. For " Nepticula Gratiosella, Stn.," read " Nepticula
The nomenclature adopted in the first list and the first
supplement is that of Merrin's Lepidopterist's Calendar
(1875), and the present being only a second supplement
and not a new list, I have thought it best, to prevent
confusion, to use the same nomenclature, placing within
brackets any synonyms which have been shewn to have prior
claims, and which are more generally used at the present
time. Where Mr. Eustace R. Bankes' name occurs as the
authority for a capture or otherwise in the notes, it is
designated for convenience by the initials (E.R.B.) ; other
captors' names are given in full. A list of abbreviations
used for the names of the authors of the descriptions of
the various species is appended.
The Author's names with the abbreviations used are as
follows : Auct. Angl. Auctorum Anglicorum ; B. Boisduval ;
Ba. Barrett ; Ben. Bentley ; Bk. Borkhausen ; Bnks.
Bankes ; Bou. Bouche ; Br. Bruand ; C. Curtis ; Clms,
Clemens ; D. Duponchel ; Db. Doubleday ; Dg. Douglas ;
Drt. Durrant ; Dyar, Dyar ; E. Esper ; F. Fabricius ; Fisch.
Dr. F. Fischer ; F.R. Fischer E. von Roslerstamm ; Frey.
52 LEPIDOPTEEA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
Frey ; Frr. Freyer ; Fro. Frolich ; G. Guenee ; H. Hiibner ;
Hein. Heinemann ; Hey. Heyden ; Hf. Hufnagel ; Hrng.
Hering; H.-S. Herrick-Schaffer ; Etch. Hatchett ; Hw.
Haworth ; L. Linne ; Lch. Leach ; Lnig. Lienig ; Ls.
Laspeyres ; Li. Latreille ; M. Mann ; Merrin, Merrin ; 0.
Ochsenheimer ; Edsn. Richardson ; Rtz. Ratzeburg ; 8.
Scopoli ; Schiff. Schiffermiller ; S.V. Systematisches
Verzeichniss der Weines Gegend ; Sax. Saxesen ; Ss. Stephens ;
Stdgr. Staudinger ; Stn. Stainton ; Thnb. Thunberg ; Thrfl.
Threlfall ; Tr. Treitsche ; Tutt, Tutt ; Va. Vaughan ; Wood,
Dr. J. H. Wood ; Wk. Wocke ; Wlsm. Walsingham ; Z.
Zeller ; Zk. Zincken.
In Mr. E. R. Bankes' notes, Corfe Castle is sometimes
written in full, but generally designated as Corfe. It is
always alluded to as " Corfe " in the following list for the
sake of brevity :
ARGYXNIS ADIPPE, L. Swanage ; one taken by Mr. S. W.
Kemp in Aug., 1899, and recorded in Entom.,
XXXII., p 260.
VANESSA ANTIOPA, L. Swanage ; a specimen was seen
flying along the road about half-way between
Swanage and Studland by Mr. Arthur W.
Geffcken at about 1.45 p.m. on June 1, 1892.
As Mr. Geffcken was driving at the time he
could not capture the insect, but had an
excellent view of it as it flew towards him,
and then, when quite close, turned to the
left over some bushes : he knows the species
thoroughly well, having seen and taken it
commonly both on the Continent and in the
United States, and feels sure of its identity.
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 53
MACROGLOSSA BOMBYLIFORMIS, 0. (HEMARIS TITYUS, L.).
Corfe ; one was taken at Rhododendron
flowers in the garden at Norden House, by
E.R.B. on June 4, 1906.
ZENZERA yESCULi, L. (Zeuzera pyrina, L,), Swanage ; a
full-fed larva was found under a sod, close
to some elm trees near Whitecliff Farm, on
May 26, 1910, by Mr. Leonard Tatchell.
LIPARIS CHRYSORRHEA, L. Swanage ; one male was taken at
light by Mr. E. B. Nevinson on July 9, 1894.
The specimen has been seen by E.R.B.
PHIGALIA PILOSARIA, S.V. (PEDARIA, F.). Corfe; one
male taken at rest on the front wall of the
Rectory by E.R.B. on Feb. 22, 1896.
AMPHIDASIS PRODROMARIA, S.V. (STRATARIA, Hf.). Corfe;
a male was taken at light by E.R.B. on
Ap. 17, 1895.
BOARMIA ABIETARIA, S.V. Corfe ; one taken by E.R.B. on
July 23, 1902, and one by Mr. F. J. Han-
bury on Aug. 2, 1902. A few others taken
there since by E.R.B.
54 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
BOARMIA CINCTARIA, 8.V. Rempstone ; taken not uncom-
monly on Scotch fir trunks in the middle of
Bushey Heath Plantation by E.R.B. in May,
TEPHROSIA BIUNDULARIA, E. Rempstone ; one taken by
E.R.B. on May 12, 1890.
PUNCTULATA, 8.V. Holme ; one taken at rest
by E.R.B. on May 15, 1901.
PHORODESMA BAIULARIA, S.V. (PUSTULATA, Hf.). Corfe ;
two taken by E.R.B. on July 17, 1902.
EUPISTERIA HEPARATA, S.V. (OBLITERATA, Hf.) Corfe ; one
taken by E.R.B. on July 18, 1902.
ACID ALIA, Tr.
ACIDALIA INORNATA, Hw. Studland ; a fine specimen taken
on Studland Heath by E.R.B. on July 16,
NUMERIA PULVERARIA, L. Creech Grange ; one taken by
E.R.B. in the " big wood " on June 12, 1891.
STERRHA SACRARIA, L. Corfe ; a fine male specimen was
taken in a stubble field at Corfe by E.R.B.
on Sept. 7, 1895 (vide Ent. Mo. Mag. Ser. 2,
VII. 19). Another beautiful male specimen
was taken in a grass meadow at Corfe (the
next field but one to that wherein the other
was taken, and only about 200 or 250 yards
from the actual spot !) by E.R.B. on Sept. 6,
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 55
1905 just 10 years almost to the very day
since the previous one was secured.
OPORABIA AUTUMN ARIA, G. Corfe ; one was taken at
rest on a birch trunk by E.R.B. on Nov. 7,
1901. [Positively identified as this species
by Mr. L. B. Prout, the highest authority
on this difficult genus.]
EUPITHECIA LARICIATA, Frr. Corfe ; taken among larch in
Norden new plantation, by E.R.B., in June,
IRRIGUATA, H. Corfe ; a splendid specimen
seen in the Rectory copse by E.R.B. on Ap. 24,
1893. It was first noticed on the wing, when
it could not be identified ; but it then settled,
where a grand view of it was obtained ; but
it was not secured, owing to a pill box only
and no net being available.
ASSIMILATA, Db. Corfe ; one taken by E.R.B.
on Aug. 9, 1906.
SOBRINATA, H, Rempstone Heath ; several
taken by E.R.B. among juniper growing in a
fir wood in Aug., 1889.
COLLIX SPARSATA, H. Corfe ; one (much worn, but identity
certain) was taken amongst Lysimachia
vulgaris by E.R.B. on July 29, 1901 (a
remarkably late date !), and another on July
THERA FIRMATA, H. Corfe ; one (identified by E.R.B.) was
taken by Mr. P. Helps at Norden in 1899 ;
one taken by E.R.B., also at Norden, on
July 19, 1902 ; and others since. Uncommon.
56 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PUEBECK.
CIDARIA SILACEATA, S. V. Corf e ; one taken at rest in the
Rectory shrubbery by Rev. C. R. Digby on
Aug. 25, 1893.
PLATYPTERYX HAMULA, S. V. Corfe ; one beaten from Alder
(oak growing near) by E.R.B. in " Scotland "
rough field on June 10, 1891.
NOTODONTA TREPIDA, E. Corfe ; a young larva was found
on oak on July 4, 1905. [Owing to its being
sickly it was preserved in spirits of wine.]
ACRONYCTA LEPORINA, L. Corfe ; two bred from birch,
June 20 and 25, 1902, by E.R.B. One has
been taken at Studland by Mr. L. W. Bristowe.
LEUCANIA VITELLINA, H. Swanage ; two specimens were
taken at sugar, above Durlston Bay, by Mr.
Arthur Rose, in 1900. Studland ; several
taken by Messrs. Rippon and Tautz in 1908.
,, TURCA, L. Swanage ; four specimens were taken
on the wing by Mr. W. Edwards on July 11,
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 57
LEUCANIA ALBIPUNCTA, 8.V. Swanage ; one specimen was
taken " on ragwort flowers in a rough field
between the Waterworks and stone quarries,"
by Mr. A. U. Battley, early in Sep., 1901.
Studland ; four were taken by Mr. P. H.
Tautz in Aug., 1908.
,, EXTRANEA, G. (uNiPUNC/A, Hw.). Corfe ; a fine
specimen taken at sugar in the Rectory
shrubbery on Oct. }2, 1891.
,, STRAMINEA, Tr. Studland ; one was taken at
sugar by Mr. Percy H. Tautz on Aug. 6, 1908.
[The specimen has been seen by E.R.B.]
SENTA ULV^E, H. (MARITIMA, Tausch.}. Studland ; one was
taken at light by Mr. P. H. Tautz on Aug. 11,
1909. [The specimen has been seen by
NONAGRIA FULVA, H. Corfe ; one taken by E.R.B. on Sept,
24, 1892. Studland; two in 1908 (P. H.
,, GEMINIPUNCTA, Rich. Swanage Coast ; two
specimens were bred on Aug. 4 and 11, 1895,
by Mr. E. B. Nevinson from pupae found by
him in stems of common reed (Arundo
phragmites) in July. Studland ; the larva
was found by E.R.B. and identified by him
as this species on June 3, 1887 ; but the
record was accidentally omitted from the
previous lists of Purbeck Lepidoptera.
,, TYPH^E, E. Swanage Coast ; larvse and pupae
found in stems of Typha lati folia by Messrs.
B. G. and E. B. Nevinson and by E.R.B. in
July, 1895 ; the moths emerged in the follow-
ing month. Mr. E. B. Nevinson was the
first to find it in Purbeck.
58 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
HYDR^ECIA PALUDIS, Tutt. Studland ; a few specimens
were met with near South Haven by Mr. W.
Parkinson Curtis in Aug., 1908. Getting it
plentifully at Poole, he, however, only
troubled to take one of them.
APOROPHYLA AUSTRALIS, B. Swanage ; taken at ivy bloom
by Mr. A. B. Earn in Sep., 1893 ; also by
Mr. S. W. Kemp in 1899 (Entom. xxxii., 260),
and by Mr. A. U. Battley in Sep., 1901.
NEURIA SAPONARI^E, Bk. (HELIOPHOBUS RETICULATA, Vill.)
Swanage ; one was taken on Ballard Down
by Mr. W. Parkinson Curtis on July 4, 1905.
APAMEA FIBROSA, H. (LEUCOSTIGMA, H.) Studland ; one
was taken at sugar by Mr. P. H. Tautz on
Aug. 29, 1909. The specimen has been seen
MIAN A, 8s.
MIANA FURUNCULA, S.V. Corfe ; Swanage; &c. ; Common
,, ARCUOSA, Hw. Corfe ; one taken on the wing at
dusk by E.R.B. on July 15, 1890, and others
CARADRINA ALSINES, Bk. Corfe ; (E.R.B.). Swanage ;
(E.R.B.). Examples of this species taken by
E.R.B. both at Corfe and Swanage were
found by him when sorting through his
Caradrinidse in Jan., 1895.
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 59
CARADRINA AMBIGUA, F. Studland ; one (identified by
E.R.B.) was taken by Mr. Frederick White-
head in Aug. or Sep., 1896. Swanage ; one
(identified by E.R.B.) was taken by Mr. Percy
M. Bright in 1892, and several at sugar and
ragwort flowers by Mr. A. U. Battley in Sep.,
1901. Mr. W. Parkinson Curtis reports it as
not uncommon in 1907 in this locality.
AGROTIS OBELISCA, 8. V. Studland ; a few (one of which
was seen by E.R.B.) were taken at sugar by
Mr. Percy H. Tautz in 1907, and in each of
the following years.
,, AGATHINA, D. Studland ; one taken at light by
Rev. C. R. Digby in 1890. Not new to the
Purbeck list, but only previously recorded
from there as occurring on Wareham Heath
by Mr. C. W. Dale in his Lepidoptera of
NOCTUA UMBROSA, H. Studland ; about a dozen were taken
at sugar by Mr. P. H. Tautz during Aug.,
1909, and a few in each of the two preceding
,, BAIA, S.V. Corfe ; occasionally taken by E.R.B.
It should have been included in the earlier
supplement to the Purbeck list, as one, now in
his series, was bred from Corfe by E.R.B. in
1886, and another was taken there by him in
1892. Others were taken by him in 1902.
EREMOBIA OCHROLEUCA, S. V. Worth ; one boxed off a
scabious flower by E.R.B. on Sep. 3, 1889.
60 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
DIANTHJECIA CUCUBALI, S. V. Corfe ; a larva, certainly
belonging to this species, was found on seed-
head of Lychnis flos-cuculi in Corfe Rectory
Copse by E.R.B. in 1895. It fed well for
some time, but died before pupation. An
imago was taken at Corfe by Mr. Philip
Helps in 1899.
DASYPOLIA TEMPLI, Thnb. Swanage Coast ; larva? found
sparingly in stems and roots of Heracleum
spJiondylium by Mr. E. B. Nevinson and
E.R.B. in July, 1895. The entire credit of
the discovery is due to Mr. Nevinson. From
the larvae then found, nine moths were bred,
Sep. 13 Oct. 8, by Mr. Nevinson, and two by
E.R.B., a male on Sep. 26, and a female on
Oct. 16, 1895.
EPUNDA LICHENEA, H. Swanage ; taken at ivy bloom by
Mr. A. B. Earn in Sep., 1893, and taken and
bred there since by Mr. G. Russell- Wright
HADENA PROTEA, 8. V. Corfe ; one taken at sugar by E.R.B.
on Oct. 9, 1891, and several others since,
including a specimen of var. VARIEGATA, Tutt t
taken at sugar in the Rectory copse by
E.R.B. on Sep. 28, 1892.
SUASA, 8.V. Wych ; one taken flying over the
salt marsh at dusk by E.R.B. on June 20,
GENISTA, Bk. Swanage ; one taken on Ballard
Down by Mr. W. Parkinson Curtis on June
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 61
CUCULLIA CHAMOMILL^E, S. V. Studland ; 6 larvae, some of
which produced moths in 1897, were found on
and fed up on leaves of Matricaria inodora by
E.R.B. on June 15, 1896. Corfe ; larvae
found by E.R.B. in 1900.
HELIOTHIS DIPSACEA, L. Studland ; in 1898 Mr. E. N.
Blanchard, of Poole, shewed E.R.B. in his
collection specimens taken by himself at
Studland some years previously. Two taken
there in 1909 by Mr. P. H. Tautz.
ACONTIA LUCTUOSA, 8.V. Corfe ; one was taken by E.R.B.
on June 29, 1897. Swanage ; taken by Mr.
S. W. Kemp in 1899 and several by E.R.B. in
ERASTRIA FUSCULA, S. V. Corfe; one taken by E.R.B. on
July 12, 1902, and another by him on July 25,
1905, and a few others since.
MICRA PARVA, H. Wych ; a specimen was taken within a
foot of the very edge of the water of Poole
Harbour by E.R.B. at about 6.0 p.m. on
June 8, 1892.
CATOCALA ELECTA, BJc. Corfe ; one taken in a " trap " for
wasps and flies inside the walled garden of the
62 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
Rectory by E.R.B. on Sep. 12, 1892. The
only other specimen ever taken in Britain
was captured at sugar near Brighton by Mr.
A. C. Vine on Sep. 24, 1875.
CATACLYSTA LEMNALIS, L. Stoborough ; locally common in
ditches in the water- weadows. (E.R.B.)
BOTYS LANCEALIS, S.V. Corfe ; one taken by E.R.B.
on July 15, 1895.
LEMIODES, G. (PSAMMOTIS, H.}
LEMIODES (PSAMMOTIS) PULVERALIS, H. Corfe ; one
(identified by W. H. B. Fletcher and E.R.B.)
rather worn specimen was taken at Norden
by Master Rowley Helps in July or the
beginning of August, 1899. Recorded in
Ent. Mo. Mag. 2 Series, x., 289 (1899). A
few were taken also at Norden, and doubtless
in the same spot as R. Helps took it, by F.
Capel Hanbury and E.R.B. in July August,
CRAMBUS SALINELLUS, Tutt. Studland ; a fine specimen
(identified by E.R.B.) was taken by Mr. E. B.
Nevinson in July, 1894.
,, (CALAMATROPHA) PALUDELLUS, H. Studland ; one
(identified by E.R.B.) was taken at light on
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 63
the heath by Mr. Percy H. Tautz on Aug.
HOMCEOSOMA NEBULELLA, S.V. (H .) Swanage Coast; one
was taken by E.R.B. on July 27, 1897.
Corfe ; one was taken by E.R.B. on July 11,
1902. Swanage ; one taken by Major R. B.
Robertson in 1899.
EPISCHNIA BANKESIELLA, Rdsn. Swanage Coast ; larvae of
all sizes found rather plentifully in webs on
Inula crithmoides in one spot on the Coastline
by E.R.B., on May 24, 1898. The moths
were successfully reared in due course.
Recorded as new to Purbeck List in Ent. Mo.
Mag. 2 Ser. x., 236 (1899).
[Note by N. M. Richardson This species
probably occurs wherever Inula crithmoides
is found on the coast, as I have met with it at
Lulworth since its original discovery as
a species new to science by Mrs. Richardson
and myself at Portland. See Proc. D.F.C.,
X., 192 and plate, XV., 66, XVII., 173,
XIX., 155, and plate of moth, larva, and
mode of feeding.]
EPHESTIA KUEHNIELLA, Z. Corfe ; one was taken in Norden
House (in a room where there had been no
fire since the previous winter) by E.R.B.
on Nov. 27, 1910.
,, PINGUIS, Hw. Corfe ; a fine specimen was
taken on Aug. 13, 1891, by Rev. C. R. Digby,
who beat it from the E. hedge of the Rectory
64 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
PHYCIS, F. (DIORYCTRIA, Z.)
PHYCIS ABIETELLA, 8. V. (DIORYCTRIA DECURIELLA, H .)
Studland ; a few have been taken at light by
Rev. C. R. Digby. Corfe ; one was taken,
by beating, by F. Capel Hanbury, Esq., on
June 28, 1901 (teste E.R.B.), and several by
E.R.B. since. Note. PHYCIS (NEPHOP-
TERYX) SPLENDIDELLA, H .-S . (DlORYCTRIA
SPLENDIDELLA, H.-8. = SYLVESTRELLA, BtZ.)
Swanage Coast ; one specimen was taken by
Rev. C. R. Digby in Punfield Cove in Aug.,
1879. There are no spruce firs or firs or
pines of any sort within a very long distance ;
but this insect has several times occurred in
equally unexpected places. (See Ent. Mo.
Mag. 2nd ser. II., 221.) Mr. Digby 's specimen
has always been standing in his series with
some genuine decuriella, H. ( = abietella S.V.)
of which he has taken a few at Studland ; but
after a careful comparison of it with specimens
of both these closely allied species, I have not
the slightest hesitation in identifying it as
the true splendidella H.-S. It is a decidedly
larger insect than the other, and always has
a noticeable reddish-brown patch (band)
before the first line. [This is the specimen
recorded in the original Purbeck list in Proc.
D.F.C., VI., 158, as Phycis abietella, S.V.,
but the name abietella belongs to the smaller
RHODOPH^EA ADVENELLA, Zk. Studland ; one beaten out of
a hedge and secured by E.R.B. on July 28,
1896. Corfe ; one, beaten from blackthorn,
was taken by E.R.B. on Aug. 2, 1901.
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PTJRBECK. 65
RHODOPHJEA RUBROTIBIELLA, F.R. (ACROBASIS TUMIDANA,
S.V.) Studland ; one was taken by Rev. F.
H. Fisher on Aug. 7, 1904.
DICHELIA GROTIANA, F. Corfe ; one taken (at Norden by
beating) by F. Capel Hanbury, Esq., on
July 28, 1901 (teste E.R.B.). New to Dorset
List. Corfe ; one taken (near " Scotland
Copse," beaten from oak) by E.R.B. on
July 14, 1902.
PERONEA SPONSANA, F. Corfe ; taken not uncommonly
during some years past by E.R.B., and
also bred by him from larvae found feeding
on birch (Betula alba) at Corfe. The fact of
its not being already in the Purbeck list has
been overlooked till now.
AUTUMN ANA, H. (RUFANA, Schiff.) Corfe ; one
specimen taken amongst Myrica gale in a
bog on the heath by E.R.B. on Oct. 16, 1900.
,, PERPLEXANA, Ba. Corfe ; taken sparingly in the
Rectory Copse by E.R.B. in Aug., 1891.
PENTHINA PICANA, Fro. (CORTICANA, H.) Corfe ; one taken
among birch by E.R.B., June 25, 1902, and
SPILONOTA, C. (HEDYA, H.)
SPILONOTA (HEDYA) LARICIANA, Z. Corfe ; taken not un-
commonly among larch by E.R.B. in July,
66 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
SPILONOTA ACERIANA, M. Swanage ; the larva found not
uncommonly feeding in its characteristic way
in shoots of young poplars in villa gardens by
E.R.B. in June, 1891.
SERICORIS BIFASCIANA, Hw. Corfe ; taken plentifully
amongst Pinus pinaster by E.R.B. in July,
1900. Also bred therefrom.
MlXODIA, G. (P^EDISCA, Tr.)
MIXODIA (P^EDISCA) RATZEBURGHiANA, Sax., Rtz. Corfe ;
bred plentifully by E.R.B. in July from larvae
in shoots of spruce fir collected in June, 1900.
SCIAPHILA CHRYSANTHEANA, D. Swanage Coast ; taken by
E.R.B. rarely. Corfe ; rare. (E.R.B.)
PJEDISCA OPPRESS AN A, Tr. Corfe ; one taken among Populus
nigra by E.R.B. on June 23, 1900, and
another by him on July 16, 1901.
OCCULTANA, Dg . (DINIANA, Gu.) Corfe ; one taken
among larch by E.R.B. on July 20, 1901.
New to Dorset List.
SORDIDANA, H. (STABILANA, Ss.) Corfe ; taken
commonly among alders by E.R.B. in 1902,
also bred therefrom.
EPHIPPIPHORA CIRSIANA, Z. (CNICICOLANA Z. ? *) Swanage
Coast ; taken not uncommonly in a damp
* NOTE. Mr. E. Meyrick, F.R.S., informs me that E. cnicicolana is a
strictly South European form (Sicily to Dalmatia), very similar to
cirsiana, but considerably smaller, with some slight differences of
marking, perhaps of doubtful distinctness, from that variable species.
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 67
hollow in the clay cliffs by Punfield Cove by
E.R.B. on May 12, 1893. Kimmeridge Coast ;
common. Feeds in roots of Inula dysenterica.
EPHIPPIPHORA TRIGEMINANA, Ss. (= COSTIPUNCTANA, Hw. ?)
Swanage Coast ; not uncommon among
Senecio jacobcea on the steep rough cliff
COCCYX SPLENDIDULANA, G. Corfe ; one taken by E.R.B.
on May 23, 1890.
,, DISTINCTANA, Ben. Corfe ; a beautiful specimen
was taken in the Rectory shrubbery by
E.R.B. on June 2, 1892.
COCCYX, Tr. (STEGANOPTYCHA, 8s.)
COCCYX (STEGANOPTYCHA) SUBSEQUANA, Hw. Corfe ; three
specimens were taken and about three others
seen far out of reach, among spruce fir (afc
Kingston) by E.R.B. on May 19, 1908. The
species was evidently almost over by this
date, and is probably common in one fair-
sized spruce fir at the right time ; the many
other spruces in the same plantation were
tried in vain, except for one small one that
yielded a single individual. [Note by N. M.
Richardson I have found this species, which
I took at Langton Herring, near Weymouth,
in 1889 and subsequent years, more attached
to silver fir than spruce, but never common.
Proc. XI., 77, and Plate, fig. 5.]
RETINIA PINICOLANA, Db. Corfe ; beaten not uncommonly
from Scotch fir by E.R.B. in July, 1901, and
since. (New to Dorset List.) The erroneous
entry of this species in the original Purbeck
List was corrected in the " First Supplement "
68 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
RETINIA SYLVESTRANA, C. Corfe ; a few were bred from
male catkins of Pinus pinaster by E.R.B. in
July, 1901, and others since.
OPADIA FUNEBRANA, Tr. Corfe ; a full-fed larva found in a
ripe greengage picked in the Rectory Garden
on Aug. 19, 1898, and the traces of another
soon afterwards which had fed inside a
"golden-drop" plum. The moth emerged
on July 3, 1899.
STIGMONOTA CONIFERANA, Etz. Rempstone ; 2 taken among
Scotch fir in Bushey Heath plantation by
E.R.B. on July 7, 1890.
DICRORAMPHA ALPiNANA, Tr. Studland ; 4 taken amongst
tansy by E.R.B. on Aug. 4, 1894.
,, SEQUANA, H. Corfe ; 2 taken in a rough
pasture close to Blashenwell Farm by E.R.B.
on June 15, 1891.
CATOPTRIA ALBERSANA, H. Corfe ; 2 taken on the wing in
the evening in Scotland rough field by E.R.B.
on June 5, 1891.
TRYCHERIS MEDIANA, S.V. Swanage ; one taken at rest by
Rev. C. R. Digby on July 7, 1890, and others
NOTE. CARPOCAPSA SPLENDANA, H. Corfe ; occasionally met
with. (Erroneously recorded as GROSSANA, Hw., in " Lepidoptera of
Purbeck," Proc. D.F.C., VI., 36.)
LEPIDOPTEEA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 69
SIM^THIS VIBRANA, H. Corfe ; a single specimen of this
great rarity was taken on the wing in a rough
field of mixed herbage at about 6.15 p.m. on
Sept. 14, 1889, by E.R.B.
EUPCECILIA GEYERIANA, Auct. Angl. (nee. H.-S.) Corfe ;
2 fine specimens taken, one on May 31, 1889,
the other on Aug. 19, 1889, by E.R.B. on
Scotland Heath bogs, have been identified by
C. G. Barrett. Many have been taken in one
heath bog since by E.R.B., who has also bred
it from seed-pods of Menyanthes trifoliata,
(Bog-bean). (For description of larva by
N. M. Richardson, and plate by Mrs.
Richardson see Proc. D.F.C., XIII., 168.)
,, MANNIANA, F.R. Corfe ; a specimen of this great
rarity was taken, flying in the evening, in a
bog on Scotland Heath by E.R.B. on June
25, 1889. It has been duly identified by
Mr. C. G. Barrett.
CHROSIS BIFASCIANA, H. ( = AUDOUINANA, Dp.). Corfe ;
one, beaten out of spruce fir, was taken by
E.R.B. on July 16, 1901, and others since.
PSYCHE, Br. (FUMEA, Hb.).
PSYCHE (FUMEA) INTERMEDIELLA, Br. Studland ; one
specimen (a fine male) lately found and
identified by E.R.B. among Rev. C. R.
70 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
Digby 's former captures (now in Coll. G. W.
Bird). The specimen was taken by Rev.
C. R. Digby at Studland on Aug. 1, 1885.
TINEA, Stn. (MEESSIA).
TINEA (MEESSIA) BICHARDSONI, Wlsm. (VINCULELLA, Rdsn.}.
Punfield Cove, near Swanage ; a nice specimen
[recently (cir. 1896) found labelled X. argenti-
maculella, in Coll. G. R. Bird, and identified by
E.R.B. as T. richardsoni] was taken by Rev.
C. R. Digby on a grass stem on July 8, 1882.
Bred sparingly in 1896 and plentifully in 1897
by E.R.B. from cases found on the underside
of rocks and stones in the same locality.
This species has hitherto been only recorded
from Portland in 1891 and bred where it was
discovered in 1894 by N. M. Richardson.
(See Proc. D.F.C. XVI., 81, and figs, on
plate by Mrs. Richardson. Also Ent. Mon.
Mag. XXXI., 61, XXXVI., 176.)
TINEA, Stn. (MONOPIS, Hb.)
TINEA (MONOPIS) CROCICAPITELLA, Clms. ( = LOMBARDICA.
Hrng, = HERINGI, Rdsn. = HYALINELLA, Stdgr,,
= FERRUGINELLA, Dyar, nee. H.}. Studland ;
taken rather commonly on dry, grassy banks
near the sea at Southaven, &c., by Rev. C.
R. Digby in and about 1889 and 1892. (See
Ent. Mon. Mag. XLVIIL, 39, and Plate.)
TINEA, Stn. (PHYLLOPORIA, Hein.}.
TINEA (PHYLLOPORIA) BISTRIGELLA, Hw. Corfe ; one swept
from birch in Norden plantation by E.R.B.
on June 14, 1901.
MICROPTEBYX ARUNCELLA, S. Corfe ; taken in company
with M. calthella and seppella by sweeping
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 71
amongst Veronica chamcedrys, &c., in " Scot-
land " rough field by E.R.B. in June, 1890.
It is firmly believed by E.R.B. to be merely a
variety of M . seppella.
MICROPTERYX SEMIPURPURELLA, Ss. Rempstone ; taken not
uncommonly among the birch-trees in Goat-
horn plantation by Rev. C. R. Digby and
E.R.B. on April 19, 1892. Corfe ; by E.R.B.
SANGII, Wood. Corfe ; on May 16-18, 1895,
three undoubted larvae of this species were
found by E.R.B. on birch in the Rectory
shrubbery, and preserved in spirit of wine so
that there may be no question of their
identity, for the moths are sometimes
inseparable from M . semipurpurella.
KALTENBACHII, Stn. Corfe ; one taken in the
Rectory Copse by E.R.B. on April 22, 1892,
and a few more during the next few days.
ADELA RUFIMITRELLA, S. Corfe ; taken not uncommonly in
Norden Copse by E.R.B. in May, 1901.
,, VIRIDELLA, L. Creech Grange ; one taken by E.R.B.
on May 25, 1900. Corfe ; one taken by
E.R.B. on June 1, and another by him on
June 3, 1901. Arne ; taken by E.R.B.
YPONOMEUTA, Lt. (HYPONOMEUTA, Z.).
YPONOMEUTA (HYPONOMEUTA) PLUMBELLA, S.V. Corfe ;
one taken by Rev. C. R. Digby on Aug. 13,
1891. Locally common. (E.R.B.) [N.B.
This species was wrongly entered in the
original Purbeck list, the specimen there
recorded by Rev. C. R. Digby being the grey
var. of Y. padella.]
RORELLUS, Hb. Kimmeridge Coast ; one was
taken by E.R.B. near Chapman's Pool, on
72 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
July 26, 1895. In November, 1907, it was
identified by E.R.B. with 4 other British
specimens in his collection as certainly
rorellus, Hb., which species was not then
known to occur in the British Isles.
YPSOLOPHA SYLVELLA, L. Corfe ; one taken on Aug. 13,
1884, and another in 1893, both by E.R.B.
DEPRESSARIA BIPUNCTOSA, C. Corfe ; this obscure and very
little known species has been taken sparingly
on the wing at night, by E.R.B., in 1890 and
following years in one old pasture field, where
knapweed (C. nigra} and a variety of other
such plants are plentiful.
,, SCOPARIELLA, Hein. Corfe ; a few were bred
by E.R.B. in Aug., 1904. It appears to be
not uncommon locally.
,, HYPERICELLA, H. Corfe ; bred from shoots of
Hypericum by E.R.B. in July, 1890.
* GELECHIA, Stn.
GELECHIA CELERELLA, Dg. (true}. Studland ; a few specimens
taken by Rev. C. R. Digby and E.R.B. at
Southaven on Aug. 18, 1890, and a good
many by the latter since.
GELECHIA, Stn. (BRYOTROPHA, Hein.}
GELECHIA (BRYOTROPHA) TETRAGONELLA, Stn. Studland ;
taken in fair numbers, flying in the salt
* NOTE. GELECHIA (ANACAMPSIS) VORTICELLA, Z. Corfe ; three
taken in the Bucknowle rough field amongst Genista tinctoria on
July 13-15, 1891, by E.R.B. Identified as vorticella by Mr. H. T.
Stainton. [N.B. Vorticella was erroneously entered as ligulella in
the First Supplement to the Purbeck List. Proc. D.F.C., X., 209.]
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 73
marsh at Southaven in the evening, by Rev.
C. R. Digby and E.R.B. on June 24-29,
GELECHIA, Stn. (LiTA, Tr.}.
GELECHIA (LiTA) MACULELLA, Ss. (MACULEA, Hw.}. Corfe ;
one taken by E.R.B. on Aug. 22, 1891.
,, ,, SEMIDECANDRELLA, Thrfl. Studland ;
2 specimens (teste E.R.B.) taken near the
shore by Rev. C. R. Digby on July 17, 1888,
have remained unidentified until now, but
they are clearly this species.
,, ,, SALICORNI^E, Hrng. Wych ; two taken in
a salt marsh by E.R.B. on July 31, 1894.
GELECHIA, Stn. (XYSTOPHORA, Hein.).
GELECHIA (XYSTOPHORA) LUTULENTELLA, Z. Corfe ; one
netted on the wing in the evening by E.R.B.
on July 15, 1890, and taken by him abun-
dantly in subsequent years at night in one
PARASIA, D. (METZNERIA).
PARASIA (METZNERIA) METZNERIELLA, Stn. Corfe Castle ;
one was taken by E.R.B. on Aug. 11,
SOPHRONIA PARENTHESELLA, L. Corfe ; one was taken by
E.R.B. on July 10, 1903 (new also to Dorset !),
another on July 15, 1903, and another on
July 16, 1907. "
BUTALIS LAMINELLA, H-S. Swanage ; taken by sweeping
amongst Helianthemum vulgare during bright
sunshine in Punfield Cove in June, 1890, by
E.R.B., and plentifully by him in the same
place in the following years.
74 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
PANCALIA LATREILLELLA, C. Swanage ; one taken on
Ballard Down by E.R.B. on May 30, 1891.
(Identification confirmed by Mr. H. T.
TINAGMA, D. (HELIOZELA, H-S.)
TINAGMA (HELIOZELA) BETUL^E, Stn. Corfe ; one swept from
birch in Norden Plantation by E.R.B. on
June 5, 1901.
ARGYRESTHIA EPHIPPELLA, F. Studland ; two taken by
E.R.B. July 13, 1888.
,, CONJUGELLA, Z. Arne ; several taken by
beating a solitary Mountain Ash tree, by
E.R.B., on May 24, 1905.
,, MENDICELLA, S. (MENDICA, Hw.). Corfe ;
common among blackthorn (E.R.B.). Swan-
age ; taken commonly by E.R.B. near
Swanage in 1890 and since.
,, ARCEUTHINELLA, MERRIN (ARCEUTHINA, Z.}.
Rempstone Heath ; abundant among the
junipers in the one fir plantation where they
grow. Taken by E.R.B. on May 12, 1890.
* NOTE. ACROLEPIA MARCIDELLA, C. Fresh record. Studland ;
a fine specimen was taken on the wing at about 7 p.m. on the sloping
banks overhanging the back shore, by Rev. C. R. Digby on June 15,
1892. This is the third specimen that Mr. Digby has taken there, and
they have all occurred within a few yards of the old bathing house
with a thatched roof. No. 1 was beaten out of the hedge at the top
of the bank ; No. 2 taken sitting on a grass stem under the bathing
hut ; No. 3 netted on the wing within 2 or 3 yards of the hedge at the
top of the bank. (Proc. D.F.C., X., 209, and fig. 3 on plate.)
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 75
ARGYRESTHIA ATMORIELLA, Bnks. Corfe ; taken rather
sparingly among larch in Norden new planta-
tion by E.R.B. in June, 1901, and plentifully
COLEOPHORA DEAURATELLA, Lnig . Swanage ; taken not
uncommonly by sweeping amongst Trifolium
pratense in one small hollow in the clay cliffs
between Swanage and Punfield Cove by
E.R.B. on July 17, 1892, and since.
,, PALLIATELLA, Zk. Corfe ; 3 cases were found
in Norden Copse by E.R.B. in June, 1901, and
2 moths were bred from them.
,, THERINELLA, Stn. Swanage Coast ; a fine
specimen taken by E.R.B. on June 17,
,, ALTICOLELLA, Z. (LAMPROCARPI, Wood).
Stoborough ; a few cases found on seedheads
of Juncus articulatus by E.R.B. on Dec. 29,
1891. Corfe ; cases found on Middlebere
heath on Feb. 12, 1891, by E.R.B.
,, GLAUCICOLELLA, Wood. Studland ; larvae
found on seedheads of Juncus bulbosus (or
Gerardi ?) on " the plain " beyond Littlesea
by Rev. C. R. Digby 011 Feb. 18, 1892. They
were perfectly unmistakeable on account of
the extreme minuteness of some of the cases.
Wych ; larvae not uncommon on Juncus
bulbosus (or Gerardi ?) in April, 1892.
NOTE. GRACILLARIA PHASIANIPENNELLA, var. QUADRUPLELLA, Z.
Studland ; bred with the type from Rumex. The species, but not the
variety, has been already recorded in the Purbeck list. (Proc. D.F.C.
76 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PUEBECK.
COLEOPHORA APICELLA, Stn. (CACUMINATELLA, j%.) Coife ;
larvae found on seeds of Stellaria graminea in
hedgerows by E.R.B. in the beginning of
August, 1891. Studland ; larvae found by
E.R.B. on Aug. 15, 1891.
BATRACHEDRA PINICOLELLA, Z. Rempstone ; 2 taken
amongst Scotch fir in Bushey Heath planta-
tion by E.R.B. on July 7, 1890.
LAVERNA PHRAGMITELLA, Ben., Stn. Corfe ; bred in
abundance from old seedheads of Typha
latifolia by E.R.B. in July, 1900.
DECORELLA, Ss. Corfe ; one taken in Norden
House by E.R.B. on Sept. 11, 1900.
ASYCHNA MODESTELLA, D. Langton Matravers ; 2 taken
in Crack Lane by Rev. C. R. Digby on May
29,1891. Corfe; locally abundant. (E.R.B.)
,, ^ERATELLA, Z. Swanage Coast ; one was taken
by sweeping, by E.R.B. on July 8, 1897.
Corfe ; one was taken, by sweeping, by
E.R.B. on Aug. 5, 1901.
STEPHEN si A BRUNNICHELLA, L. Church Knowle (near
Corfe) ; undoubted traces of the work of the
larvae in leaves of Clinopodium vulgare found
rather commonly in Cocknowle Lane by
* CHAULIODUS ILLIGERELLA, H. Corfe ; one taken on the wing at
dusk in the Rectory Copse by E.R.B. on June 27, 1892. Not new to
Purbeck List, but a confirmation of the only previous record, viz.,
one specimen at Studland by Mr. C. W. Dale on Aug. 11, 1879.
(Recorded in the 1st Supplement ; Proc. D.F.C., X., 211.)
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 77
E.R.B. in Sept., 1892, but it was too late to
find either larvae or pupae. It seems confined
to the chalk, as I have frequently searched
for it on other soils in Purbeck, but always
ELACHISTA GLEICHENELLA, F. Corfe ; taken in " Scotland "
rough field by E.R.B. in June, 1890.
,, CINEREOPUNCTELLA, Hw. Winspit (near Worth) ;
taken on June 5, 1889. (E.R.B.)
,, SUBNIGRELLA, Dg. Corfe ; a few specimens
taken by E.R.B. 1887-1893. Worth; one
taken in 1889 by E.R.B. Its food plant,
Bromus erectus, is rare in Purbeck.
* LlTHOCOLLETIS, Z.
LITHOCOLLETIS SORBI, Frey. Corfe ; bred plentifully from
mines in the under side of leaves of Mountain
Ash (Sorbus aucuparia) by E.R.B. in 1896.
(N.B. The imago emerges through the upper
surface of the leaf, as pointed out by
,, TORMINELLA, Frr. (MESPiLELLA, H.}. Corfe ;
bred from mines on the underside of leaves of
Mountain Ash (Sorbus aucuparia) by E.R.B.
in 1890. Studland ; bred from quince
(Cydonia vulgaris) by Rev. C. R. Digby in
1884 and 1885.
* LITHOCOLLETIS TRIGUTTELLA, Stn. Corfe. From a careful study
of the unique specimen in the Douglas collection, E.R.B. had made a
note in the spring of 1892 that it was almost certainly a queer variety
of Lith. faginella. Three weeks later he looked through the long
series of faginella bred by him April 27 May 12, 1891, and found a
genii ine triguttetta among them, thus proving that his supposition was
correct. Douglas' specimen is a male, the Corfe one a female.
78 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
LITHOCOLLETIS HEEGERiELLA, Z. Corfe ; on oak (E.R.B.).
,, OXYACANTH.E, Frey. Corfe; mines abundant
on hawthorn, and probably throughout
Purbeck. Also bred sparingly from mines
on Pyrus aucuparia collected by E.R.B.
ACERIFOLIELLA, Z. Corfe ; bred from Maple.
(E.R.B.) Ulwell ; (Rev. C. R. Digby).
Creech ; (E.R.B.)
,, PYRIVORELLA, Bnks. Corfe ; bred abund-
antly from cultivated pear trees of various
kinds in the Rectory Gardens, and also
plentifully from Pyrus mains by E.R.B. ;
also sparingly from Pyrus aucuparia by E.R.B.
OPOSTEGA CREPUSCULELLA, Fiscli. Corfe ; one taken by
E.R.B. on July 11, 1902 ; two more by him
on July 25, 1905, and a few others since.
BUCCULATRIX CRAT./EGIFOLIELLA, D. (CRATJEGI, Z., Stn.).
Swanage ; taken by E.R.B. in June, 1890.
,, CRISTATELLA, Fisch. Corfe ; 2 taken in
" Scotland " rough field on June 11, 1890, by
Mr. N. M. Richardson, and a few subsequently
in the same spot by E.R.B.
NEPTICULA PERPYGM^EELLA, Db. (PYGMJEELLA, Hw., Stn.)
Corfe ; bred commonly from hawthorn by
E.R.B. in 1890 and subsequently.
,, POMELLA, Va. Corfe ; larva common on apple
,, FULGENS, Stn. Corfe ; empty mines of this
species (which are quite as easily distinguish-
able from N. tityrella as the moths) were
LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK. 79
found in beech in Corfe Rectory garden by
E.R.B. in Oct., 1898.
NEPTICULA ACETOSELLA, Merrin (ACETOSJE, Stn.) Corfe ;
larvae pretty common (at the E. end of North-
castle Hill) in leaves of Eumex acetosella
growing among the furze bushes. First
found by Rev. C. R. Digby on Aug. 24, 1893,
and mines both tenanted and empty were
then collected by him and E.R.B. Also
locally common on the S.E. slope of the hill
on which Corfe Castle stands. (E.R.B.,
1895.) Creech ; locally common on the hill
above Creech Grange. (E.R.B.)
CENTIFOLIELLA, Z., Stn. Studland ; bred May,
1879, from larvae found in Rosa spinosissima,
in the Manor House pony fields by Rev. C. R.
Digby in the autumn of 1878. Not satisfac-
torily determined till 1892.
FRAGARIELLA, Hey. (GEi, W k.) Corfe ; bred
from bramble in Feb., 1890. (E.R.B.)
,, CONFUSELLA, Wlsm. Corfe ; a mine found by
E.R.B. in birch was identified in Sep."., 1893,
by Dr. J. H. Wood as certainly his then
unnamed species, since described as con-
NOTE. The following occurs in Mr. Bankes' notes
" Nepticula eurema, Drt. Swanage Coast (Punfield) ; taken plenti-
fully in 1899 by sweeping amongst Lotus corniculatus.
But as I cannot discover that any description of a Nepticula under
this name has been published, and the circumstances strongly suggest
cryptella, I assume that it was that species or a variety of it, perhaps
the variety with pale opposite spots on the forewing alluded to under
the record of Nepticula cryptella in the first Purbeck List, Proc. D.F.C.,
VI., 175, which may have been mistakenly thought at one time to be a
distinct species, and for which this name may have been suggested.
(N. M. Richardson.)
80 LEPIDOPTERA OF THE ISLE OF PURBECK.
NEPTICULA FLETCHERI, Tutl. Corfe ; bred plentifully, in
company with N. anomalella, from larvae in
leaves of the garden rose growing up the E.
front of Corfe Rectory House. (E.R.B.)
TRIFURCULA IMMUNDELLA, Z. Rempstone Heath ; taken
amongst broom by E.R.B. Aug. 19-31, 1889.
Corfe ; plentiful amongst broom.
PALLIDELLA, Z. Corfe ; taken sparingly
amongst Genista tinctoria by E.R.B., Sept.
5-18, 1889, and plentifully in the following
year. (Only four specimens had been pre-
viously taken in Britain, 2 in Lancashire,
and 2 in Hertfordshire.)
PULVEROSELLA, Stn. Corfe ; some empty
mines of this species were found on wild
apple by E.R.B., July 23, 1897.
PTEROPHORUS ISODACTYLUS, Z. Stoborough water meadows ;
4 or 5 larvae found in stems of Senecio aquaticus
by E.R.B. on August 2, 1890.
GALACTODACTYLUS, H. Creech Grange ; bred
from larvae found on burdock by E.R.B. in
the "big wood" on June 12, 1891. Corfe;
occurs sparingly in one small spot in a wood.
Interim Hepart on tijc
H. Colley March, M.D., F.S.A., Chairman.
John E. Acland, F.S.A., Hon. Sec.
W. M. Barnes
J. G. N. Clift
J. M. Falkner
R. H. Forster
* J. C. Mansel-Pleydell
H. B. Middleton
* H. Pentin
Alfred Pope, F.S.A.
C. S. Prideaux
W. de C. Prideaux
* N. M. Richardson
C. W. Whistler
Executive Body, Dorset Field Club.
>HE Report which follows has been prepared by
Mr. H. St. George Gray, who has once more
directed the investigations for the Committee,
the season's work having lasted from 26th Aug.
to 18th Sept., 1912.
The many interesting features which were
brought to light are fully described and illus-
trated in the following pages, and all tend to
confirm the views previously expressed as to
the history of the site, and the character of the work
executed at different periods.
82 EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY EINGS.
The thanks of the Committee are especially due to Mr. C.
S. Prideaux for the constant help rendered to Mr. Gray, and
for the hospitality accorded to him during his visit. We
should also mention Major Willcock and Mr. Sebastian Evans,
who almost daily gave assistance on the ground. As in
former years, materials and appliances were lent by the
Town Council of Dorchester, Messrs. Lott and Walne, Mr.
Foot, Mr. Slade, and Mr. Feacey, to all of whom we tender
The total expenditure for the year came to 84 6s. 4d., and
the receipts to 100 14s. 7d., but charges incidental to the
production of this Report have still to be met.
Signed on behalf of the Committee,
H. COLLEY MARCH,
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS. 83
ON THE EXCAVATIONS OF 1912.
By H. ST. GEORGE GRAY.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES ACCOMPANYING THIS
PLATE I. Sketch-plan of Maumbury Rings, similar to that given
in the Third Interim Report, 1910, the position of the 1912 excavations
having been added. It shows the relative position of the cuttings
made in 1908, 1909, 1910, and 1912, but the scale is too small to
attempt to show structural details. This plan differs, however, from
the previous one in indicating the position of the prehistoric shafts so
far discovered, and it is seen that they follow the curve of the great
embankment at the foot of the interior slope.
PLATE II., FIG. A. Cutting XXVII., outside the N.N.E. Entrance,
September 4th, 1912. Photograph taken from the W.N.W. margin
of a grave containing a human skeleton, the knees of which are drawn
up. The interment was at a minimum depth of 2'4ft. below the
surface of the turf. To the east a smaller excavation in the solid chalk
was found, connected with the grave proper, but divided by a slight
ridge of chalk. At the bottom of the smaller hole a few iron nails and
a dark brown earthenware pot, of Romano-British type, were dis-
covered. The pot (fig. 1 in text) is shown in this photograph in the
exact position in which it was uncovered, at a distance of 3'2ft. from
the top of the skull.
PLATE II., FIG. B. Cutting XXI., Shaft X., September 13th, 1912.
Part of the back of the skull of a red-deer with antlers attached ;
photographed in the position discovered in the filling of Shaft X,, at a
depth of 14'5ft. below the turf over the arena. The skull was found
tight against the wall of the shaft. One of the antlers (max. length
84 EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.
3ft. 2ins.) was complete, having brow, bez, and trez tines, and four
points on top. A broken antler pick is seen at the bottom of the
PLATE III. Cutting XXI., W.N.W. side of the arena, September
13th, 1912. Photograph giving a general view of this large cutting
taken from the N.W. terrace, looking S.W. ; in the distance the S.W.
embankment, and on the extreme left the southern entrance. The
solid chalk wall covers a large part of the right-hand side of the photo-
graph, above which the material forming the XVII. Century terrace
is seen. Following the line of the eastern margin of the cutting and
running nearly parallel to it, the curved edge of the arena is well
defined ; it is bounded by the " inner trench," in which the position
of the post-holes is indicated by wooden pegs. The line of the
" outer trench " is represented by the post-holes seen in the middle
of the foreground. Owing to the presence of a series of prehistoric
shafts, rammed chalk had to be used by the Romans very considerably
in this position. The levelling-rod stands on rammed chalk flooring,
which, on being removed, revealed Shaft VIII. ; the mouths of other
shafts are seen in the photograph.
PLATE IV. Cutting XXI., Shafts VIII., IX., and X., September
18th, 1912. Photograph taken from the N.N.E. showing some of the
shafts excavated in the solid chalk in prehistoric times and re-excavated
recently to reveal their form, depth, and contents. At the top of the
photograph the margin of Shaft VIII. can be traced ; this was not
re-excavated. Behind the top of the ladder the mouth of Shaft IX.
is seen ; this was entirely cleared out, its depth being 28'oft. below
the surface of the turf over the arena. The 25-rung ladder stands on
the bottom of Shaft X. (depth 25'5ft, ) ; this pit had a double bottom
divided by a little chalk ridge 9ins. high. In the immediate foreground
comes Shaft XI., the S. half of which was re-excavated to the bottom
PLATE V. Cutting XXI., Shafts IX., X., and XI., September 18th,
1912. Photograph taken from the S.S.W. from the slope of the
terrace, showing Shaft XI. in process of re-excavation. Shaft IX.,
in the foreground, was cleared out and filled up again before this
photograph was taken. The 25-rung ladder rests on the bottom of
Shaft X. Dark seams of mould or decayed vegetable matter are seen
in the chalk rubble filling of Shaft XI. Very narrow ridges of chalk
are seen to divide Shafts IX. and X., and Shafts X. and XI. On the
right-hand side the edge of the western curve of the solid chalk
arena-floor is seen ; Roman remains were found on it.
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS. 85
I. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.
Our knowledge of Roman amphitheatres in Britain has
been at a standstill from the time of the close of the excava-
tions at Maumbury Rings in 1910 till the renewal of the
work at Dorchester in August, 1912. It was anticipated
that the exploration of the amphitheatre known as " King
Arthur's Round Table " at Caerleon would be continued in
1912, but it has not been found practicable. There is, how-
ever, at the present time a scheme before the public to raise
500 to purchase the site of this amphitheatre, to excavate it,
and to put the remains in such a state of repair as to enable
them to withstand the weather. When completed it is
possible that the monument may be handed over to the
National Trust. Comparative notes on the Maumbury and
Caerleon amphitheatres were given in my third Report, and
Mr. John Ward, F.S.A., has since that time put a few notes
The oval structure at Caerwent has not been proved to
be an amphitheatre,! and recent excavations there have
revealed nothing of a definite character. There is said to be
a circular wall, some 130 feet in diameter, enclosing an
octagon, and inside the latter some stonework not yet
The director of the Maumbury excavations, as in past
years, has received valuable support from the members of
the sub-Committee, and the general organisation of the
investigations was all that could be desired. Dr. H. Colley
March, F.S.A., Captain J. E. Acland, F.S.A., and Mr. W.
de C. Prideaux were frequently on the ground ; and Mr.
Chas. S. Prideaux, without whom the work could not have
been carried on with any degree of comfort, showed all his
* Archaeol. Journ., LXIX. (1912), 184, 193, 203.
t Archaeol. Journ., LXIX. (1912), 198.
J It is thought that the structure may prove to be some sort of
86 EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.
enthusiasm and acumen of former years ; his camping
arrangements, with caravan and tents, were even on a more
lavish scale than in 1910. The kind assistance of Major S.
Willcock and Mr. Sebastian Evans cannot be too warmly
acknowledged. As previously, the director has held himself
responsible for the recording of the work, the preparation of
all plans, sectional drawings and photographs,* as well as
the care and repair of the relics discovered. Help in the
matter of identifying specimens has been kindly rendered
by Mr. E. T. Newton, F.R.S., Mr. Clement Reid, F.R.S., and
Mr. W. Denison. Roebuck, F.L.S.
In conjunction with this, the Fourth Interim Report,
readers are recommended to peruse the previously published
papers on the subject, to enable them to interpret the full
significance of some of the details of structural interest.
The sketch-plan (Plate I.) is intended merely to show the
general outline of Maumbury Rings and the relative position
of the twenty-nine cuttings already made. The detailed
plans, sectional diagrams, and contoured map (it should be
repeated in this paper) are reserved for a fuller Report on
During this season the investigation of the outer part of
the northern entrance was completed, finding the Civil War
trench again and the limit of the chalk cut to form a flat
roadway leading into the arena. The first cutting (No. XXII.)
made, revealed quite a new structural feature, viz., a deep
trench of V-shaped section which extended first in a N.W.
direction, and afterwards turned almost due south, terminat-
ing at the foot of the great embankment not many yards
westward of the western margin of the entrance. In pursuing
this investigation another human skeleton, the fifth found
in these excavations, was discovered in this instance in a
shallow grave hewn in the chalk, and associated with these
* Subscribers may see the full series of photographs (1908-1910, and
1912) on applying at the Dorset County Museum.
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS. 87
bones of a powerfully-built and tall man was a small and
complete earthenware vessel, assigned to the Romano-
Within the Rings, a very large cutting (No. XXI.), measur-
ing some 60ft. by 26ft., was made on the N.W. side of the
arena in continuation of Cutting XX. of 1910, where a large
area deeply recessed into the solid chalk wall (described in
the Third Interim Report) was discovered. In this excava-
tion we had to deal with a period covering some 4,000 years,
or at least from Neolithic times down to the Civil Wars of
Charles I. The northern termination of this western recess
and platform was found ; and it was observed that the solid
chalk wall further north sloped considerably, and was more-
over covered to a large extent with rammed chalk. This
afforded indication of the existence of another series of
prehistoric shafts below the rammed chalk of the Roman
work. Undoubtedly the Romans had great difficulties to
contend with when forming their amphitheatre, or adapting
the site to their requirements. In this particular cutting,
only a small part of the western curve of the arena floor was
found to be of solid chalk, all the other Roman work over
the position of several prehistoric shafts being of rammed
chalk ; so that the greatest care had to be exercised in
following the details of construction.
It is worthy of note that the inner curve of the earthwork
follows the line of these shafts, the relative position of which
is given in the Plan (Plate I.) ; and it may prove to be an
important factor in determining the age of the great embank-
ment. The existence of at least eleven of these shafts is now
known, and a large proportion of our time this season has
been occupied in endeavouring to ascertain their true
significance. Their contents have been of no little interest,
but their real purpose is not positively proved, although it is
probable that in sinking them an attempt was made to obtain
good flint suitable for the manufacture of small or delicate
implements. Their depth was fairly uniform. Measured
from the present turf -level covering the arena, the depths of
88 EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.
the five shafts re-excavated were 24-5, 25'5, 28, 28*5, and
30 feet respectively.
One of the chief reasons for making this large cutting
(No. XXI.) was to complete the excavation of the N.W.
quarter of the margin of the arena from the transverse axis
to the northern entrance, and to trace the arena wall con-
tinuously, the inner and outer trenches, and the post-holes
in which the vertical supports for the barriers formerly stood.
This has been satisfactorily accomplished.
The most important things which remain to be done
are : The excavation of the eastern recess and platform
(on the line of the transverse axis), if such exist ; the tracing
of the arena wall and its accompanying features from the
middle of the eastern side to Cutting II. Extension near the
northern entrance ; and the examination of the great embank-
ment down to the ancient turf line. It is proposed to cut a
section through half the bank from the inner side in one
position, and half from the outer side in quite a different
place ; in this way there will be no permanent disfigurement
to the present contour of the earthwork, and the archaeological
evidence derivable thereby should be as valuable by this
means as by making a single cutting straight through the
great bank. It is a question, too, if the front (N. side) of the
so-called " den " should not be examined. Time did not
permit of completing the work in this position in 1909.
II. EXCAVATIONS OUTSIDE THE NORTHERN ENTRANCE,
CUTTINGS XXII., XXVI., XXVIII., AND XXIX., SEE
PLAN, PLATE I.
(See Cuttings XVII. and XIX., Report, 1910.)
Cutting XXII. in the first instance measured 36ft. by
6ft., and was made at right angles to the long axis of Maum-
bury. In digging Cutting XVII. (1910) the N. limit of the
floor of the ancient entrance was not reached ; it was found
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS. 89
to be rising slightly towards the N., whereas the floor of the
" Civil War trench " fell in the same direction (see Plate II.,
Report, 1910). The object in digging Cutting XXII., there-
fore, was to ascertain whether the solid chalk entrance
extended further towards the town. In Cutting XVII. the
W. chalk wall was revealed in diminished proportions, and
this year it was found to disappear altogether beyond Cutting
XXII. Moreover, the rise in the chalk roadway ceased, and
proof was afforded that the N. termination of the Roman
entrance was 3'8ft. higher than the solid arena at its N.
margin. Close to the floor a piece of ornamented Samian
pottery (No. 248) was uncovered, and a coin of Constantine I.
(Vrbs Roma) was found in fi]ling-in.
It was found also that the Civil War trench on the east
side of this cutting was still falling northwards, the difference
in the level of the bottom of the trench and the Roman floor
being about 2'3ft. This trench was 7'7ft. wide at the Roman
level, and 5 - 7ft. at the bottom. In the lower half of the
filling were found XVII. Century shards, an iron key-shaped
object (Fig. 2), and a French counter with AVE as the only
legend, repeated (circa 1550).
In Cutting XXIV. (7ft. by 3ft.), further N.N.E., the W.
edge of the C.W. trench w T as again struck ; also in Cutting
XXV. (10ft. by 4ft.) close to the wall of the Constabulary
Station, where it was 4'5ft. deep below the present surface.
In it were found a small bronze buckle and some XVII.
Century shards. Another reason for digging here was
because archaeological remains were discovered when the
wall was being built in 1893, and the trench was also disclosed
then.* The C.W. trench was again met with in a garden
* Dorset Album, Vol. I., part 2, p. 27b. " April, 1893 ; five graves
shown as having clean straight cut sides, 3ft. or 4ft. deep, running in a
line 70ft. to 180ft. measured from Weymouth Road fence. In the
graves two Roman coins, a small Roman cup and a two-handled cup
(R68 and R139), a rapier, iron bands, coffin nails, &c." These
antiquities are in the Dorset County Museum.
90 EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.
behind the Police Station late in 1910, and its position was
noted by Mr. C. S. Prideaux.
In digging Cutting XXII. an entirely new structural
feature was found, viz., a large ditch (called the New Ditch) of
V-shaped section extending obliquely across the W. half of
the cutting. Its E. termination, abrupt and clean cut, was
found to be about 6ft. short of the W. margin of the C.W.
trench. Here its average dimensions at the Roman floor
level were, width at top 7ft., depth 3' 7ft. In the filling
of the ditch a number of shards of pottery, some glazed,
were found, all, except two small Romano-British frag-
ments, dating between Norman times and the XVII.
Cutting XXIII., lift, by 4ft., was dug with the intention of
tracing the course of the new ditch, which was found to be
clearly defined, and its N. margin was also traced between
this cutting and Cutting XXII. In the filling at a depth of
2'3ft. was found the false spout of some sort of glazed puzzle-
jug (No. 336), with slits and perforations, date circa 1650.
With the same object in view the E. end of Cutting XXVII.
was dug, but the ditch was not found to extend so far
Cutting XXVI., 16'8ft. long, 4 - 7ft. max. width, was also
dug to follow the New Ditch, and it soon became evident
that it made an abrupt turn southwards at the N. end of the
cutting (see Plan). The full width of the ditch was not
exposed here, but the bottom was laid bare (average width
l'6ft.). On the outer side, on the top of the solid chalk profile
of the ditch, a semicircular recess was cleared out, measuring
2Jft. in length. Glazed shards were again found here, and
close to the bottom a modern tea-spoon (No. 261) of German
silver, plated, circa 1870. The shape of the spoon came into
use at the end of the XVIII. Century, but this thin form is of
much more recent date.
In seeking the termination of the ditch, Cutting XXVIII.,
a small excavation, 6ft. by 5'5ft., was made further south.
Here a quantity of ox bones was found within 3ft. of the
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS. 91
surface ; and at 6ft. an iron spike-nail (No. 277), length
7|ins., having a rather modern appearance.
The last excavation made in this connection was Cutting
XXIX., irregular in outline, its N.N.E. margin being only
a few feet from Cutting XXVIII. Here we found the termina-
tion of the New Ditch a foot or two under the exterior slope
of the great embankment (see Plan). The bottom, having
an increased average width of 2ft., was reached 6ft. below the
surface. At the end of the ditch and at the W.S.W. corner
of the cutting, a trench (width 3ft. at bottom) was found to
join the larger ditch at a higher level, and it appeared to
extend in a W. direction. Here our investigations had to cease.
Scattered on the bottom of Cutting XXIX. was found the
greater part of a thin glazed earthenware vessel (No. 295),
ornamented with horizontal ribbings and a wave pattern.
It is a kind of albarello, height 5Jins., of a form often seen in
Lambeth delft. It is referable to the middle of the XVII.
Century. The iron harness-ring (No. 304) found on the
bottom of the side trench has a modern appearance.
General Description of the New Ditch. This ditch, measured
along the middle, was about 95ft. in length. Beginning in
Cutting XXII. just outside the N. entrance, it extended in a
N.N.W. direction, and after turning to the W.N.W. for a
short distance it made, on approaching Cutting XXVI., an
abrupt turn towards the S., terminating against the great
embankment. It was about 9'5ft. wide at the turf level. It
was quite evident that it had not been allowed to silt up, but
was intentionally filled, and apparently the material was
thrown in from the inner side.
Whatever its purpose, it could never have been used for
drainage, as the relative levels of the bottom show. Between
the E. end of Cutting XXII. (see Plan) and its W. end there is
a fall of 0-58ft., and from the latter point to Cutting XXIII.
a fall of only O'OSft. Then, between Cutting XXIII. and
the N. end of Cutting XXVI. there is a rise of 0'34ft., and in
the length of the latter cutting a rise of 1ft. ; in Cutting
XXIX. the bottom was at a still higher level. Thus it is seen
92 EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.
that the bottom of the New Ditch at its angle was about Gins,
deeper than the E. termination and about 21ins. deeper than
the other end against the embankment.
The relics discovered were for the most part XVII. Century.
Of course it is quite possible that the modern tea-spoon had
worked down to the depth of 5 -7ft. by means of burrowing
animals ; on the other hand if it were thrown in with the
filling it would indicate that the ditch was still open circa
1870 ! The fact that one or two Romano-British shards
were found deep is of no importance, as they are frequently
found mixed with the soil in the vicinity of a Roman station.
The ditch can in all probability be dated by the albarello
found on the bottom, viz., about the middle of the XVII.
Century ; and the great majority of the shards, &c., point
to that period. The ditch very likely was hurriedly dug and
its use of short duration, and it is quite probable that it was
refilled very soon after its original excavation. The solid
chalk sides had not the appearance of long exposure to
This ditch may have served as a protection against a sudden
attack of Royalists from the direction of the Weymouth
Road, when the Parliamentary troops held Maumbury
during the Civil Wars. The excavated material may perhaps
have been deposited on the inner side to form a stockade and
a bank for musketeers to lie down upon when defending the
entrance from the enemy's attack.*
III. HUMAN INTERMENT IN CUTTING XXVII.
This was the most westerly cutting made outside the N.
entrance (see Plan). It was begun with the intention of
* Major Phillips, R.E., in " Field Fortification," says, " It is
generally desirable to close or protect a ' gorge ' of open works with
some obstacle, as a guard against surprise. It may be of any nature,
provided it keeps an enemy out of the work."
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBTJRY RINGS. 93
tracing the New Ditch, and in making this attempt Major
Willcock turned up a human lower jaw. The cutting was
extended to 14ft. by 4ft. to afford room for further investiga-
Eventually the complete skeleton of a powerfully-built
man, fully adult, was uncovered in a grave of irregular form
hewn in the solid chalk, the natural surface of which was
l'5ft. below the turf (see Plate II.). The grave proper was
found to be 5 '2ft. in length at the bottom ; to the east was an
oblong cavity measuring 3 '4ft. by 2 -8ft. at the top, being a
little smaller at the bottom, which was reached at a depth
of 3 - 15ft. beneath the surface. The two parts of the grave
were divided by a ridge of chalk of slight relief and about
1ft. wide, the skull coming very near the west margin of the
ridge ; the top of the cranium was only 2 -4ft. below the
surface. The grave proper was 2- 15ft. wide at the top, and
1'Oft. at the bottom. Thus it is seen that the body was
pushed into a narrow grave, head to E., feet to W. The
right foot pressed against the solid end ; both legs were
drawn up at the knees. The head rested on its left side on
the bottom of the grave, facing S.S.W. The body touched
the sides of the grave at four points, viz., the left knee, right
hip, right elbow, and left hand. The length of the skeleton
measured in its cramped position, from the skull to the
toes, was 5'5ft. Mixed with the soil and rubble, filling the
grave, were a few flint flakes.
An interesting discovery was made at the bottom of the
oblong cavity to the east of the skull and at a distance of
3'2ft. from it, viz., a complete globular vessel, No. 264 (Fig.
1), of dark brown pottery of a form and quality typical of the
Romano -British period, and of similar character to the pot
(No. 205) found in some fifty fragments (but now restored)
close to the right hand of the contracted human skeleton
met with in Cutting XVIII. in the N. entrance (see Report,
1910). The vase (No. 264) was found standing on its base,
as seen in Plate II. ; height 4ins., max. diam. nearly 4ins.
It is not lathe-turned ; the external surface is burnished at
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.
top and bottom, but
the band encircling the
pot is rougher and is or-
namented by burnished
oblique lines. Within
a foot of the vessel and
on its N. side several
flat-headed iron nails
(No.' 265), originally
about 2Jins. long, were
found within a small
area (Plate II.). Wood,
resembling oak, still
adheres to them.
The skull may be
described as medium -
round, being rounder
than that of the R.B.
skeleton found in Cut-
ting XVIII. The hori-
FIG. 1. Earthenware Pot of the
Romano-British period, found in
association with the human skeleton
in Cutting XXVII.,
MAUMBURY RINGS, 1912.
(From a Drawing by Mr. E. Sprankling.)
zontal circumference of
the skulls is the same. The occipital protuberance is abnor-
mally developed ; the internal ridge at this point is also very
prominent the thickness of the skull here being 20 -5mm.
The skull (Cutting XXVII.) has a remarkably powerful
lower jaw with square chin and wide angle, the bigonial
breadth being 113mm. (the average of eight lower jaws of
the Romano-British period found by Pitt-Rivers in Wor
Barrow being 97mm.). The ridges for the attachment of
muscles are enormously developed, and the maximum thick-
ness of the jaw is 18 -5mm.
The bones are very massive and thick, and the muscular
attachments well developed. The thighs are deeply arched
and have very pronounced longitudinal ridges. The
estimated stature, calculated from femora plus tibiae, is
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS. 95
IV. CUTTING XXI.
ROMAN AND LATER (PLATE III.).
Cutting XXI. was the largest excavation made during
the four seasons' work, its margins, though irregular, measur-
ing some 60ft. by 26ft. During the work three main objects
were kept in view, viz. (a) the examination of the remaining
portion of the platform and enclosure recessed into the solid
chalk wall ; (b) the completion of the examination of the
structural details in the N.W. quarter of the arena, so that
the former excavations in Cuttings X. and XX. might be
connected ; and (c) observations having reference to the
position of prehistoric shafts, if any existed, between those
in Cutting XX. (1910) and Shafts I. (1908) and IV. (1910)
further round the curve to the N.E. Here we have to deal
with (a) and (b).
The N.E. termination of the enclosure was reached much
nearer to Cutting XX. than was anticipated. All through
the new cutting the material thrown up during the Civil
Wars to form a terrace was removed, and the face left standing
on the N.W. showed as clearly as any diagram could the
old turf line which formerly represented the contour of the
lower part of the great embankment between Roman times
and the XVII. Century (Plate III.). Below this, again, was
more rubble, apparently attributable to the Roman period,
which covered another old turf line, less well defined, just
above what appeared to be the natural level of the chalk.
But on coming a little further eastward from the N.W. margin
of the cutting, it was found that the solid chalk had been
worked down to a considerable slope, and it was evident that
this w r as prehistoric work, suggesting the existence of the
mouths of the shafts at no great distance below (Plates III.
For the present, however, we must return to later times.
In the material forming the Civil War terrace XVII. Century
shards were found and three leaden bullets ; also a Nuremberg
96 EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.
counter, circa 1550 (No. 266), the obverse inscribed " Hans
Schulter," the reverse inscription blundered. On the old turf
line below the terrace material the following were found :
A small metal pin (No. 259), an iron knife (No. 257), and a
well-worn bronze bell, or crotal (No. 256), of a form known
to date from Elizabethan times. Of greater interest was
the Harrington farthing (No. 258) of Charles I. (the earlier
issue) found in the same position, namely, the level at which
the threepence of Elizabeth, 1564 (No. 192), was discovered
Mixed with the rubble towards the base of the terrace
was found a ring-bead (No. 273) of lemon-coloured glass
partly encompassed by the remains of a bronze link for
suspension (Fig. 2). As it is of Late-Celtic character it was
evidently not in its original position. The type is not
uncommon in the Lake- villages of Somerset. Two large
and six small ring-beads of light amber-coloured glass (one
is of lemon shade) were found at Belbury Camp.*
The next stage in the operations was to clear the N.N.E.
end of the recess and platform, which, judging from the relics
found in 1910, were cut out of the solid chalk during the
Roman period ; and it will be interesting to know if a similar
enclosure exists below the terrace on the opposite, or E.S.E.,
side of the arena. It was to be regretted that the whole of
this area on the W. could not be excavated at one and the
same time (Plate IV., 1910 Report). But the drawings
clearly show that the enclosure, as far as the cut chalk is
concerned, was not rectangular but an irregular oblong ;
neither was it centrally placed when considered in connection
with the central transverse axis of Maumbury. The enclosure
was bounded by chalk walls, except on the side open to the
arena, and at both ends there were trenches dug to receive
large vertical wooden posts. Measured at the foot of the
* Exhibited in the Dorset County Museum ; Archaeologia, XL VIII.,
PL vi., 10.
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS. 97
walling the platform was 16ft. long, including the trenches
(2ft. each). It is less easy to give its original width, the
solid margin on the E. being interfered with owing to the
position of Shafts VII. and VIII., but the maximum width
of the solid part remaining is lift.
At, and just beyond, the N.E. corner of the platform, but
at a higher level, a group of eight stones was uncovered
(depth l'6ft. below the turf line under the terrace material).
They were contained in an area 4ft. by 2- 8ft. The most
easterly slab bore signs of fire, and the charred wood collected
proved to be hazel. Another scattered group of five stones
was revealed at the N.E. end of the cutting on the Roman
Along the E.S.E. margin of the cutting the solid arena-
floor was reached at a depth of 3 55ft. and at a level about
1ft. lower than the platform of the recess (Plates III. and V.).
This floor w 7 as bounded by the inner trench, was somew r hat
complicated in design, and had the ledge, or step, on the
inner side more or less slightly recessed at irregular intervals
averaging 6ft., similar to features met with in Cutting XX.
Near the margin of the inner trench a basin-shaped hole
was discovered in the arena-floor, 14 Jin. by 12-|in., and
6Jins. deep ; round the sides there were about twenty well-
defined pick-marks. (A small white patch marks the spot
in Plate III.) Near the hole a narrow seam of flint projected
(sometimes 2in.) above the level of the floor.
On the floor and close to the hole an uninscribed British
coin of bronze (No. 269) was found of a degraded type and
of a kind common in Dorset (Fig. 2). Some years ago these
coins were supposed to belong to about the end of the first
century B.C. ; in 1897 they were found at Rushmore (S.
Wilts) in association with coins of Claudius I., A.D. 41 54 ; *
but from recent discoveries at Hengistbury Head in Hants
it is now known that they were current till about A.D.
* Pitt-Rivers' " Excavations," IV., Plate 317.
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.
Near the British coin, on the floor, a much distorted bronze
armlet (No. 270) of the " slip-knot " variety was found
(Fig. 2). The method of manufacture rendered it possible
FIG. 2. RELICS FOUND AT MAUMBURY RINGS, 1912.
249. Iron Key-shaped Object, Cutting XXII. 269. Uninscribed
British Coin. 270. Bronze Armlet, distorted, of the " slip-knot "
variety. 273. Lemon -coloured Glass Bead (scale f). 288. Flint
Implement. 300. Ornamented Pot-cover. 335. Iron Arrowhead.
All, with the exception of No. 249, were found in Cutting XXI.
(From Drawings by Mr. E. SpranUing .}
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS. 99
to pass the armlet over a hand, however large, the spring of
the ornament exerting a pressure on the arm which would
keep it in place. These armlets have not infrequently been
found in England, including, in the S.W., Woodcuts (N.
Dorset) and Puckington (Somerset). A bronze leglet of the
same type was found in 1896 in Albert Road, Dorchester,
encircling the thigh-bone of a human skeleton.*
On the same part of the arena floor, or near it, the following
remains of the Roman period were found : 263, piece of a
Kimmeridge shale armlet and an iron nail ; 267, small disc
of stone, probably a counter ; 271, rim piece of pottery with
burnished lattice pattern ; and 272, piece of green glass
Owing to the earlier mutilation of the solid chalk, the
whole of the trench in this cutting, in which wooden posts
had been placed to support the outer barrier, and the greater
part of the inner trench which followed the true margin of
the arena, had been formed in rammed and puddled chalk,
and in some places they were filled with a dark, rich mould.
Post-holes were clearly defined in these trenches, those in
the outer trench averaging 3ft., and those in the inner trench
4ft., apart (Plate III.). Most of these post-holes were
Dealing with so much rammed chalk it was by no means
easy to trace the true surface of the Roman work, but when
the clue was once obtained the features were carefully exposed.
Repairs had evidently been frequent. In places the surface
of the rammed chalk was covered with shells (described
It now remains to give a brief description of the rest of the
numbered relics found in Cutting XXI. having reference to
the Roman work.
* It is exhibited in the Dorset County Museum, as also are two
twisted armlets of gold of similar design from the Fayyum, Egypt.
The Dorchester and Puckington specimens are figured in the writer's
paper on the subject in Proc. Som. Arch. Soc., LVIL, ii., 94.
100 EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.
255. Iron nail, embedded in highest part of wall.
260. " Third brass " coin of Constantine I., circa A.D. 335 ; a
poor specimen of the Gloria Exercitus type ; depth 2ft. below the
larger group of stones.
268. Small globular glass bead, painted red ; in rammed chalk.
274. Fragment of shale armlet, on level of inner trench ; another
piece, No. 334, found in filling-in.
288. Chipped flint implement, weathered white, of Neolithic
type, length 3in. (Fig. 2) ; in rammed chalk, depth 3ft.
294. Fragment of red Samian ware, ornamented ; depth 2*5ft.
296. Oval hammer-stone of bi-convex section, 3in. in diam.,
smooth on both faces and bearing evidence of hammering round the
edges ; in rammed chalk, depth 5'5ft.
297. Part of a Romano-British bowl of black burnished ware,
with bead rim ; in inner trench, depth 6ft.
298. Fragments of red Samian and other ware ; in the rammed
chalk of arena-floor, depth 4- 7ft.
299. Fragments of R.B. pottery, red on faces, black internally ;
depth 4' 85ft. on arena-floor.
300. Greater part of a pot-cover, of blackish-brown ware, with
funnel-shaped perforated knob (Fig. 2) ; the burnished surface faintly
ornamented with triangles filled with crossed lines, and comparable
with designs found in the Lake- villages in Somerset. Depth 4' 8ft.
on rammed chalk arena level.
301. Large iron ring, corroded and distorted ; over the inner
trench, depth 4 -8ft.
302. Bent bronze pin, perhaps of a brooch ; on rammed floor.
303. Part of an iron spear-head with sides hammered up to form
a socket ; found as No. 302.
335. Small iron arrowhead (Fig. 2), with rivet-hole on one side
of the hammered up socket, length 51mm. ; found in filling-in.
V. CUTTING XXI.
THE PREHISTORIC SHAFTS (PLATES III., IV., AND V.).
(See Cutting X., Report, 1908; Cutting XV., 1909; Cuttings'
XII. Extension and XX., 1910.)
We must now turn to the somewhat puzzling shafts of
which eleven have been uncovered at the mouth, five having
been completely re-excavated (Plan, Plate I.). The first was
MAUMBURY RINGS, DORCHESTER, 1912. CUTTING XXI.
PREHISTORIC SHAFTS, Nos. VIII, IX, X and XI.
(Full Title given at the beginning of the Report.)
From a Photograp/i by Mr. H. St. George Cray,
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS. 101
cleared out at the foot of the earthwork in Cutting X. (1908),
depth 30ft. (the depth of all being given below the nearest
turf over the arena). In front of " the den " in Cutting XV.
(1909) at least two shafts (Nos. II. and III.) are known, one
of which was re-excavated to a depth of 19ft. Cutting XII.
Extension revealed part of the outline of a very large pit,
No. IV. (Plate III., 1910 Report) ; and a series of three
shafts (Nos. V., VI., and VII.) were met with in Cutting XX.
between the " inner trench " and the solid chalk core of the
arena-wall (Plate IV., 1910 Report). Of these, No. VI. was
completely re-excavated (depth 24- 5ft.), and within 2ft. of
the bottom fragments of a rude pottery vessel were found.
The outline of Shaft VIII. was partly revealed in 1910, and
partly in 1912 when Cutting XXI. was extended for the
purpose. At the top of the filling, part of an antler pick
(No. 320) was found.
The excavation of Cutting XXI. added three shafts more
(Nos. IX., X., and XI.) to the list, and the bottom of all of
them was reached, their depth being 28'5ft., 25'5ft., and
28ft. respectively. The average depth of the five shafts
re-excavated was 27' 3ft.
Their outlines were irregular (Plate I.). Nos. VI., VII.,
and VIII. were separated from each other at the top by
very narrow partitions, and Nos. IX., X., and XI. were
similar in this respect. A few feet separated Shafts V. and
VI., and Shafts VIII. and IX. ; a V-shaped gutter cut in the
solid chalk connected the two latter.
Shaft IX. (Plates III. and IV.). Below the mouth where
the sides became steep the shaft was 7ft. in diam., and at a
ledge further down the dimensions were 4'25ft. by 4* 5ft.
At 1ft. from the bottom it was only T7ft. across, and
ultimately it lessened to 1ft.* At the top of the shaft against
the N.W. side two deep, vertical, and well-worn grooves were
* The floor of one of the shafts at Cissbury was 4'5ft. in diameter,
and this was unusually small (Archaeologia, LXIIL, 123).
102 EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.
noticed, which may have been caused by the rubbing of
ropes used for the ascent and descent of men and material
when the shaft was sunk.
Red-deer antler was plentiful, including twelve picks, more
or less broken, found in the filling, down to a depth of 27ft.
Two crowns of antlers were also met with ; one had perhaps
served the purpose of a rake ; the other had been much used,
judging from the extreme smoothness of the implement.
Three of the picks bore traces of fire. With few exceptions
the picks found here and in the adjoining shafts were formed
from shed antlers.
A few large flint flakes, up to 4 Jin. in length, were found
between 23ft. and 26ft., and a flint with deep marks of
calcination, depth 26 - 5ft. One small fragment of prehistoric
pottery (No. 291), unornamented, was discovered at 26ft.
Shaft X. (Plate IV.). This shaft may, perhaps, have been
started by prehistoric man as two distinct pits. Its double
bottom was in the form of an elongated 8, the two halves,
small and of oval outline, being divided by a ridge of chalk
9ins. high. The top of the division between this shaft and
No. XI. was only 8ft. above the bottom of the former.
The upper part of the filling of this shaft and No. XI. was
crossed by a concave seam of mould about an inch thick, the
depth of which varied from 8* 4ft. to 11* 2ft. It was important
to note this, because fragmentary human remains (Nos. 305
and 306) were found in rammed chalk on the level of this
seam or just above it ; and there seems to be no evidence
for regarding the bones as prehistoric.
The " finds " in this shaft were few, but of great interest.
Two antler picks were met with at 15ft. and 22ft. At a
depth of 14' 5ft. the base of a red-deer's skull with antlers
attached (No. 307) was found tight against the wall of the
shaft ; after being cleared it was photographed in situ (Plate
II.). The antler complete measures 38in. in length, and is
surmounted by a crown of four points ; the brow-tine is
14in. long, and the bez and trez each 13in. ; the circum-
ference of the antler above the burr is 220mm. (8 fin.).
MAUMBURY RINGvS, DORCHESTER, 1912. CUTTING XXI.
SHAFTvS IX, X AND XI, AND MARGIN OF ARENA FLOOR.
(Full Title given at the beginning of the Report.)
From a Photograph by Mr. H. St. George Gray.
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS. 103
A somewhat remarkable carving in chalk was found in the
filling, 15ft. deep, and perhaps affords further evidence of
phallicism in early prehistoric times. This object differs
from the chalk carving of the male organ found by Canon
Greenwell, F.R.S., in the Grime's Graves (Brit. Mus.) * in
being much larger, with a diameter of 2 Jin.
Several flint flakes were noticed here and in Shaft XI.,
especially in the upper three-quarters of the filling. The
nodules of flint were fairly numerous, and all appear to have
been tested as to their quality. Some of the blocks of chalk
in the filling were very large.
Shaft XI. (Plate V.). This large pit was cleared out only
at the W.S.W. end. The bottom was trench-like and only
l-2ft. wide ; the termination to a height of 5- 5ft. had a
nearly upright even face. Thin seams of mould were noticed
in the filling (Plate V.).
No less than thirteen antler picks, some damaged, were
found between 8- 25ft. and 28ft., and five of them bear marks
of fire, the handle-end of one being much burnt. Two
crowns of antlers were also found, and an excellent antler
rake of three points. Portions of three red-deer skulls were
also met with, and a worked piece of rib-bone (ox or horse)
At a depth of 10ft. a rough chalk ball (3Jin. diam.), and
another piece, cheese-shaped (3Jin. diam.), were found.
At the same level a fragment of rude pottery (No. 314) was
discovered undoubtedly prehistoric .
General Remarks on the Shafts (see also Introductory
Remarks] : The flint occurring in such thin seams and being
of such poor quality sustains the only tenable theory that
these shafts were sunk in search of better material : for no
* Described by Canon Greenwell in a paper that he read to the
Ethnological Society, 27 June, 1870 (Journal, II., 430). See also
Archaeologia, LXIIL, 118.
104 EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.
flint nodules were found thrown away in the filling which
would have been of any value to the flint-knapper. Indeed,
all the nodules remaining and they are by no means plentiful
appear to have been " tried," i.e., struck by the hand of
man, and being found unsuitable for implement-making were
discarded. There can be little doubt that these shafts were
filled in to the top, or almost to the top, at one time, judging
from the fact that the chalk rubble which for the most part
is large is found on re-excavation to be very loosely
If the shafts at Maumbury are ftmi-mines, why are there
no galleries of the kind so common at Cissbury and at Grime's
Graves ? * At Maumbury the pits are in close order, and
indeed in many cases hardly a foot separates them at the top.
It is difficult to conceive prehistoric man's reason for digging
so many shafts if intended for mines, as one or two would
have sufficed to test the quality and quantity of the flint ;
the material of course abounds in Dorset, though the best
qualities are in some places not easily obtainable. If, in any
of these shafts, flint of the desired quality had been found, he
might then have cut galleries, and the trial-shafts would
have become mines.
VI. ANIMAL BONES.
All the bones and fragments found in the Prehistoric
Shafts at Maumbury have been preserved ; also a selection
from the Roman deposits. The greater number of those
found in 1912 have been kindly identified by Mr. E. T.
* A paper by Mr. Reginald A. Smith, F.S.A., has recently been
published on " The Date of Grime's Graves and Cissbury Flint-
Mines," where a resume of the records of the various excavations
which have been conducted at these places is given (Archaeologia,
EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS. 105
Newton, F.R.S. The following are the most interesting, all
found in Cutting XXI. : *
FROM THE ROMAN DEPOSITS
Horse (a metatarsus giving height of 12 hands 3in. at shoulder
size of New Forest pony).
Ox (a radius giving height of 3ft. 5^in. size of modern Kerry Cow).
Sheep, or Goat.
Fox (Canis vulpes).
Badger (Meles taxus).
Polecat (Mustela putorius) large size ; skull and nearly complete
Water Vole (Microtus amphibius).
Rook, or Crow.
FROM SHAFT IX. (TOTAL DEPTH OF SHAFT BELOW ARENA TURF,
At 20 feet deep.
Toad (Bufo vulgaris) large size.
Bank Vole (Evotomys glareolus).
Field Vole (Microtus agrestis).
At 23-24 feet deep.
Pig (Sus scrofa) may be wild Boar.
At 26 feet deep.
Part of rib of Horse or Ox, and other fragmentary remains.
FROM SHAFT XI. (TOTAL DEPTH OF SHAFT BELOW ARENA TURF,
Fragmentary remains of Horse and Ox in rammed chalk at the top of
At 10 feet
Red-deer (Cervus elaphus).
At 15 feet and 17 feet deep.
Pig (Sus scrofa) may be wild Boar.
At bottom of Shaft.
Field Vole (Microtus agrestis) part of two skeletons.
* This list does not include worked animal bones, red-deer skulls,
antlers, or picks, bearing special numbers.
106 EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.
At depths not recorded.
Dog (Canis familiaris) larger than fox.
Toad (Bufo vulgaris) large size, as in Shaft IX.
The most interesting specimens of decayed and carbonized
wood found at Maumbury in 1912 were sent to Mr. Clement
Reid, F.R.S., for examination ; he has kindly reported as
In Roman Deposits. Oak charcoal.
Specimen from post-hole. Indeterminable.
Charred wood found in burnt area against the heap of stones at the south
end of the cutting. Hazel.
In Shaft IX., with bones. Hazel (?).
In Shaft IX., depth 20 feet. Oak charcoal.
From bottom of rammed chalk over Shaft XI. Apparently fragments of
root perhaps oak.
Wood on Iron Nails found near Human Skeleton. Not determinate,
but resembles oak.
Messrs. W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., and John W. Taylor,
of Leeds, have kindly examined the shells found at Maumbury
They report that the Roman deposit yielded Helix aspersa (typical)
and several H. nemoralis, of which two were especially conical in form,
and one of these very solid in substance. A mass of shells, chalk, and
mould from the surface of the rammed chalk Roman work in Cutting
XXI., having been carefully washed, yielded several H. itala var.
minor, numerous Hygromia hispida var. concinna, and Pupa muscorum ;
also a couple of Vallonia pulchella. From Prehistoric Shaft IX.,
depth 20 feet, were a fine Helicella itala with the upper band very high,
and two with contracted umbilicus approaching the Continental
European H. obvia.
NEW AND RARE ARACHNIDA.
DESCRIPTION OF PLATE.
Fig. 1. Agroeca diversa, sp.n. female. 1. Abdomen. 2. Genital
aperture. 3. Ditto, from another specimen.
4. Leptyphantes insignia, sp.n. male. 4. Profile. 5. Cephalo-
, thorax. 6. Palpus.
,, 7. Qongylidiellum incertum, sp.n. female. 7. Upper side. 8.
Profile of cephalothorax. 9. Genital aperture.
,, 18. Entelecarct errata, sp.n. male. 18. Profile of cephalothorax.
19. Upper side of ditto. 20. Right palpus. 21. Left
10. Collinsia notdbilis, sp.n. male. 10. Cephalothorax. 11. Pro-
file of ditto. 12. Eyes from above and behind. 13.
Palpus from outer side. 14. Ditto, showing form of
digital joint of palpus. 15, 16. Radial joint of palpus,
in two positions. 17. One of the falces showing the
>, 22. Calyptostoma Hardii, Cambr. 22. Showing mouth parts.
23. Ditto in profile, 24. Genital aperture. 25. Anal
jlleto ant Bare firitisi)
NOTED AND OBSERVED IN 1912.
By the Rev. 0. PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE, M.A., F.R.S., &c.
past year (1912) has brought me a fair
number of additions to our British List of
Spiders (Araneidea). I wish I could say
that my own personal efforts had had a
greater share in producing these results ;
but these have been made mainly possible
by the continued kind help and exertions
of my correspondents, both friends and
relations. To all who have so contributed
during the past year I am again now indebted, as well as to
some others (and amongst these I must specially add the
name of a valuable Dorset correspondent Dr. Haines, of
Winfrith), whose collections, though containing no novelties,
yet by many rare and local forms bore testimony not only to
their kindness to me but to their efforts to add to our know-
ledge of this comparatively neglected group of animals.
The names of those who have added to our List species new to
108 ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA.
science, or other species not previously known to the British
Fauna, will be specially mentioned in the course of the
following List ; but I may here note the names of such species
and that of their finders. The species considered to be new
to science are nine.
Zora letifera (Falconer), found by Mr. W. Falconer and
Dr. A. R. Jackson in Wicken Fen, Cambridgeshire ; Agroeca
diversa, Bloxworth Heath, taken by one of my sons (A. E.
LI. P.-C.) ; Leptyphantes insignis, also found (by A. E. LI.
P.-C.) in one of the Bloxworth Woods ; Leptyphantes moratus
(Hull), found by the Rev. J. E. Hull at Forres, N.B. ;
Microneta ( Agyneta] ramosa, Jackson, found by Dr. Jackson
in the New Forest, and Delamere Forest, Cheshire ;
Gongylidiellum incertum, taken by Mr. Horace Donisthorpe
at Nethy Bridge, Scotland ; Collinsia notabilis, taken by
Mr. J. Collins (University Museum, Oxford) at Tubney,
Berkshire ; Entelecara errata, found at Penrith, Cumberland,
by Dr. Jackson ; and Neon valentulus (Falconer), taken by
Mr. Falconer and Dr. Jackson in Wicken Fen ! Besides the
above, a very distinct and interesting species, new to Britain,
has been sent to me from Wicken Fen, by both Mr. Falconer
and Dr. Jackson Maso gallica (Simon). The above species
are all noted and described more fully in the following List
and Supplement, p. 130.
If any of our readers should wish for further information
on the General Subject, reference may be made to the follow-
ing publications, by the author :
" Spiders of Dorset," published by the Dorset Natural
History and Antiquarian Field Club, 1879 1881, and
Supplemental Papers in most of the subsequent years to the
" List of British and Irish Spiders " (Sime and Co., Dor-
" British Phalangidea or Harvest Men " (Dors. F. C.
Proceedings, Vol. XL, 1890).
" British Chernetidea or False Scorpions " (I.e. Vol. XIII.,
ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA. 109
Since the publication of my last report in Vol. XXXIII.
of our Proceedings, or previously omitted, the following
Papers on British Arachnida have appeared :
" On Some Rare Arachnids captured during 1907,"
A. Randell Jackson, M.B., M.Sc., Transactions Nat. Hist, of
Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, n.s.
Vol. III., part I., pp. (sep. cop.) 1-30, pi. IV.
" On Some Rare Arachnids obtained during 1908,"
A. Randell Jackson, M.B., M.Sc., Trans. Nat. Hist, of
Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, n.s.
Vol. III., part 2, pp. (sep. cop.) 1-24, pi. X.
" On the British Spiders of the Genus Microneta," A.
Randell Jackson, M.B.,. Sc., Trans. Nat. Hist. Northumber-
land, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, n.s. Vol. IV.,
pp. 117-142, pi. VII., VIII. (a valuable and important paper
which I have not yet been able to examine thoroughly).
" A New Spider Leptyphantes moratus (n. sp.)," Rev. J.
E. Hull, M.A., "Scottish Naturalist," February, 1912,
pp. 40-42, with woodcut figs.
" Allendale Spiders," Rev. J. E. Hull, M.A., Trans.
Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-
upon-Tyne, n.s. Vol. III., part I., pp. (sep. cop.) 1-8, pi. V.
" Yorkshire Arachnida in 1911," William Falconer,
Slaithwaite, near Huddersfield, " Naturalist," Feb. 1, 1912,
" Airedale and Wharfedale Area " (Yorkshire), W . P.
Winter, " Naturalist," February 1, 1912, p. 54 (notes some
additions to a former list, of 29 spiders and 1 Pseudo-
" The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge," William Falconer,
" Naturalist," October, 1912, pp. 310-324, pi. XV. (Contains
a list of species, and descriptions of two new to science and
one new to Great Britain.)
" Chernes cyrneus in Nottinghamshire, a recent addition
to the known False Scorpions of Britain," H. Wallis Kew.
54th Report and Transactions of the Nottingham Naturalists*
Society for 1905-1906, pp. 41-46, pi. V.
110 ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA.
" Notes on the Irish False Scorpions in the National
Museum of Ireland," H. Wallis Kew, " Irish Naturalist,"
December, 1909, pp. 249-250.
" A Holiday in South- Western Ireland. Notes on some
False Scorpions and other animals observed in the counties
of Kerry and Cork," H. Wallis Kew, " Irish Naturalist,"
April, 1910, pp. 64-73.
" The False Scorpions of Scotland," Robert Godfrey,
" Annals of Scottish Natural History," April and July, 1908,
p. 91 and 155-161 ; January and July, 1909, pp. 22-26 and
153-163 ; January, 1910, pp. 23, 33.
It only remains for me to add my kindest thanks to all
who have in any way assisted me during the past year.
Atypus af finis, Eichw.
Atypus af finis, Eichw. -Cambr., Dors. N. H.
and A. F. Club, Vol. XXIX., p. 166 ; and
XXXI., p. 49.
An adult male, found wandering on the heath at
Worgret, near Wareham, was sent to me by Dr. Haines,
of Winfrith, in February, 1912.
Drassus pubescens, Thor.
Drassus pubescens, Thor.-Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
Adults of both sexes were taken on Bloxworth Heath
by A. E. LI. P.-C. in May, 1912. Mr. W. Falconer also
ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNID A. Ill
records it from Wicken Fen, Cambridgeshire, in June,
1912 (" Naturalist," October, 1912, p. 311).
Phseocedus braccatus, L. Koch.
Drassus braccatus, L. Koch.-Cambr., Spid.
Dors., p. 570.
Drassus bulbifer, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 18.
An immature male and females from Bindon, and
adults underneath bits of slate at Ringstead, early in
July, 1912, were found and sent to me by Dr. Haines.
This is still one of our rarest and most distinctly marked
of the British Drassidae.
Prosthesima pedestris, C. L. Koch.
Prosthesima pedestris, C, L. Koch-Cambr.,
Spid. Dors., p. 15.
Females, found and sent to me from Ringstead by
Dr. Haines early in July, 1912.
Clubiona caerulescens, L. Koch.
Clubiona ccerulescens , L. Koch-Cambr. Spid.,
Dors., p. 29 ; and British and Irish Spid., p. 11.
Adult males, found in Coombe Wood, Winfrith, were
received from Dr. Haines in May and July, 1912. It is
one of the most distinctly characterised, as well as the
rarest, of the genus in Great Britain.
Zora letifera, Falconer.
Zora letifera, Falconer, " Naturalist," October,
1912, pp. 312, 317, pi. XV., figs. 1-4.
Adults of both sexes, new to science, were found at
Wicken Fen, Cambridgeshire, by Mr. W. Falconer in
June, 1912. It is nearly allied to Zora maculata, Bl.,
but differs in both structure and markings. (For a more
detailed description, see postea, p. 130.)
112 ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNID A.
Agroeca proxima, Cambr.
Agroeca proxima, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 36,
and Proc. Dors. F. Club, Vol. VII., pi. IV.,
fig. 4a. (In the description of pi. IV., in loco,
figures a and b should be reversed.)
This spider was abundant on Bloxworth and adjoining
heaths in late summer of 1912. An hermaphrodite
example of it was taken by A. E. LI. P.-C. on Bloxworth
Heath on October 12th.
Agroeca inopina, Cambr.
Agroeca inopina, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club,
Vol. XVI., p. 101.
Numerous in the same localities and at the same time
as A. proxima, Cambr.
Agroeca celans, Bl.
Agelena celans, BL, Spid. G. B. I., p. 161.
Liocranum celans, Bl. -Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
This very distinct species, which had hitherto been
very rarely met with at Bloxworth, was found in some
abundance and at the same time, and in the same
localities, by A. E. LI. P.-C. and W. A. P.-C. as the two
foregoing species. It appears to be more abundant in
the North of England.
Agroeca gracilipes, Bl.
Agelena gracilipes, Bl. -Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
p. 39. Liocranum gracilipes, Bl. -Cambr.,
Spid. Dors., p. 162.
Numerous on Bloxworth and other adjoining heaths,
and at the same time as three foregoing species, by
A. E. LI. P.-C. and W. A. P.-C.
ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA. 113
Agroeea diversa, sp.n. Figs. 1, 2, 3.
Two adult females of an Agroeea, closely allied to
A. gracilipes, Blackw., were found by A. E. LI. P.-C.
on Bloxworth Heath at the end of the summer of 1912.
In size, general structure, and character these are very
like A, gracilipes, but the striking dissimilarity in colour
and markings, as well as some small structural differences,
lead me to believe them to be of a different species.
(For a detailed description see postea, p. 130)
Theridion impressum, L. Koch.
Theridion impressum, L. Koch-Cambr., Proc.
Dors. F. Club, XXIV., pp. 152, 162, pi. A,
fig. L, and Vol. XXVI., p. 45.
An adult male of this interesting species was taken on
the lawn railings at Bloxworth Rectory on the 5th of
July, 1912, by the Rev. R. J. Pickard-Cambridge ; and
I found one of the same sex among some hitherto over-
looked spiders taken many years ago by myself at
Theridion familiare, Cambr.
Theridion familiare, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 86 ;
Proc. Dors. F. Club, XX. p. 6, and XXIII.,
A female adult was taken among herbage in Bere Wood
by A. E. LI. P.-C. on the 17th of October, 1912. This is
the first instance known to me of the occurrence of this
species in any other situation than in old buildings and
114 ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA.
Laseola prona, Menge.
Euryopis prona, Menge-Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
Laseola jucunda, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club,
Vol. XXIV., pp. 152, 162, pi. A., fig. 3, 1903,
Vol. XXVIII., p. 125, pi. A, figs. 13, 14, 15
(1907), and Vol. XXIX., p. 170 (1908).
An adult male was brought to me from Bloxworth
Heath on May 11, 1912, by A. E. LI. P.-C.
Crustulina sticta, Cambr.
Steatoda sticta, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 97, and
Proc. Dors. F. Club, XVIII., p. 111.
Theridion stictum, Cambr. -Bl., Spid. G.B.I.,
Several of each sex were found in Wicken Fen by Dr.
Jackson and Mr. W. Falconer early in June, 1912
" Naturalist," October, 1912, p. 313.
Linyphia peltata, Wid.
Linyphia peltata, Wid. -Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
LeptypTiantes nigrescens, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F.
Club, XXXIII., pp. 75, 90, pi. A, figs. 11,
The examination of some additional examples of
L. nigrescens, including adult females and immature
males, has convinced me that L. nigrescens, Cambr.
(I.e.) is a melanic form of Linyphia peltata, Wid. I have
found in Dorsetshire, Hampshire, and some other
counties the normal form of L. peltata in fair abundance,
but until now have never seen this melanic form of it.
Mr. L. A. Carr, however, seems to have met with it
commonly in Staffordshire, and to have suspected its
identity with L. peltata, Wid.
ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA. 115
Taranucnus setosus, Cambr.
Linyphia setosa, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 191.
Mr. W. Falconer (" Naturalist," October, 1912, p. 313)
records both sexes from Wicken Fen in June, 1912.
Leptyphantes moratus, Hull.
Leptyphantes moratus, Hull, " Scottish Natur-
alist," February, 1912, p. 40.
An adult female, taken at Forres, N.B., in August, 1911,
and described and figured as a sp. nov. I.e. supra. I
have not myself seen this specimen.
Leptyphantes insignis, sp.n. Figs. 4, 5, 6.
An adult male, of what appears to me a very distinct
species of this genus, and hitherto undescribed, was
found by A. E. LI. P.-C. on the 18th of May, 1912, among
herbage in a wood at Bloxworth. (For detailed descrip-
tion see postea p. 131.)
Leptyphantes ericaeus, Bl.
Linyphia ericcea, Bl. -Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 201.
BL, Sp. G.B.I., p. 287.
An adult male, found near Oxford by W. A. P.-C., and
new to that county, in 1912.
Leptyphantes pallidus, Cambr.
Linyphia pallida, Cambr., Spid. Dor., p. 216.
Adult females found near Oxford by W. A. P.-C. in
1912, and new to that county.
Microneta beata, Cambr.
Microneta beata, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club,
Vol. XXVII., pp. 77, 190, pi. A, figs. 27-31
An adult example of each sex, taken on Bloxworth
Heath, September 1, 1912, by W. A. P.-C. This is its
116 ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA.
first record in Dorset. It is allied to the common M.
rurestris, C. L. Koch.
Microneta (Agyneta) ramosa, Jackson.
Agyneta ramosa, Jackson, Trans. Nat. Hist.
Soc., Northumberland, Durham, and New-
castle-upon-Tyne (n.s.), Vol. IV., p. 139,
pi. VIII., figs. 6, 6a, 6b.
Males are recorded by Dr. Jackson from the New
Forest and from the Forest of Delamere, Cheshire.
I have not yet myself seen this species, which appears to
be a good one.
Microneta innotabilis, Cambr.
Neriene innotabilis, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 131.
An adult female found by W. A. P.-C. in 1012, near
Oxford, and new to that county.
Sintula cornigera, Bl.
Neriene cornigera, BL, Spid. G.B.I., p. 273.
,, ,, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 430.
Neriene indecora, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club,
Vol. XIV., p. 156, fig. 7.
Sintula cornigera, Bl. -Cambr., Proc. Dors. F.
Club, XX., p. 9 ; XXIV., p. 154 (1903) ; and
XXXII., p. 39 (1911).
An adult male of this rare and curious spider was
taken b}^ A. E. LI. P.-C. on Bloxworth Heath on October
Tmeticus concinnus, Thor.
Tmeticus concinnus, Thor. -Cambr., Proc. Dors.
F. Club, Vol. VII., p. 74, and Vol. XXIX.,
p. 173 (1908).
Adult males were taken on Bloxworth Heath October
12th, 1911, by A. E. LI. P.-C.
ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNID A. 117
Maso gallica, Sim.
Maso Sundevallii, Westr.- Simon, Arachnides de
France, V., p. 862.
,, gallica, Sim. Falconer, " Naturalist,"
October, 1912, pp. 313, 320.
Both sexes were obtained by Dr. Jackson and Mr.
Falconer in Wicken Fen in June, 1912. It is a very
distinct little species, and had not been before recorded
as British. (Further particulars are added postea,
Gongylidium retusum, Westr.
Neriene retusa, Westr. -Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
elevata, Cambr., Zoologist, 1862, p. 7966.
Examples of this spider, always of great rarity hitherto
in Dorsetshire, were taken on iron railings on the lawn at
Bloxworth Rectory in June, 1912, by the Rev. R. J.
Pickard-Cambridge and A. E. LI. P.-C.
Gongylidiellum murcidum, Sim.
Gongylidiellum murcidum, Sim. -Cambr., Proc.
Dors. F. Club, Vol. XVI., pp. 105, 125, and
Vol. XXX., p. 105.
Dr. Jackson and Mr. Falconer met with this rare
spider in some abundance in Wicken Fen in June, 1912.
(" Naturalist," October, 1912, p. 314.) The New Forest
and Wicken Fen appear to be as yet the only known
localities in which it has been found. It is probably a
marsh-loving species, and would be found in other
similar localities yet unsearched.
(?) Gongylidiellum incertum, sp.n. Figs. 7, 8, 9.
A very distinct female spider, sent to me from Nethy
Bridge, Scotland, by Mr. H. Donisthorpe in May, 1912.
It appears to me to be of an undescribed species, and to
118 ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNID A.
belong to the genus Gongylidiellum ; though whether
this generic position is its true one I do not yet feel
certain. (For full description see postea, p. 133.)
Erigone atra, Bl.
Erigone atra, Bl.-Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 106.
Neriene longipalpis, Sund.-Blackw., Spid.
G. B. and L, p. 174.
Hillhousia desolans, F. O. P.-C., Ann. & Mag.,
N.H., ser. 6, Vol. XIII., Janry. 1894, p. 89,
PI. L, Fig. 4.
The genus Hillhousia was based on examples which
turn out to be Erigone atra, BL
Lophomma herbigrada, Bl.
Neriene herbigrada, Bl.-Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
pp. 113, 576.
,, exhilarans, Cambr., Ann. Mag.,
N.H., ser. 5, Vol. 4, p. 199, pi. XII.,
An adult male was found by W. A. P.-C., near Oxford,
in 1912. It is new to that county.
Lophomma subaequale, Westr.
Lophomma subcequale, Westr. -Cambr., Proc.
Dors. F. Club, Vol. XXVI., p. 50, pi. 3,
fig. 10 (1905).
Walckenaera subcequale, Westr. -Cambr., Spid.
Dors., p. 501.
,, fortuita, Cambr., Trans. Linn. Soc.,
Vol. 27, p. 452.
Tapinocyba subcequalis, Westr. -Cambr., Proc.
Dors. F. Club., XXIII., p. 26 (1902).
A single male, found by Dr. Jackson in Wicken
Fen in June, 1912. (" Naturalist," October, 1912,
ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNID A. 119
Enteleeara trifrons, Cambr.
Walckenaera trifrons, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p.
166, and Proc. Dors. F. Club, Vol. X.,
Enteleeara trifrons, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F.
Club, XXIV., p. 156.
Found not rarely by Dr. Jackson and Mr. Falconer in
Wicken Fen in June, 1912. (" Naturalist," October,
1912, p. 314.)
Enteleeara omissa, Cambr.
Enteleeara omissa, Cambr., British and Irish
Spiders, p. 75 (1900). Proc. Dors. F. Club,
XXIII., pp. 24, 33 (1902), and Vol. XXIV.,
pi. A, figs. 10, 10a, 106, lOc (1903). The
fig. of the female (Wd) is that of the next
Found abundantly by Dr. Jackson and Mr. Falconer
in its original locality, Wicken Fen, in June, 1912.
(" Naturalist," October, 1912, p. 314.)
Enteleeara errata, sp.n. Figs. 18, 19, 20, 21.
Enteleeara omissa, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club,
Vol. XXIV., pp. 149, 156 and postea, and 167,
pi. A, fig. lOd.) (1903). The other figs, in
pi. A are E. omissa, Cambr.
The occurrence in plenty of Enteleeara omissa, Cambr.
in Wicken Fen has enabled me to compare that species
more fully with the examples taken in Cumberland by
Dr. Jackson on the top of Scafell Pike and Bowfell, and
supposed at the time to be those of Enteleeara omissa,
Cambr. We have now concluded that, though nearly
allied, the Cumberland examples are of a different
species. (For a description of which see postea,
120 ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNID A.
Entelecara flavipes, Bl.
Walckenaera flavipes, Bl.-Cambr. Spids. Dors.,
pp. 559, 577. Blackw. Spid. G.B.I., p. 898.
Entelecara flavipes, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F.
Club, Vol. XVII., p. 59, and XXIII., p. 24.
Although occasionally this little spider turns up
locally in greater numbers, it is still generally rare. An
adult male was sent to me in June, 1912, from Winfrith,
by Dr. Haines, and one was also taken on the railings of
the lawn at Bloxworth Rectory by the Rev. R. J.
P.-C. in the same month.
Baryphyma pratensis, Bl.
Walckenaera pratensis, Bl.-Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
Bl., Spid. G.B.I., p. 306.
,, Meadii, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. C.,
Vol. X., p. 13 ; Vol. XII., p. 95.
Baryphyma pratensis, Bl.-Cambr., Proc. Dors.
F. C., Vol. XVI., p. 106 ; Vol. XVII., p. 59 ;
Vol. XX., p. 7 ; Vol. XXIV., p. 159 ; and
Vol. XXVI., p. 53 (1905).
Baryphyma Schlickii, Simon (Cambr.) ;
Araneides de France, V., p. 695.
Two adult males were sent to me in 1912 from Yarnton,
Oxfordshire, by Mr/. J. Collins. This is its first record
from that county. It was also found in Wicken Fen
many years ago by Mr. W. Farren and F. O. P. -Cambridge.
Gen. nov. COLLINSIA.
(For Generic Characters, etc., see p. 135, postea.)
Collinsia notabilis, sp.n. Figs. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17.
Not being able to allocate this very distinct little spider
at present to any established genus, I have tentatively
ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNID A. 121
formed a new one for it. It seems to be allied to
Gongylididlum ; (for further particular description see
postea p. 136) an adult male was found by Mr. J. Collins, of
the Oxford University Museum, at Tubney, in Berkshire,
and sent to me by him in May, 1912.
Araaeoncus humilis, Bl.
WakJcenaera, Bl.-Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 150.
An adult male was found on the lawn railings at
Bloxworth Rectory by the Rev. R. J. P.-C. in June, 1912.
It appears to be still a rare spider in Dorsetshire.
Wideria fugax, Cambr.
Neriene fugax, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 121 ;
Proc. Dors. F. Club, XIV., p. 153.
An adult male found by A. E. LI. P.-C. in Bere Wood
on Nov. 7th, 1912. It is still an exceedingly rare
Ceratinella scabrosa, Cambr.
Walckenaera scabrosa, Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
An adult male found in the shrubbery, Bloxworth
Rectory, in May, 1912, by A. E. LI. P.-C. It is still a
species of rare occurrence.
Ceratinella brevipes, Westr.
Walckenaera brevipes, Westr.-Cambr. Spid.
Dors., p. 143.
An adult male found on the Lawn Railings at Blox-
worth Rectory on June 23rd, 1912, by the Rev. R. J.
Pickard-Cambridge. This, like the foregoing species, is
also of rare occurrence.
122 ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA.
Ero tuberculata, DeGeer.
Ero tuberculata, DeGeer-Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
pp. 335, 580 ; Proc. Dors. F. Club, XVIII.,
pi. A, fig. 6, and XXXII., p. 42 (1911).
Both sexes, adult and immature, found on the heath
near Trigon Hill in September, 1912, by A. E. LI. P.-C.
and W. A. P.-C. It is still a very rare and local species.
Singa hamata, Clerck.
Epeira tubulosa, Walck.-Blackw., Spid. G.B.I.,
Singa hamata, Clk.-Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 248,
and Proc. Dors. F. Club, XXXI., p. 60
Adult males sent to me by Mr. J. Collins from Tubney,
Berkshire, in 1912.
Singa pygmaea, Sund.
Epeira anthracina, Bl., Spid. G.B.I., p. 357,
pi. XXVII., fig. 257.
Epeira Herii, BL, I.e. pi. XXVII., fig. 264
(exclude description at p. 466).
Singa pygmcea, Sund.-Cambr., Spid. Dors., p.
249, Proc. Dors. F. Club, XXIII., p. 28, 1902,
and XXVI., p. 54, 1905.
An adult female received from Mr. J. Collins, by whom
it was found at Cothill, in Berkshire, in 1912 ; and also
received, in 1912, from Dr. Haines, Winfrith.
ON NEW AND BARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA. 123
Singa sanguinea, C. L. Koch.
Singa sanguinea, C. L. Koch-Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
p. 251 ; Proc. Dors. F. Club, Vol. XXIII.,
p. 28 ; Vol. XXX., p. 108 ; XXXI., p. 61 ;
and XXXII., p. 42.
Epeira Herii, Hahn-Bl., Spid. G.B.I., p. 366
(exclude pi. XXVII., fig. 264).
An adult female received from Dr. Haines, Winfrith,
Singa Herii, Hahn.
Singa Herii, Hahn-Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club,
XIV., p. 160, fig. 5, and XXXI., p. 61 (1910).
An adult male was taken at Wicken Fen by Dr.
Jackson in June, 1912, " Naturalist," October, 1912,
p. 315. This locality is the only one from which this
very rare spider has hitherto been recorded in Great
Epeira Westringii, Thor.
Epeira Westringii, Thor.-Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
An adult male found at Witham, Berkshire ; sent to
me in 1912 by Mr. J. Collins, University Museum, Oxford.
Thomisus onustus, Walck.
Thomisus onustus, Walck Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
p. 188 ; and Proc. Dors. F. Club, XXI., p. 25,
and XXIII., p. 28 (1902).
A rare and local spider found in the blooms of various
plants on heaths. Immature females sent to me from
the district of Winfrith in June, 1912, by Dr. Haines.
124 ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA.
Oxyptila sanctuaria, Cambr.
Oxyptila sanctuaria, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 319 ;
Proc. Dors. F. Club, Vol. VI., p. 10 ; XIV.,
p. 161 ; XV., p. 114 ; XX., p. 11 ; XXXII.,
On the wall of Bloxworth Rectory I found an
adult male on the 24th of August, 1912, remarkable for
its exceedingly minute size. It is a rare and local species.
Oxyptila Blackwallii, Sim.
Both sexes, but the males immature, were received
from Dr. Haines, by whom they were found at West
Lulworth in July, 1912. It is a rare species, and appears
to be confined to the sea coast, beneath stones and
among dwarf herbage.
Tibellus maritimus, Menge.
Tibellus oblongus, Kulcz., Aran. Hungarian,
p. 115, Tab. IV., fig. 28.
Thanatus oblongus, Menge (female), Preussische
Spinnen, p. 396, Tab. 224, fig. 3.
Tibellus maritimus, Menge-Kulcz. (male),
Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club, XXXII.,
p. 47, pi. A, figs. 28-31 (1911).
Tibellus oblongus, Walck. -Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
p. 339 (ad partem).
Both sexes are recorded as abundant in Wicken Fen
by Dr. Jackson and Mr. Falconer in June, 1912.
(" Naturalist," October, 1912, p. 316.)
Trochosa spinipalpis, F. 0. P. -Cambr.
Trochosa spinipalpis, F. 0. P. -Cambr., Ann.
and Mag. N.H., ser. 6, Vol. XV., p. 28, pi. III.,
ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA. 125
fig. 4, &c. ; Cambr., Proc.Dors. F. Club, Vol.
XVI., p. 118 ; Vol. XVII., p. 61 ; and Vol.
XXVI., p. 55 (1905).
A male and several females are recorded by Dr. Jackson
and Mr. Falconer in Wicken Fen, " Naturalist." A very
rare British spider.
Lycosa Farrenii, Cambr.
Lycosa Farrenii., Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 546.
Proc. Dors. F. Club, Vol. X., p. 134 ; Vol.
XXIV., p. 160 ; and Vol. XXIX., p. 182.
(Further examination makes it certain
that this species is not identical with
L. ferruginea, L. Koch.)
Mr. Falconer reports the frequent occurrence of this
species in the Wicken Fen. (" Naturalist," October,
1912, p. 316.)
Marpessa pomatia, Walck.
Marpessa pomatia, Walck. -Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
p. 555 ; Proc. Dors. F. Club, Vol. XII., p. 97 i
XIV., p. 161 ; XXIII., p. 29 (1902), and
XXXI., p. 64 (1910).
Hyctia prompta, Bl. -Cambr., Proc. Dors. F.
Club, Vol. X., p. 127.
Salticus promptus, BL, Spid. G.B.I., p. 59.
,, BlacTcwallii, Clark. Blackw., Spid.
G.B.I., p. 62.
Dr. Jackson reports this fine species as numerous,
spinning in the heads of Arundo phragmitis, and Mr.
Falconer speaks of it as more occasionally at large
among vegetation, on the ground, at Wicken Fen in
June, 1912. (" Naturalist," October, 1912.)
126 ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA.
Neon valentulus, Falconer.
Neon valentulus, Falconer, " Naturalist,"
October, 1912, pp. 317, 321, pi. XV., figs.
Taken in some abundance at Wicken Fen by Mr.
Falconer and Dr. Jackson. It is nearly allied to Neon
reticulatus, Blackw. Mons. Simon believes it to be a
dark variety of this last species, and identifies it as
M. obscurus, Sim., var. of reticulatus ; but I cannot find
it so recorded by M. Simon. From differences found by
Mr. Falconer between the two forms it appears to be a
Euophrys aequipes, Cambr.
Euophrys ceguipes, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 404 ;
Proc. Dors. F. Club, p. 134, XVII., p. 113,
and XXIV., p. 161.
An adult male found at Ringstead in July, 1912, and
sent to me by Dr. Haines. It is a rare and local
Attus (Sitticus, Sim.) caricis, Westr.
Attus caricis, Westr. -Cambr., Spid. Dors.,
p. 563 ; Proc. Dors. F. Club, Vol. X.,
Dendryphantes liastatus, C. L. Koch-Cambr.,
Proc. Dors. F. Club, Vol. VI., p. 11 ; X., p.
128 ; and XXI., p. 25 ; and List of British
and Irish Spiders, p. 71 (1900).
Dr. Jackson found this spider (a female adult and
several immature) at Wicken Fen in June, 1912
(" Naturalist," October, 1912, p. 317) ; and an adult of
the same sex was sent to me in September, 1912, from
that locality also, by Mr. J. Collins, of the University
ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA. 127
ORDER CHERNETIDEA (False Scorpions).
Chernes dubius, Cambr.
Chernes dubius, Cambr., " On the British
Species of False Scorpions," Proc. Dors. F.
Club, Vol. XIII., p. 227, pi. C, fig. 19.
An example of this Arachnid was sent to me from
Enslow Bridge, Oxford; in 1912, by Mr. J. Collins. This
is the first record I have received of a species of this Order
from Oxfordshire. Other examples of this species were
received also from Mr. Collins, found in an old owl's nest
in an elm tree at Bradfield, Berkshire.
Calyptostoma, Hardii. Figs. 22, 23, 24, 25.
Calyptostoma, Hardii Cambr., Annals and Mag.
N.H., ser. 4, Vol. XVI., p. 384 (1875), pi.
XIII., fig. 1, and Andrew Murray, F.L.S.,
" Economic Entomology," Aptera, p. 140,
with woodcut figures.
An example of this curious little Acarid was found by
A. E. LI. P.-C. among dead leaves in Bere Wood on May
10th, 1912. The figs, given in the plate are from an
example received Jan. 8th, 1903, from Mr. W. Evans
(found in Perthshire at a height of 3,500), and in which
the mouth parts were accidentally protruding.
128 ON NEW AND RAEE BRITISH ARACHNIDA.
LIST OF ARACHNIDS
In the foregoing Pages, with references to Page and Plate.
Atypus affinis, Eichw. p. 110
Drassus pubescens, Thor. p. 110
Phaeocedus braccatus, C. L. Koch p. Ill
Prosthesima pedestris, L. Koch p. Ill
Clubiona cserulescens, L. Koch p. Ill
Zora letifera, Falconer p. Ill
Agroeca proxima, Cambr. p. 112
,, inopina, Cambr. p. 112
celans, Bl. p. 112
,, gracilipes, BL p. 112
diversa, sp.n. p. 113 Figs. 1-3.
Theridion impressum, L. Koch p. 113
,, familiare, Cambr. p. 113
Laseola prona, Menge p. 114
Crustulina sticta, Cambr. p. 114
Linyphia pelt at a, Wid. p. 114
Taranucnus setosus, Cambr. p. 115
Leptyphantes moratus, Hull p. 115
insignis, sp.n. p. 115 Figs. 4-6.
ericseus, Bl. p. 115
,, pallidus, Cambr. p. 115
Microneta beata, Cambr. p. 115
,, (Agyneta) ramosa,
Jackson p. 116
innotabilis, Cambr. p. 116
Sintula cornigera, Bl. p. 116
Tmeticus concinnus, Thor. p. 116
Maso gallica, Sim. p. 117
Gongylidium retusum, Westr. p. 117
Gongylidiellum murcidum, Sim. p. 117
incertum, sp.n. p. 117 Figs. 7-9.
ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA. 129
Erigone atra, Bl. p. 118
Lophomma herbigrada, Bl. p. 118
,, subaequale, Westr. p. 118
Entelecara trifrons, Cambr. p. 119
,, omissa, Cambr. p. 119
,, errata, sp.n. p. 119 Figs. 18-21.
flavipes, Bl. p. 120
Baryphyma pratensis, Bl. p. 120
Collinsia notabilis, sp.n. p. 120 Figs. 10-17.
Arseoncus humilis, Bl. p. 121
Wideria fugax, Cambr. p. 121
Ceratinella scabrosa, Cambr. p. 121
,, brevipes, Westr. p. 121
Ero tuberculata, DeGeer p. 122
Singa hamata, Clerck. p. 122
,, pygmsea, Sund. p. 122
,, sanguinea, C. L. Koch p. 123
Herii, Hahn p. 123
Epeira Westringii, Cambr. p. 123
Thomisus onustus, Walck. p. 123
Oxyptila sanctuaria, Cambr. p. 124
Blackwallii, Sim. p. 124
Tibellus maritimus, Menge p. 124
F. O. P.-Cambr. p. 124
Lycosa Farrenii, Cambr. p. 125
Marpessa pomatia, Walck. p. 125
Neon valentulus, Falconer p. 126
Euophrys aequipes, Cambr. p, 126
Attus caricis, Westr. p. 126
Chernes dubius, Cambr. p. 127
Calyptostoma Hardii, Cambr. p. 127 Figs. 22-25.
130 ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNID A.
DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME OF THE SPIDERS IN THE
Zora letifera, Falconer, p. 111.
Length of the adult male, If lines, very nearly 4 mm.
Adult female 2| lines, 4 mm.
Closely allied to the common Zora maculata, BL, but of a
generally paler hue and less distinctly marked. The legs of
the 3 females examined were immaculate ; those of the male
had the tibiae of the first two pairs black and a very small
dark spot or marking at the fore extremity of the tibise of the
third and fourth pairs. The structure of the palpi in the
male, and of the epigyne in the female, also differ in the two
species. Found in Wicken Fen in June by Mr. W. Falconer
and Dr. Jackson ; who do not appear to have met there with
the usually common Z. maculata, BL
Agroeca diversa, sp.n. p. 113. Figs. 1-3.
Adult female, length 2 lines.
Very similar in general form and appearance to Agroeca
gracilipes, BL, which is fairly ' common where the present
spider was found.
The colour of the Cephalothorax is deep brown with very
slight traces of any longitudinal central pale yellow-brown
stripe, which is plainly marked in A. gracilipes.
The legs are dull orange yellow. The genuae, tibiae,
metatarsi, and tarsi of the first two pairs deep brown
approaching black. The metarsi of the third and fourth
pairs deep brown, but less dark than those of the anterior
pairs ; the tibiae of the third and fourth pairs are obscurely
annulated with dull orange and brown. The abdomen is
jet black, the ordinary pattern on the upper side obscurely
ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNID A. 131
indicated with fine pale whitish lines, scarcely visible excepting
in spirit of wine. The genital aperture is much like that of
A. gracilipes, but differs a little.
Two examples found on Bloxworth Heath, October 14,
Leptyphantes insignis, sp.n. p. 115. Figs. 4-6.
Adult male, length l-13th of an inch.
Cephalothorax longer than broad, obtuse at its fore
extremity ; lateral marginal impressions at the junction of
the thorax and caput almost obsolete ; marginal profile
slightly impressed (or hollow) between the ocular area and
the thoracic junction ; colour pale dull yellowish, the margins
and normal thoracic segments very faintly indicated by
dusky blackish. The height of the clypeus appeared
slightly to exceed half that of their facial space.
The eyes are on black spots, and rather closely grouped in
a semi-circle ; they are of moderate size ; those of the
posterior row are largest, and form a very slightly curved
transverse row, whose convexity is directed forwards. The
interval between the central pair is distinctly greater than
that between each and the outer eye of the same row, next
to it. The eyes of each lateral pair are contiguous and
obliquely placed, and seated on a small tubercular prominence ;
those of the anterior pair are the smallest, near together, but
not quite contiguous, and placed on a largish and tolerably
distinct dull blackish spot. The trapezoid formed by the
four central eyes is rather longer than broad, and broadest
at its hinder side. All are pearly white, excepting the fore-
central pair, which are slightly suffused with blackish.
Legs rather long and slender ; 1, 4, 2, 3, hairs, and spines
generally, normal. The spines on the tibiae, especially of the
fourth pair, very long. Colour uniform pale yellowish,
slightly deeper than that of the Cephalothorax.
Palpi moderate in length. The cubital and radial joints
short, the latter much the strongest, and has its fore extremity
132 ON NEW AND RAKE BRITISH ARACHNIDA.
rather produced in the form of an obtuse projection ; besides
a few ordinary hairs the cubital joint has a single one a little
stronger than the rest in front, and the radial has a curved
one much stronger than the rest towards its extremity on the
outer side. The digital joints are of moderate size. The
palpal organs are highly developed, complex, and very
distinctive ; their form and structure can be best seen and
understood from the figure on the plate.
The falces are of moderate size, vertical, and tapering,
and, with the maxillae, which appear to be of normal form,
similar in colour to the Cephalothorax.
Sternum heart-shaped ; obtusely drawn out at its hinder
extremity, which is truncate. Colour yellowish brown.
Abdomen, rather elongate-oblong, a little narrowest in
front, and moderate^ convex above, of a uniform dull, pale,
whitish hue (which would probably have become darker by
age), furnished thinly with hairs, of which a few scattered
over the upper side are very much longer than the others,
prominent and black. The under side of the abdomen is
suffused with sooty black.
Found among dwarf herbage in a wood at Bloxworth on
the 18th of May, 1912.
Maso gallica, Sim. p. 117.
This species differs a little in size from the closely allied
form, M. Sundevallii, Westr., but may easily be distinguished
by the clavate hairs on the palpi of the male. These are,
some of them at the fore extremity of the upper side of the
radial joint and three others at the extremity of a conical
projection near the base on the upper side of the digital joint.
The genital aperture of the female also differs from that of
M. Sundevallii. This latter species is widely distributed and
common in some localities, but M. gallica has as yet only been
recorded from Wicken Fen.
ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA. 133
(?) Gongylidiellum incertum, sp.n. p. 117.
Adult female, length 2 lines.
Cephalothorax much longer than wide, broadly and roundly
obtuse at its fore extremity ; lateral marginal impressions
at the caput well marked ; profile without impression between
caput and thorax. The clypeus projects forwards, and
exceeds in height half that of the facial space. The colour
The Eyes are small, and form very nearly a semi-circle.
The hinder row form a slightly curved line, whose convexity
is directed forwards ; the two centrals are separated from
each other by a diameter's interval, and each by a perceptibly
greater interval from the lateral eye on its side. The fore
lateral eye on each side is slightly the largest, and each
lateral pair is seated on a small tubercular prominence.
The fore -central pair are smallest, very near together, but
not quite contiguous, and form, with the hind-centrals, a
trapezoid whose hinder side is the longest.
The legs are rather long, 4, 1, 2, 3, moderately strong,
furnished with hairs, and a few slender bristles, and similar
in colour to the Cephalothorax.
Palpi similar to the legs in colour, and furnished on the
digital joints rather thickly with spine-like bristles.
Falces strong, straight, tapering, prominently convex in
front at their base, a little directed backwards, and slightly
darker coloured than the Cephalothorax.
Maxillce strong, nearly straight, rounded on the outer
side, and a little leaning towards the labium, which is broader
than long, hollow truncate at its upper margin and rounded
at the corners, and of a dark brown hue, the maxillce being
in colour like the falces.
Sternum heartshaped, its hinder extremity is rather con-
siderably produced into an oblong form between the basal
joints of the fourth pair of legs. Its colour is dark yellow
134 ON NEW AND BARE BRITISH ARACHNID A.
Abdomen oblong-oval, the upper side dull black and
thinly furnished with fine black hairs. The underside is
marked with an indistinct broken marginal whitish line on
each side, and the spiracular plates are white. Spinners
short and of a dull yellow-brown hue. On the underside
of the abdomen, rather less than half way between the
spinners and the genital aperture, is a longish transverse
slightly curved fold in the epidermis, which has the appear-
ance of being a perforated aperture ; but this may be only
from a shrinking of the skin. The genital aperture is of a
distinctive and characteristic form.
A single example found at Net hy bridge, Scotland, by
Mr. H. Donisthorpe.
Entelecara errata, sp.n. p. 119. Figs. 18-21.
Adult male, length J of a line (or 1-1 6th of an inch) ; length
of a female slightly more.
This minute spider is closely allied to Entelecara omissa,
Cambr., and has been hitherto recorded under that name.
It is, however, rather larger, and although corresponding in
its general form, appearance, and structure, the following
differences, among other lesser ones, seem to be sufficient to
justify its being considered a distinct species. The eyes of the
hind-central pair are distinctly nearer together, the interval
between them being little, if anything, greater than an eye's
diameter, while that between those of the corresponding
pair in E. omissa is much greater. The palpi also of the male
differ ; the digital joint in both has a similarly curved,
concave production of its extremity, but the prominent
process issuing from its concavity is longer and not clavate,
nor is it smooth at its extremity like that in E. omissa ; this
extremity in E. errata is apparently roughened and furnished
there with some minute points or denticulations. The
genital aperture in the female also differs slightly in its form
ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA. 135
In E. errata the general colouring is Cephalothorax dark
brown, legs dull orange yellow, and the abdomen dull yellow-
brown ; the colours of E, omissa being of a darker brown
hue on the cephalothorax, the legs clearer yellow, and the
abdomen jet black. These colours, however, may in some
measure depend upon the age of the specimen and the length
of time it had been in spirit of wine.
The examples of E. errata were found by Dr. A. R. Jackson
on Scawfell Pike and Bowfell, Cumberland, at height of 3,210,
and 2,960 feet, while so far E. omissa has only been found
in a marsh or marsh-like habitat.
Genus Nov. Collinsia.
Cephalothorax nearly as broad as long, rounded behind, and
tapering to its fore extremity, which is broadly and roundly
obtuse; the lateral marginal impressions are obsolete, or almost
so ; upper convexity normal ; profile almost uniformly
convex ; a very slight impression at the junction of the
caput and thorax. The height of the clypeus, which is rather
prominent, exceeds half that of the facial space. Eyes in
normal position of two transverse curved rows, posterior
row slightly curved, the convexity of the curve
directed backwards. Those of the central posterior
pair appear to be slightly largest of the eight. Legs
moderately strong, rather short, 4, 1, 2, 3! (1, 2, and 3
do not vary greatly in length) furnished with hairs, excepting
a slender bristle-like spine at the extremity of each of the
femora, and on each of the genual joints and tibiae. The
digital joint of the male palpus has a strong obtuse concave
prominence directed backwards at the base of the upper side.
Fakes rather long, moderately strong, straight, perpendicular,
and furnished with a small single tooth (ending with a slender
bristle) on the inner side near their extremity, besides the
normal teeth near the fangs.
136 ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDA.
Collinsia notabilis, sp.n. p. 120. Figs. 10-17.
Adult male length l-13th of an inch (2 mm).
The colour of the cephalothorax and fakes is yellow-brown,
that of the maxillce rather browner, and the sternum dark
brown, convex and furnished thinly with prominent pale hairs.
Abdomen black, spotted underneath, irregularly streaked on
the sides, and suffused above with a pale hue. Some obscure
transverse curved lines may be traced on the hinder half of
the upper side ; but all these pale markings are probably
untraceable excepting in spirit of wine. The whole abdomen
is covered with short curved hairs. The eyes are rather large,
those of the hinder row are equidistant from each other, or
very nearly so, the interval between the hind-central pair
being slightly the greatest, but rather less than an eye's
diameter. Those of each lateral pair are seated a little
obliquely on a slight tubercular prominence, and the fore
laterals appear to be rather larger than those of the hinder
row ; the fore-centrals are smallest and almost contiguous
to each other. The palpi are of moderate length, the cubital
joint shorter than the radial. This latter joint is much larger
and spreads out considerably to its fore extremity ; at its fore
extremity towards the inner side is a prominent curved,
tapering, short-pointed, black thorn-like projection or
apophysis, and near it on its outer side is another
pointed one, though not so long. The digital joint
is of tolerable size, and has its hinder extremity on the
upper side produced into a strong obtuse, slightly concave
prominence directed backwards. The radial and digital
joints are furnished with coarse hairs. The palpal organs
are very prominent at their extremity and complex, but their
structure can be better understood by reference to the figure
in the plate.
A single example in excellent condition was found and sent
to me from Tubney Wood, Berkshire, by Mr. J. Collins, of the
University Museum, Oxford.
By J. S. UDAL, F.S.A.
only to be expected that in a county like
Dorset, with a population so largely addicted
to agricultural and pastoral pursuits to say
nothing of that part of it employed upon its
large extent of sea-board that signs and
portents in any way indicative of what the
weather is likely to be, are eagerly looked for
and carefully treasured up, resulting in a
strong belief in those superstitions to which they give
It is, of course, impossible to say that many of the things
that I note in this paper are peculiar to Dorset, or even to
the West of England. But if one were only to record such
of them as are not known to exist outside the county, and
that principle were followed by other county collectors, then
very many interesting items of weather lore would remain
unchronicled altogether. As with plant and flower lore, so
it is obviously impossible that the study of weather lore, if it
be at all exhaustive, can be confined within the narrow
geographical limits of a county.
138 DORSET WEATHER LORE.
It is difficult in a short paper like this to deal with the
subject in a scientific or orderly method that would satisfy
the student of comparative folk-lore ; so I shall be content
to adopt some simple method of classification or arrangement
that will make it easy for any such student to select the
material he may desire for the purposes of comparison or
generalization. The older chroniclers of the domestic
customs and superstitions of the people which we now call
" folk-lore " were by no means scientific or orderly in the
treatment of their subject matter, but one was nevertheless
always able to find what one wanted. One of the most
usual methods was that of taking the particular days of the
calendar or periods of the year and adjusting and assigning
to them the subject matter suitable to each. It is this
method that I will now begin with, dealing with it in
Some thirty years or so ago the Dorset County Chronicle
(I think at my suggestion, for I was anxious at that time to
collect and preserve all the items I could of what may be
termed Dorset folk-lore) instituted in its pages a " Folk-lore
Column " for the collection of such items, and which I from
time to time helped to supply with material. From that
source, under date 17th December, 1891, I now give my
NEW YEAR'S DAY.
It reads somewhat in the form of a prophecy from Old
Moore's Almanac, and there is an old-world savour about
it, but my note-book does not give the actual source whence
it was taken. It treats of what we may expect should New
Year's Day chance to fall upon a Thursday.
" Winter and summer windie. A rainie harvest.
Therefore we shall have overflowings ; much fruit ;
plentie of honey ; yet flesh shall be deare, cattel in
general shall die ; great troubles ; warres."
Although not quite in chronological order I will now give
some weather forecasts applicable to Candlemas.
DORSET WEATHER LORE. 139
(i.) If Candlemas Day (2nd February) is a fine day,
winter is to come ; if it's a middling day, winter is
half over ; if it's a very rough day, winter is
(ii.) Another and rhythmical form of this belief was
sent to me years ago, together with several other
interesting items of Dorset folk-lore, by the late
Rev. W. K. Kendall, of East Lulworth, himself an
early member of this Club.
" If Candlemas Day be fair and fine,
Half the winter is left behin'.
If Candlemas Day do bluster and blow,
The winter is o'er, as all good people do know."
(iii.) Yet another instance of mild weather at Candlemas
being taken as a harbinger of something more severe
later on is furnished by the old saying that " as
much ground as the sun shines on on Candlemas
Day will be covered with snow before Lady
The late Mr. Hugh Norris, of South Petherton,
for many years Somerset Editor of our excellent
contemporary, c< The Somerset and Dorset Notes and
Queries " (Vol. I., pp. 160-162), gives a list of some
West Country weather proverbs, from which I
extract his version of the above saying, clothed in a
rich vernacular perhaps a little more Somerset
than Dorset " Za much groun' as ez cove'd wi'
" zun 'pon Cannelmas Day 11 be cove'd wi' znaw
" avore Laady Day."
(iv.) In the following instance relating to Candlemas,
furnished to " Notes and Queries " in 1872 (4th
S. X. 82) by F.C.H. (the well-known Roman
Catholic ecclesiastical authority, the late Dr. F. C.
Husenbeth), attention is called to the alteration in
these old dates a fact, I am afraid, generally
140 DORSET WEATHER LORE.
ignored caused by the introduction of the New
Style. He says :
" In Dorsetshire people anxiously look for the
dew-drops hanging thickly on the thorn-bushes on
Candlemas morning. When they do, it forebodes
a good year for peas. But these weatherwise seers
are apt to forget that all these old saws were adapted
to the Old Style, according to which what used to be
Candlemas is now St. Valentine. N'importe, the
weather prophet coolly moves on his peg and goes
on predicting with equal confidence."'
The following forecasts as to the kind of weather to be
expected are based upon what has already obtained in
particular months of the year
(i.) "A January Spring
Isn't worth a pin " (or, in West Dorset, ' ; is
good for no-thing.")
Mr. Norris renders this latter version in the
vernacular as follows : " A January spring edd'n
good vur noo-thing ; " because crops then become
too forward, " winter proud," as it is called, and
are liable to be damaged by later cold weather,
(ii.) Another version has :
" January Spring,
(iii.) And a West Dorset variant of this last runs :
" A January Spring
Makes a February ring " (i.e. a ringing frost
the reverberation on the hard, frosty
(i.) If a mild January was considered unseasonable
and undesirable, similar weather during the follow-
ing month of February seemed even less to the
DORSET WEATHER LORE. 141
taste of the Dorset agriculturist, if we may judge
from a couplet sent in 1889 to the Somerset and
Dorset N. and Q. (Vol. L, p. 269) by G.W.F., under
which initials it is not difficult to recognise Mr. G.
W. Floyer, another old member of the Club
" Of all months that are in the year
Curse a fair Februeer."
(ii.) According to Mr. Norris this month shares, in
slightly different terms, the epithet given to it by
many other counties of " Veb'uary veil-ditch."
(i.) The following proverb is no doubt common to
many counties besides Dorset " If March comes in
like a lion, it will go out like a lamb," and vice versa.
(ii.) It is widely believed that March and the two follow-
ing months afford the greatest trial to a weakly
constitution, owing to their often rapid change
of temperature. It is thus expressed in Dorset
" March wull sarch,
Eapril wull try,
If you'll live or die."
(iii.) Another common one is
" March winds and April showers
Will bring forth May flowers."
(iv.) The value to agriculturists of a dry March is well
recognised in the proverbial sayings of many
counties. In West Dorset I find the somewhat
unusual form of " A bushel of March dust is worth
a King's ransom when do vail on thornen leaves,"
given by a correspondent in Notes and Queries (5th
S. I. 505), who suggests that the March dust is
valuable at the close of the month when the thorn
begins to unfold its leaves -rather than at an earlier
142 DORSET WEATHER LORE.
(v.) Mr. Norris is responsible for the following :
" Zoo many vogs en Maarch, zoo many vrausts
(or, var. " vloods ") en May."
(vi.) Also for the statement that when in Spring snow
lies for some time on the hill-sides and under hedges
the popular belief is that " 'Tes awaitin' vurmooa."
The following quatrain speaks for itself
" Sun Easter Day,
Little grass, but good hay.
Rain Easter Day,
Good deal of grass, but bad hay."
(i.) The changeable weather usually experienced in
the month of May is neatly expressed in one of Mr.
Norris's contributions : " May's ha'f zumma 'n ha'f
(ii.) " A Zunny May 'n a dropping June
'11 put all things en good tune.''
A comforting thought, as Mr. Norris says, for a late
" A dry Summer never goes begging."
Or, a West Dorset variant,
" A dry Summer never begs its bread."
Meaning thereby that fine dry weather in summer
time is good for com crops, particularly wheat.
The unseasonable effects of early frosts are shewn
by the following lines :
" A frost before Michaelmas Day
Hard enough to bear a duck ;
All the Winter after
Nothing but muck."
DORSET WEATHER LORE. 143
(i.) Similar to the last is one referable to Christmas :
" If the ice will bear a horse before Christmas it
won't bear a duck after."
(ii.) " A light Christmas, light harvest."
" Light " here presumably refers to a mild Christmas.
(iii.) The same consequences of unseasonably mild
weather, as already expressed as prevailing at
Candlemas (iii.) is, with regard to Christmas, shewn
by the following : " If the sun shines on Christmas
Day it will snow on Candlemas Day."
(iv.) The same idea is more graphically expressed,
perhaps, in this variant of the aphorism : " How
far the sun is within the stall on Christmas Day, so
far the snow will be on Candlemas Day."
(v.) As a West Country variant of the common saying
that " A green Christmas makes a fat churchyard,"
Mr. Norris gives the following as indicating the
fatal effects of a trying spring on the constitutions
of the sick and aged who have survived a mild
winter " Ev a chich'ard da look lik' a pastur' veel
" 'pon C'ursmas Day '11 look lik' a plow'd veel avoa
" Medzumma Day."
(vi.) He also gives the following : " Dree whit'
vrauses (frosts) vollerin' avore C'ursmas 11 bring
rain," a saying not by any means peculiar to Dorset
or even the West Country.
PARTICULAR DAYS OF THE WEEK.
(i.) The weather obtaining on particular days of the
week has been made the subject of note or observa-
tion. In Dorset it is said that " Friday and the
rest of the week are never alike," referring to the
exceptionable weather usually met with on a Friday.
(ii.) And sometimes it takes the form, in connection
with other counties, of " Like Friday, like Sunday."
144 DORSET WEATHER LORE.
The former expression would appear to be at
least as old as Chaucer. See the Knighte's Tale, 681
(Skeat's edition), " Selde is the Friday al the wyke
i-lyke." This is referred to in a note by Miss C. S.
Burne in her " Shropshire Folk-lore," p. 261.
MOON WEATHER LORE.
The various phases of the moon in most counties bear a
large part in their weather lore, and amongst these the time
of the new moon is predominant.
(i.) In 1874 I sent to " Notes and Queries " (5th S.,
i., 48) an illustration of this from a Dorset source,
wherein I stated that I had been informed by an
old Dorset shepherd that " a Saturday's new moon
" once in seven years was once too often for sailors,"
meaning thereby that sailors have a special dread of
a new moon falling upon that day of the week.
And I mentioned in illustration of this that the new
moon for the previous August had fallen upon a
Saturday, and that both the weather and sea had
been unusually rough for that time of year,
(ii.) Hence the proverb : "A Saturday's moon is the
(iii.) This is intensified should the full moon also fall
on a Sunday, as is shown by the following couplet :
'' A Saturday's moon and Sunday's full
Never did good and never wull."
(iv.) A variant of this from West Dorset was sent in
1856 to " Notes and Queries " (2nd S., ii., 516) by
Clericus Rusticus (Rev. H. Rawlinson, Rector of
" A Saturday's change and a Sunday's full
Comes too soon whenever it wool."
(v.) When the moon is " cupped " (i.e., has her horns
turned directly upwards), it is popularly supposed
DORSET WEATHER LORE. 145
to forebode a wet month. (Mr. H. Norris.) This
position of the moon is sometimes spoken of as
" lying on her back."
(vi.) " As many days as the moon is old at Middlemas
(i.e., Michaelmas), so many floods before Christ-
MISCELLANEOUS WEATHER FORECASTS.
I now come to what I may term miscellaneous weather
forecasts, or circumstances and incidents portending wet or
fine weather. And first I will deal with predictions of
PREDICTIONS OF RAIN.
(i.) " Predictions of rain," says M.G.A.S. (Miss
Summers, of Hazelbury Bryan, a lady who often
contributed items of folk-lore to the Dorset Chronicle
Folk-lore Column], in March, 1889, " are manifold.
" Painful rheumatism, shooting corns, spiders
' ; leaving their cobwebs and creeping about the
" rooms, soot falling down the chimney, stones
" drying quickly, cats washing over their ears with
" their paws. I was astonished by an exclamation
" I heard yesterday denoting the belief in ' weather
" prophets,' which still clings to Dorset. ' Dear-a-
" me,' says an old woman, " a we'at zummer is
" a' -fore us. 5 ' Bad job this year,' says her com-
" panion. * I didn't mind you 'twere a' tween the
" 18th and 20th.' " " Thus," adds Miss Summers,
" rain between these dates denotes a wefr summer."
I presume this would mean such a period in any
month before summer commences.
(ii.) Another prediction of rain is probably known to
many here, namely, that when Hardy's Monument
is plainly visible from Dorchester, it is a sign of bad
weather, or, as another contributor to the Dorset
146 DORSET WEATHER LORE.
County Chronicle in March, 1898, rhythmically
" When Hardy's Monument is plainly seen,
There'll soon be heavy rain, I ween."
(iii.) From an illustration that has such an interesting
naval connection with the county I will pass on to
one of a more military character, namely, that
the playing of a German band usually brings rain.
A correspondent in Notes and Queries in 1887 (7th
S., iii., 306) states that during the haymaking
season in Dorset in the previous year a man was
heard to say, " I thought it would rain, the
Germingham (German) band was in the village."
It appears to be a firmly rooted idea in the rural
districts of Dorset, and also of Somerset (p. 432),
that the arrival of these foreign musicians changes
the weather for the worse. It is stated in " Folk
Lore " (Vol. XX., p. 348, 1909) that a candidate in
a recent Civil Service examination gave as a reason
for the decreasing number of German bands in this
country that people will not give them money
because they bring rain !
(iv.) The direction of the wind as indicating wet
weather will, I think, to most minds afford something
more than a merely superstitious belief in the correct-
ness of the following lines, which are not, I take it,
peculiar to this county.
" The south wind always brings wet weather ;
The north wind wet and cold together ;
The west wind always brings in rain ;
The east wind blows it back again."
The weather of the last month or two has afforded
ample means of testing this !
(v.) The face of the sky is eagerly scanned by the
weather-wise as indicative of bad or fine weather,
and the following lines represent, I think, the form
DORSET WEATHER LORE. 147
in which this old adage is generally known to Dorset
" Red in the morning,
Shepherds' fore -warning ;
Red at night,
(vi.) Or, a shorter version :
" Red in the morning,
All day storming."
(vii.) Mr. Norris gives a combination of these two :
" Urds (red clouds) en tha marnin',
All tha day starmin' ;
Urds en tha night,
'Z tha shephe'ds' delight "
(or, " All the day bright ").
The general distrust of " mackerel " sky from a
weather point of view is shewn from two rhymes
given by Mr. Norris in his list of weather lore items
(viii.) " Mack'el sky en maa's (mare's) tails,
Da maake zailas (sailors) Iowa zails."
(ix.) " Mack'el sky,
Wun't be vaour 'n twenty hours dry."
(x.) The old Dorset proverb that
" A fog on the hill
Brings water to the mill,"
is, of course, a clear indication of rain,
(xi.) The ancients were not the only people to practise
divination from observations of the flight of birds
or the actions of animals. In Dorset it is commonly
believed that if rooks are seen to be flying round and
round, cawing loudly or in a " charm," as the
rustics would say, and frequently dropping in their
flight and recovering themselves, it is a sign of
148 DORSET WEATHER LORE.
imminent and very stormy weather. This is more
than a mere superstition, and is easily verified.
(See also Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries,
Vol. I., p. 182, where this action of the rooks is
spoken of as " playing breakneck.")
(xii.) It is commonly noticed that immediately before a
thunderstorm birds will cease their singing and seek
(xiii.) If the green wood-pecker (picus viridis] called
in Dorset the " yaffle " (from his joyous laugh of
" yaffala, yaffala, yaffala "), also the " wood- wall,"
and sometimes the " rain bird " (see R. Bosworth
Smith's Bird Life and Bird Lore, p. 405 (1909)
whilst flying from tree to tree or wood, frequently
utters its discordant, or, as some people would have
it, laughing cry, it is a sign of rain.
(xiv.) Again, if a wren is heard to cry or sing much it is
said to be a sign of rain.
(xv.) So, also, if geese fly, or flutter, down hill.
(xvi.) Or if a cock crows upon his perch. Hence the
" If a cock goes a-crowen to bed,
He'll ceartainly rise wi' a watery head."
(xvii.) The same significance is attached whenever snails,
especially black ones, are seen crawling about to any
extent. Thus an old saying :
" When black snails cross your path,
Black clouds much moisture hath."
Portents of fine weather :
I am afraid that I have not been able to gather together
so many portents or predictions of fine weather as I have of
those foreboding the reverse.
(i.) If cattle during wet and miserable weather are
seen feeding at the top of a hill, it is considered a
sign that the weather will soon clear up. This I
have not infrequently verified myself.
DORSET WEATHER LORE. 149
(ii.) As we have heard that if geese fly, or flutter,
down hill it denotes rain, so, if they do so uphill, it
foretells fine weather.
(iii.) The adage is common to most counties, I think,
"If it rains before seven
It will be fine before eleven."
(iv.) The common, or scarlet, pimpernel (anagallis
arvensis) called in Dorset " the poor man's weather-
glass," from its delicate sense of perceiving the
approach of rain, when it closes its flowers is
often apostrophized by children in their games in
the following lines :
" Pimpernel, pimpernel, tell me true,
Whether the weather be fine or no.
No heart can think, no tongue can tell
The virtues of the pimpernel."
(v.) The ash, in conjunction with the oak, is a very
favourite test, according as one or the other is the
first to put forth its leaves, as to what kind of
weather may be expected during the ensuing season.
" If the ash is before the oak,
Then there'll be a very great smoke ;
If the oak is before the ash,
Then there'll be a very great splash."
But, as I have said in a former paper, in this Club's
Proceedings in 1899, dealing with superstitions
applicable to the ash tree, the variants of this
weather forecast are many. Some that I have
heard, even in this county, are exactly the opposite
to what I have given above, as in the following lines :
" If the ash is before the oak,
Then there'll be a very great soak ;
If the oak is before the ash,
Then there'll be a very small splash."
150 DORSET WEATHER LORE.
I think it will be noticed that in the large majority
of seasons the oak leaves are out before those of
the ash. But I will leave it to observers themselves
to say which of the two versions given above they
consider the more correct one. For myself I can
say that the oak leaves were first out last year, and
what a summer we had !
(vi.) I will conclude this paper with a reference to the
rainbow, which, somewhat curiously, seems to have
been made but little use of as a weather portent,
at least, so far as it has come to my notice.
A correspondent in Notes and Queries (7th S.,
xi., 17) (1891) states that in Dorset, half a century
before, the secondary rain-bow was called the " water-
gull," and was supposed to be necessary to make
the weather sign a satisfactory one. If one was
seen alone, or with only an imperfect " water-gull,"
it was deemed unlucky. In other parts of England
(e.g., Yorkshire) it would seem that attempts
were made to " cross out," or get rid of,
the bow, by making a cross on the ground.
Sometimes this was done by the foot, or by
taking two pieces of stick and laying them
on the ground and placing a small stone at
the end of each stick. Sometimes straws
were similarly used, or even the crossing of the
forefingers of each hand was considered quite as
effectual. This charm was supposed to cause the
rainbow to disappear ; but one may well believe
that by the time some of these charms were got
ready the rainbow had disappeared of its own
accord. (X., 366, 471.)
By E. A. FRY.
IN the De Banco Roll of Trinity, 7 Richard II., 1383,
at the Public Record Office, London, are
several long suits which recount a contest
between the brewers of ale in Sherborne and
Ralph, Bishop of Sarum. They are too long
to give verbatim (though I have taken them
out in full), but the controversy in a shortened
form is as follows.
The brewers complain that the Bishop had taken a horse
and kept it for three days and, because it was not fed and
watered, it had died. The Bishop replies it is true he took
the horse, but he kept it only half a day, and that if it died it
was through no fault of his, as the brewers could have fed and
watered it if they had chosen. Whether it was one horse
taken in the name of all the brewers or one horse from each
of them, is not quite clear, but in each case the horse died,
which seems rather extraordinary.
The Bishop goes on to say that he was quite in order in
taking the horse, as it was distrained for non-payment of his
152 SHERBORNE BREWERS IN 1383.
due of 2 1 gallons of the best ale and 2J gallons of the second
ale (subsequently altered to 2 gallons for each kind) and
one farthing for every gallon of ale brewed for sale in his
manor of Sherborne, of which he was the lord. In subsequent
pleadings he alters the lordship to that of the Castle of
Sherborne, and states that he had view of frank pledge
twice a year.
In reply to this, Henry Lyneden, one of the plaintiffs, states
that the place where this brewing of ale took place was in
La Nywelond, i.e. Newland, parcel of the demesne lands of
the manor, situate between the Chapel of St. Thomas-on-the-
Green of Sherborne and the Castle. He goes on to quote a
charter granted by Richard (Poore) Bishop of Sarum (1217
1228), in the reign of Henry III., and confirmed by Bishop
Roger (de Mortival, 1315-1330) in the reign of Edward II.,
which I here condense in English, but give in full Latin text
further on. It would be interesting to ascertain if this
charter is still in existence, or is enrolled in any of the Salisbury
Cathedral muniments, or whether it is a veritable antiquarian
Bishop Poore's charter is dated in the eleventh year of his
pontificate (the day and month are not stated), that is to say,
in the last year of his being at Salisbury, and therefore before
22 July, 1228, on which day he was translated to Durham.
By it he grants, with the assent of the Dean and Chapter, to
all his freemen who take new burgages at Sherborne between
the Chapel of St. Thomas and the Castle, that they shall hold
them freely and quietly for ever from him and his successors
with all liberties and free customs to the said burgages
belonging. Three kinds or sizes of burgages are instituted,
the first kind are on the south side of the way which leads
from the said Chapel towards the Castle, and are to measure
20 perches long by 4 perches wide, and are to pay 12 pence
per annum at the 4 usual quarter days. The second are on the
north side of the said way, and are to measure 24 perches
long by 4 perches wide, and are to pay an annual rent of
18 pence, and the third kind are situate between the said
SHERBORNE BREWERS IN 1383. 153
Chapel and " our barn," probably a tithe barn, and measure
only 2 perches long by 2 perches wide, and pay an annual
rent of 8 pence. These rents are " for all service and
exaction for said burgages which said free tenants and
their heirs have for ever." It is over these few last words
that the disputes arose, as will be shown later on.
The " Inspeximus " of the Charter by Bishop Roger has no
date whatever, and only an exhaustive examination of the
periods when the witnesses to it were all alive will give the
precise date, between 1315 and 1330 (during which years
Roger de Mortival was Bishop of Salisbury), when the
document could have been confirmed.
Henry Lyneden's contention is that he now holds a burgage
which Bishop Richard granted to John Bradford, and was
therefore free from all services and exactions.
To this the Bishop replies that the Charter only extended
to the exoneration of the tenants from doing the services
mentioned in the Charter.
Some of the Plaintiffs go rather fully into the question of
the situation of Newland, and say that the Castle is situate
within the site of the manor of Sherborne, within the precincts
of which manor there is an ancient vill of Sherborne bounded
by ancient metes and bounds, and that there are within the
precincts of the said manor divers hamlets outside the ancient
vill of Sherborne, viz., West Burton, East Burton, Holnest,
Wotton, Gromeslee, Pyneford, Woborn, and Thornyford.
Adjacent and contiguous to, but outside the bounds of the
ancient vill, are three places called Coumbe, North Coumbe,
and Nywelond, in which three places were men living for a
long time who brewed ale for sale, and that Bishop Richard
granted certain burgages of different dimensions, paying for
them various rents " for all services and exactions," and
that the said Bishop had a Court with View of Frankpledge
to be held at the Cross in the middle of the place of
Nywelond by his Seneschall, to which Court the men of
Nywelond holding burgages there came and not elsewhere,
and were amerced and punished, and it was here the men of
154 SHERBORNE BREWERS IN 1383.
Nywelond were tallied and taxed and not in the old vill of
Sherborne, nor did the men of the old vill come to Nywelond.
Apparently this plaintiff endeavoured to set up an imperium
in imperio exempt from a tax on ale. But it was of no avail,
for a jury being summoned they state on their oaths that the
said Bishop and his predecessors in virtue of their lordship of
the Castle of Sherborne have always been accustomed time
out of mind (not merely in Bishop Poore's time) to have
2 gallons of the best ale and 2 gallons of the second ale and one
farthing per gallon, both within and without the precincts of
the vill of Sherborne, and they assess the damages of the
Bishop at 37 0, which I suppose would be some 555 of
our present money. They proceed to state what amount
each of the plaintiffs have to pay towards this 37, and grant
a " nolle prosequi " to two only of the plaintiffs.
It is to be noticed that in the first place John Scopey
(on m. 304), Richard Mohun (on m. 305), John Tayllor atte
mere (on m. 306) and Henry Lyneden (on m. 307), as plaintiffs,
each bring separate, though practically identical, suits against
the Bishop for taking an unfortunate horse which dies, but
it is only Henry Lyneden who quotes the Charter and its
" inspeximus," presumably because he occupied one of the
original burgages (formerly John Bradford's) granted by
Then Bishop Ralph turns the tables and brings two suits,
one against (m. 315) the Defendants, John Caundle, souter,
Walter Fisher, Thomas Tylie, John Kent, mulleward, John
Pyneford, Robert Font, Robert Mulleward, Roger Bavant,
Richard Croppe, John Dale, Matilda Gys, Walter Goldsmyth,
Richard Godefray, William Houpere, William Free, John
Scopey, Peter Shoier, John Graunt, John Bakere, John
Dodde, Thomas Shephurd, and Henry Lyneden.
In the other suit (on m. 318) the Defendants are William
Northerne, Stephen Bakere, William Font, John Nobilet>
SHERBORNE BREWERS IN 1383. 155
John Manston, Margery Toukere, William Muriel, Margery
Mannyng, John Bemynstre, John Donpayn, John Taillour,
webbe, Thomas Iweyn, Richard Monne, John Mulleward,
John Bouer, Nicholas Deighere, William Mulleward, Stephen
Holdefast, Robert Anketyll, Henry Mascall, William
Webbe, and Nicholas Burel.
The damages assessed by the Jury on m. 315 are
37, those on m. 318 are 30, but both seem to have been
revised, and on m. 319 and m. 320 the damages are reduced
to 20 for both sets of Defendants.
What is particularly interesting in these proceedings is the
statement that there was a Cross in the middle of the place
of Newland, and Mr. Alfred Pope will be able to state in a
future edition of his valuable "Old Stone Crosses of Dorset "
that a Cross was certainly in existence there in Bishop
Poore's time, viz., 1217-1228.
Perhaps the division of Newland into three zones with
burgages of various dimensions and rents, and its position
with regard to the Castle and the Barn, may throw light on
other points now doubtful.
But the quotation in full of a Charter of A.D. 1228 cannot
fail to be of archaeological value, and the long list of local
brewers shows to what an extent this beverage was consumed
even in those days. Incidentally, also, it shows that the
Chapel of St. Thomas-on-the-Green was in existence at the
date of the Charter of 1228, the earliest date, I believe,
previously known concerning this Chapel, being a Patent
Roll of 18-19 Richard II., 1395, as mentioned in Hutchins,
3rd ed., Vol. IV., page 257.
The Inspeximus of Bishop Roger de Mortival (1315-1330)
of the Charter of Bishop Richard Poore (1217-1228) to his
156 SHERBORNE BREWERS IN 1383.
freemen of Sherborne. (De Banco Roll No. 490, m.
Universis sancte Matris ecclesie filiis ad quos presens scriptum
pervenerit Rogerus permissione divina Sarum ecclesie minister humilis
salutem in Domino Noveritis nos inspexisse cartam Ricardi quondam
Episcopi Sarum in hec vorba Universis Sancte Matris ecclesie filiis
ad quos presens scriptum pervenerit Ricardus permissione divina
Sarum ecclesie minister humilis Salutem in Domino Scire volumus
universis quod nos assensu Decani et Capituli Sarum ad honorem beate
Marie Sarum Dedimus et hac presenti carta nostra Confirmamus
omnibus liberis hominibus nostris qui nova burgagia capiunt vel
recepturi sunt apud Shirobourn scilicet inter Capellam Sancti Thome
et Castrum quod ipsi et heredes sui teneant do nobis et successoribus
nostris burgagia que habent vel habituri sunt in predicto loco libere
pacifice integre honorifice et quiete imperpetuum cum omnibus
libertatibus et libris consuetudinibus ad hujusmodi burgagia pertinent!
bus Ita videlicet quod presente ballivo nostro liceat ipsis et heredibus
suis burgagia sua dare vendere vel obligare cuicurique voluerint
preterquam ecclesiasticis domibus religiosis et judeis sub tali forma
scilicet quod quicumque aliquod burgagium dare voluit hereditario
dabit nobis et successoris nostris pro relevio quantum idem burgagium
reddit per annum Sunt autem predicta burgagia in tres partes distincta
Prima pars est in australi parte [vie] qua it a capella Sancti Thome
versus Castrum in qua parte plenum burgagium continet in longitudine
viginti perticatas et in latitudine quatuor perticatas Ita videlicet
quod quicumque tale burgagium tenuerit dabit nobis et successoribus
nostris duodecem denarios per annum Secunda pars est in boriali
parte predicte vie in qua parte plenum burgagium continet in
longitudine viginti et quatuor perticatas et in latitudine quatuor
perticatas Et quicumque tale burgagium tenuerit dabit nobis et
successoribus nostris annuatim decem et octo denarios et qui plus
vel minus tenuerit de talibus partibus burgagii secundum predictam
quantitatem nobis et successoribus nostris respondebit Tercia pars
est que se extendit a capella Sancti Thome versus orreum nostrum in
qua parte burgagium continet in longitudine duas perticatas et in
latitudine duas perticatas Et quicumque tale burgagium tenuerit
dabit nobis et successoribus nostris octo denarios per annum Ipsi vero
qui predicta burgagia tenent et tenebunt solvent prenominatum
redditum ad quatuor annuos terminos scilicet ad Natale Domini
quartam partem et ad festum Annunciationis Beate Marie quartam
pattern et ad festum Nativitatis Sancti Johannis Baptiste quartam
partem et ad festum Sancti Michaelis quartam partem pro omni servicio
et exactione Quare volumus et concedimus quod predict! liberi tenentes
SHERBORNE BREWERS IN 1383. 157
et heredes sui habeant imperpetuum predicta burgagia per predictum
servicium bene in pace sicut predictum est Et ad majorem hujas nostre
concessionis securitatem huic carte sigillum nostrum una cum sigillo
Capituli nostri huic presenti carte sunt appensa Hiis testibus
Henrico Abbate de Shirborne
Magistro Elia de Durham tune Seneshallo nostro
Gilberto de Stapelbrigge canonico de Sarum
Waltero de Purle
Stephano de Burton
Ricardo de Gulleford
Rogero Everard tune serviente de Shirborn clerico
Henrico de Haddon
Phillipo de Charteray
Wiliielmo de Duyn
Anno pontificatus nostri undecimo
Nos vero predictam cartam in omnibus suis articulis predicis bur-
gensibus ot eorum heredibus prout ea usi fuerint pro nobis et success-
oribus nostris approbamus ratificamus et confirmamus Salvis nobis
et successor bus nostris et ecclesie nostre Sarum omnibus redditibus et
serviciis que nobis et predecessoribus nostris aliquo tempore accre-
verunt seu successoribus nostris accrescere possunt in futuro de quibus
quidem purpresturis placeis terre arentatis seu arentandis Ac eciam
oscaetis in manibus nostris aut predecessorum nostrorum post datum
predicte carte quoquomodo accidentibus In cujus rei testimonium
presentibus sigillum nostrum una cum sigillo Capituli nostri Sarum
sunt apensa Hiis testibus
Magistro Henrico de la Wyle, cancellario ecclesie nostre Sarum
Magistro Thome Hentot, Archidiacono Dors
Magistro Waltero Hervy, Archidiacono Sarum
Magistro de Ayleston, Archidiacono Wiltes
Magistro Roberto Blonttesdon
Domino Wiliielmo de Braybrok
Domino Roberto de Wynchcombe et aliis
(There is no date to this Inspeximus.)*
* Canon Mayo informs me that Robert de Ayleston was collated
to the Archdeaconry of Wilts, 27 May 1326 and became Archdeacon
of Birks in 1331, so that Bishop Roger de Mortival's inspeximus must
be dated between 27 May 1326 and 14 March 1329 30 when the
By W. de C. PRIDEAUX, L.D.S., Eng., F.R.S.M.
_-^Lfc- ac it5-<
T a previous meeting I exhibited a series of
figure and other memorial brasses ; to my
great regret they were destroyed by fire
shortly after, before being reproduced.
I may perhaps mention that a large plano-
convex lens was the cause of my trouble,
and warn fellow-members against leaving
lenses near papers, whether rolled or flat,
on a sunny day.
I have rubbed most of these again and reproduce those
from Woolland, Pimperne, Lytchett Matravers, and Church
Knowle this year. Of others I have five inscribed brasses
from Wareham, not in Haines' list. The Rector of St. Mary's
was kind enough to allow me to examine the reverse of these
brasses for possible palimpsests, I regret to say with
negative result. During the alterations at Puddletown
Church, the Rev. A. L. Helps allowed me to examine the
curious Cheverell effigy and inscription there, but these
plates, contrary to expressed opinion, proved to have perfectly
Hepe jyefh y body of MT George Surge
f'coice Moior. of fhts Towie/tofao died
Febr; 15, i 6 ^O .
IfKonefir tirrh, good breeding Courage, 'to
Confempf of teeaJfh.firme"Frind(hipp.may beF
An pifapK; OP Bounf ie, ferue f o raife
Thy fleepinc^ Alhe^ info Wkin^ praife
ThiV TombV -^hy Tnrmpef t,&. fhy :%^acy
In zea!e,lef f o fKis Houle Thai! neu^r dy.
S^rnxft' amor^is' ergo
Anna Vxor efu^ * i
(Bcor^e uraes t 1640,
nirliara ffranHr. lutufeuiir Hn^ir ititDatliam.Qie
Srtaroflip:.* linj-i'iaiu* of aurntt m an. if 8 ?.0raw
.fitrn of ttif CRi'r of .f?. r
at m rtiaurrs
raahiTtir &? CE&!
i sclicntf uinit Cut rtirr gupDrir T
rtjaiuu emttifutt Hanij .Oirr,PtUJrt
iRplitr jbr> uiait ur> inapti 016 urofr
Him Jranfce, 1583.
ANCIENT MEMORIAL BRASSES OF DORSET. 159
WAREHAM, ST. MARY'S.
Position. Fixed against south wall of chancel.
Size. This is given separately.
Description. Four 17th Century inscribed brasses in plain
Roman type, and one of 16th Century date in Old English,
having a little ornamental detail as filling. These epitaphs
are curious, in matter and spelling.
(1) Size of plate, 20in. wide above, 17 Jin. below, llfin.
Here lyeth y e body of Mr. George Burges,
twice Maior of this Towne, who died.
Febr. 13, 1640.
If honest birth, good breeding, courage, witt,
Contempt of wealth, firme friendshipp, may befitt
An Epitaph or Bountie, serve to raise
Thy sleeping Ashes into waking praise,
This Tomb's thy Trumpett, and thy Legacy
. In zeale, left to this House shall never dy.
Struxit amoris ergo
Anna Vxor eius.
(2) Size of plate, 18in. wide by 6Jin. deep.
Here lyeth the bodye of Ann Franke the wyfe of
Richard Franke, sumtyme Draper in Wareham, shee
Desesed the xviii. daye of Apryll in An . 1583, being
then the eayge of xxx yeres.
A matron sage, in maners mild, in modistie did exsell,
In Godlinis, in governement shee ever guyded well ;
In wedlocke chast in faythfull hand shee yelded up
Beloved, bewayled by man, by mayd, and wyfe.
160 ANCIENT MEMORIAL BRASSES OF DORSET.
(3) Size of plate, 20|in. by 6Jin.
Here Lyeth buried the Body of William Perkins of
Byeastwall nere Wareham gent who dyed the XX TH
of August in the yeere of our Lord God, 1613.
Fine witt, fat welth, faire face, and sturdy strength
All these Devoringe Death Consumes at length.
Intemerated vertue and good name
Stand fast as rock, nothing removes the same ;
Therefore love firme things, loath the fleeting still,
This is the Sense and Subject of my will.
(4) Size of plate, 20|in. by 5Jin.
To the deare memory of her husband Richard Perkins,
Gent, who having passed his life Religiously towards
God And W TH great integrity and uprightnes towards
The World, rendered up his devout soule into the
Hands of his blessed Saviour, y e 22 of Aprill, A 1616.
(5) Size of plate, 14in. by 6in.
Loe heere lieth buried within this grave
The man home God did meane to save,
And hath him advanced to heaven's blis,
Wher he of hevens joye possessed is ;
If more of him you list to knowe
Thes folowinge leters his name do showe.
Edmund Moore who
Lived 72 years and
Died Maye 21, 1625.
HERE LYETH BVRIED THE JioDV OF WILLIAM PERKINS OF
BYKAbTWALL NERE W\RHAM GENT WHO DYED THE XX
OF AVGV5T IN THE YEERE OF OVR LORD GOD.l 6\^.
FlNE WITT, FAT WELTIl, FA1KE E\CE r AND STVRtJY STiyg.NGTH:
ALL THe^r, D^voRiNcr. DEATH Co NSVMES AT LENGTH.
INTEMERAT ED VERT^E AND GOOD NAME:
SX\ND .fcAST AS ROCK NOTHING REMOVES THE SAME.
THEREFORE LOV^E FIRME TIHNCS; LOATH THE FLEETING STIUU
THIS is THE S>:NSE AND SVBIECT OF MY WTLL^
Blilltam iperfiins, 1613,
'lip TFE DEAR MEMORY OF HER HVSBANDRlCHAJRD PERKINS
GENT WHO JWING PASSED HIS LIFE RELICIOVSLY TOWARDS
Goo AND w 'GREAT INT EGRJTY,&VPRIGHTNES- TOWARDS
TFE WORLD, RENDERED vp HIS DEVOVT SOVLE INTO THE
HA> T D5 OF HIS BLESSED SAY1OVR Y 22 OFAPRIIX A* l6l6~
IRicbarD Perkins, 1616.
HERK LYETH OVR ^jyt&AWE Losmo or ALL:
WHOM MARY ARGENTON LAST WE ^DID CALL.
.ftVT TOKM^RLlElHORNH^LL OPT^WHVLL F HlGHT
YCTSFSTER TO WILLIAMS OF HERINGSTON KNIGHT. ^
fiVT'lHORNH VLL DID LEAVE 1RM JWNC^ SVRE
THISMANNOR OF VvbLLAND^vVKiL ST lyte JDID INDVRE
Ti^: REVENErW WtEROR S1E FREELY& DID SPEND
IN GOOD HOSPITAL1TIE VJNfTlLL ft R LIVES ZT^D
HER PR AVERS TO GOD Sre NEVER NEGLECTED
HfeR LIFE, WITH INFAMYE NEVERl>ETECTb -
Tl-EJN REST WJE ASSVRED TmOVGH GODS GOOD GRACE
HER.50VLK IN Y HEAVENS HATH TAKEN HER PLACE
& DIED JN TPE YEARE-OFOVR LORDeOD \6\6
ANCIENT MEMORIAL BRASSES OF DORSET. 161
Mary, daughter of Robert Williams of Herringston, wife
of Robert Thornhull, and then of Lewis Argenton, 1616,
inscription in 12 lines Eng. mural Chancel, Haines.
Position. Mural in the South aisle.
Size. Effigy 98in. high, by 11 Jin. broad at the base ;
inscription is 20 Jin. by 13in.
Description. This curiously worded inscription described
above by Haines is dated 1616, but the kneeling effigy above
would appear to be of earlier date ; if not, the figure is a very
late example of its type. The Church of Woolland was
wholly rebuilt in 1743, " being ancient and ruinous ; " in its
removal further West monuments to the Thornhulls are said
to have suffered. Mary Williams was the second wife of
Robert Thornhull, and by her he had seven children ; his
first wife was Jane, daughter of John Tregonwell of Milton
Abbey Esq r " and by her he had two sons and one daughter,
Margaret, who married John Skerne of Bere Regis. Margaret
Skerne's kneeling figure* in the Chancel at Bere Regis, 1596,
although considerably smaller, is very similar to that of her
kinswoman at Woolland.
The inscription, in Roman letters, reads as follows : -
Here lyeth our Landladie loved of all,
Whom Mary Argenton last wee did call,
But formerlie Thornhull of Thornhull she hight,
Yet sister to Williams of Heringston, Knight.
But Thornhull did leave her in Joyncture most sure
This Mannor of Wolland, whilst lyfe did indure ;
The Revenew whereof she freelye did spend
In good hospitalitie untill her lives end.
* Page 205, 1902 Proceedings, Part I., The Ancient Memorial Brasses
162 ANCIENT MEMORIAL BRASSES OF DORSET.
Her prayers to God she never neglected,
Her life with Infamye never detected.
Then rest we assured, through Gods good grace,
Her soule in y e Heavens hath taken her place.
& died in the yeare of our Lord God 1616.
PIMPERNE, ST. PETER.
Mrs. Dorothy Williams, 1694, curious, her husband John
(rector ?), quadrangular plate mural, Haines.
Position. Mural, near South door.
Size. ISJin. high by 18fin. wide.
Description. This brass, showing fine but curious
craftsmanship, and having borders representing the familiar
emblems of mortality, probably came from the workshop of
a goldsmith or copper plate engraver, whose name may be
deciphered above the feet of the skeleton, " Edmund Colpeper,
It is an example of two figures representing one and the
same individual, and is found occasionally in stone, one
above, in health and full costume of the period, the other a
skeleton recumbent. In this instance the lady is represented
as rising from a skeleton lying on a mattress, with a scroll
issuing from her mouth bearing the text " O Death where
is thy sting, Grave where is thy victory." The inscription,
in Roman letters, reads :
Near this place lies y e body of Mrs. Dorothy Williams who
deceased Nov. y e 24th An5 Dom. 1694. Erected by her
Husband John Williams Cler. in memory of y e best of
Dormio at Resurgam.
IjuT eclf ft ciir |]inrtiir 1
ITbomas petb^n, 1Rcctor t c 1470,
lulctartnv vcccifuarou? imrtiTlicimciHnit^mi iHc
Margaret Clement, 1505.
ANCIENT MEMORIAL BRASSES OF DORSET. 163
LYTCHETT MATRAVERS, ST. MARY.
1. Thos. Pethyn, rector, c. 1470, in shroud, small, in
2. Inscription ; Margaret Clement " generosa specialis
benefactrix reedificacionis hujus ecclesie 1505."
3. A matrix of a very large fret (the arms of Maltravers),
with marginal inscription to Sir John Matravers, 1365
(Cough's Sepulchral Effigies, Vol. I., p. 117). Haines.
Position. Mural, below a window in the Chancel a little
west of the piscina.
Size. 15in. high by 4|in. wide at the feet. The inscrip-
tion 12 Jin. by 2 fin.
Description. This is the solitary example of a shroud
brass extant in Dorset, although there are matrices, one being
at present in St. Peter's, Dorchester. They are not found
earlier than the fifteenth century, one of the earliest being
the half effigy of Joan Mareys at Sheldwich, Kent, 1431.
Thomas Pethyn 's effigy is probably c. 1470. The origin of
these peculiar effigies is given in Cotman's Brasses, Vol. II.,
p. 51, to remind us " that the robes of pride will shortly be
exchanged for the winding-sheet, and that beauty and strength
are hastening to the period when they will become as the
spectre before them." The preparation for a shroud brass
cannot have been very different from the following, for a
marble effigy now in St. Paul's.
" A monument being resolved upon, Dr. Donne sent for a Carver
to make for him in wood the figure of an Urn, giving him directions
for the compass and height of it ; and to bring with it a board, of the
just height of his body. ' These being got, then without delay a
choice Painter was got to be in readiness to draw his picture, which
was taken as followeth. Several charcoal fires being first made in his
large Study, he brought with him into that place his winding-sheet
in his hand, and having put off all his clothes, had this sheet put on
164 ANCIENT MEMORIAL BRASSES OF DORSET.
him, and so tied with knots at his head and feet, and his hands so
placed as dead bodies are usually fitted, to be shrowded and put into
their coffin, or grave. Upon this Urn he thus stood, with his eyes
shut, and with so much of the sheet turned aside as might show his
lean, pale, and death-like face, which was purposely turned towards
the East, from whence he expected the second coming of his and our
Saviour Jesus.' In this posture he was drawn at his just height ; and
when the picture was fully finished, he caused it to be set by his bed-
side, where it continued and became his hourly object till his death. "
Walton's Lives, p. 72.
The inscription is in Old English type with usual pre-
UMc jacet fciTs ZLbomas IPetbpn quan&a
IRectoris bui ecclie qulnte ppicietnr fcs
Position. On a slab in the Nave near the Font.
Size. 16 Jin. long, Sin. wide.
Description. A plain inscription in Old English characters
that incidentally fixes the date of a restoration of the Church
1bic jacet /l&argareta Clement (Benerosa specialty
benef actrij reefciffcacionis bujus ecclesie que obitt
1*3333 Me 3nnii HO 6m /Ifco IDC ^ cujus ale
prcpicietiu* tens ante.
CHURCH KNOWLE, ST. PETER.
John Clavell, Esq r - in armour and two wives, 1st wife with
3 sons and 1 daughter, 2nd, Susan, daughter of Robert Coker
of Mappowder, mural, North aisle. Haines.
Position. Beneath the canopy of an altar tomb of Purbeck
stone are three compartments, having the following three
ANCIENT MEMORIAL BRASSES OF DORSET. 165
figures let into the stone, below on the tomb are four blank
shields. The monument is against the Eastern wall of the
Size. John Clavell's effigy 12in. high by Sin. wide, the
shield above, 6 Jin. by 8 Jin., the inscription below 15in.
by 2 Jin. His first wife and children llin. by lOin. wide,
the shield over, 4 Jin. by 6in. His second wife llin. by
7in. with an inscription 16in. by 2 Jin., the shield over,
5in. by Gin.
Description. John Clavell of Barneston and afterwards of
Wareham was born and baptized 2 May, 1541 ; he died 5 Jan.,
1609, and was buried at Knoll ; his will was proved 17th
Feb., 1609. He probably erected this monument very shortly
after his second marriage. He is shown kneeling at a desk
on which is an open book, his hands are clasped in prayer,
he is clad in plate armour similar to that of Nicholas Martin
of Athelhampton at Puddletown,* but his helmet and
gauntlets are to be seen on the ground beside him.
Over his head is a shield of arms, quarterly, bearing 1 and 4,
Vaire a chief gules Estoke, f 2 and 3, Sable six escallops three
two and one argent also Estoke. Crest, a buck's head couped
ducally gorged gules pierced between the attires by an arrow
flighted proper, Clavell. Below is the following inscription
in Old English characters :
of Jobit Clawell Bsquier bousbanfc of
tbese two wifes t mafce. H. /IDCCCCCOLf 35
* Page 202, Proceedings, 1902, The Ancient Memorial Brasses of
f In the Sixteenth Century the Clavells had adopted for their paternal
coat the arms of Estoke. The same arms are attributed in Mr. Dennis
Bond's MS to Avis dau. of Walter Clavell of Winfrith (uncle of this
John) who married Robert Bond of Lutton in 1565. But, in the
Visitation of Dorset of 1623, their arms are given as, Argent, on a
chevron sable three caps of maintenance or, and also in " Coker." Burke
gives Clavell, Argent on a chevron sable three steel caps argent.
166 ANCIENT MEMORIAL BRASSES OF DORSET.
In the left compartment is the figure of his first wife,
Myllecent daughter of John Gifford of Ishell, Hants, kneeling
at a desk, her hands clasped in prayer, having her children,
three boys and one girl, kneeling behind her. On the shield
above her head, the arms quarterly as above, impaling
Argent ten torteaux four three two and one for Gifford of Ishell.
Her marriage settlement was dated 11 June, 1563, and she
was buried at Knoll 29th October, 1571.
The inscription which should appear below this effigy is
missing. In the right hand compartment is the effigy of his
second wife Susan, daughter of Robert Coker of Mappowder,
she was married before 1573, buried at Knoll 2 June, 1618,
her will proved 29th June, 1618. She is shown kneeling
alone at a desk on which is an open book, with her hands
clasped in prayer, and is looking towards the dexter. Over
her head is a shield of arms, quarterly as above, but impaling
on a bend gules three leopards' faces or, Coker.
Below is this inscription in Old English characters
ZTbe f\>cjure of /IIMstris Susan wife fo tbe aforesaifc
Jobn 2)augbter to IRobert Coker of /Ifeaupowfcer in tbe
Counts of Borsett Bsquier mafce. a.
toas aftertoartis jfaunims of tije
jttmiastert> at Mimbornc.
By the Rev. Canon J. M. J. FLETCHER, M.A. and R.D.
3TEHE Volume from which the following account of
Saint Cuthburga is taken is a folio fourteenth
century manuscript, written on vellum, which
was, previous to the Dissolution of the
Monasteries, in " the library of the Church of
St. Mary and St. Ethelfleda-the-Virgin, at
Romsey." It is now one of the Lansdowne MSS.
in the British Museum (No. 438). In its
present condition it consists of 131 folios, in
double columns ; and, according to the Index, originally
contained the lives of 47 Saints, though the last four and the
greater portion of a fifth are now missing.
The account of St. Cuthburga is fifteenth in order, and
occupies six pages (ff. 38b 41b). It will be remembered
that Cuthburga, the daughter of Kenred, and sister of Ina the
great lawgiver, kings of Wessex, was married to Alfrid, or
168 THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA.
Ealfrith, king of Northumbria. According to this MS. she
persuaded her husband to release her from her vows before
the marriage was consummated. And she built a monastery
at Wimborne, over which she presided as abbess, and where
eventually she died and was buried. The greater portion of
the account in this MS. consists of a dialogue between Cuth-
burga and Alfrid, and of an address which she gave to her
nuns shortly before her death.
This dialogue has, of course, no value from an historical
point of view, though the actual framework of the story is
accurate enough. For the life is written after the Thucydi-
dean method, with imaginary speeches, &c. The MS., it
should be pointed out, was compiled, or at any rate was
copied, in the Fourteenth Century ; that is, its date is some six
hundred years after the death of St. Cuthburga. The details
were taken from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, or from the
pages of some Monkish Chronicler, who in his history embodied
the old tradition. But the speeches are, of course, imaginary
ones, and the pretended conversation between St. Cuthburga
and her husband is a composition in praise of virginity.
Such compositions were not infrequent. It may be recol-
lected that Freeman (History of the Norman Conquest, Vol.
II., pp. 46, 47, 530-535) mentions a similar conversation in
which Edward the Confessor and Eadgyth are the inter-
So far as I am aware, this MS. has never been printed, nor
have I seen or heard that it has been previously translated.
Hardy, however, in his " Descriptive Catalogue of MSS.
relating to the Early History of Great Britain " (Rolls Series),
Vol. I., p. 384, gives in a few lines a summary of the life of
St. Cuthburga as described in this Lansdowne MS.
But amongst the Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum
(MS. Cott. Tiberius E. 1. ff., 234-5), there exists a vellum MS.
somewhat injured by fire. It contains, amongst other lives
of the saints, one of St. Cuthburga, which is apparently taken
from the same source as that in the Lansdowne MS., though
in an abridged form. It was in all probability written by
THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA. 169
John of Tynemouth, who was born in 1290, Vicar of Tyne-
mouth in 1315, and afterwards removed to St. Albans Abbey,
where he in all probability died of the plague in 1349. This
has been edited by C. Horstman, and printed by the Clarendon
Press in 1901.
John of Tynemouth seems to have been one of the first to
compile a Sanctilogium Anglice. There are two copies of
this MS. in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and there is a
third in the Library at York Minster. There is also another
copy in the British Museum, though it has suffered so much
from fire that it is charred to a crust.
In the 15th century, John of Tynemouth's Sanctilogium
Anglice was re-arranged in alphabetical order by Capgrave,
whose Collection of Lives, with the addition of 15 fresh ones,
was beautifully printed in the year 1516 by the celebrated
printer, Wynkyn de Worde, under the title " Nova Legenda
These " Legendaries," or Lives of the Saints, in pre-Refor-
mation days, were read in the Church as Lections, or Lessons,
in the Nocturns ; and were used as Sermons, which on Saints'
Days frequently consisted merely of the reading of the lives
of the Saints commemorated on those particular days. No
doubt they also served as the devotional portions which were
read for the edification of the members of Religious Com-
munities whilst they took their meals in the Refectories of their
It should be added that the quotations from Holy Scripture
in this Lansdowne Manuscript are as a general rule taken
verbatim from the Vulgate, to which the footnotes refer.
The following is a copy of the Latin MS., with an English
translation on the opposite page :
170 THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA.
LANSDOWNE MS. 436, FF. 38B-41B.
Incipit de sancta Cuthburga virgine et Regina.
Anno ab incarnacione Domini nostri Ihu circiter sexcentesimo
septuagesimo extitit in Westsaxonia quidam magne nobilitatis
subregulus de nobili magnorum regum prosepia oriundus nomine
Kenredus. Iste Kenredus genuit sanctum Ine et fratrem eius Iniels
et beatam Cudburgam et sororem eius sanctam Quenburgam. Mortuo
autem Ceadwalla Westsaxonum rege predictus venerabilis et regali
stirpe creatus Ine tocius regionis communi eleccione et unanimi
voluntate in regem eligitur, et ad tocius regni gubernacionem pre-
ficitur. Venerabilis igitur virgo soror eius * Cudburga a diebus
adolescencie sue soli angelorum Domino elegit complacere, ut prudensf
virgo cogitans semper que Domini sunt ut esset sancta corpore et
spiritu. Illibatum itaque servans florem virginitatus iocundam
spiritui sancto preparabat mansionem. Fama autem probitatis
necnon et pulchritudinis ipsius circumque provolitans et ubique
bonum odorem profundens, multos reges et nobiles adolescentes suo
illexerat amore et a multis in coniugium petebatur assidue, et quia de
genere processerat regio et quia facies erat ei digna imperio. Sed ilia
solius celestis sponsi gaudens inherere complexibus, hominum eciam
horrebat aspectus, et tota divinitatis suspensa contemplacioni dicebat
in corde suo, J dilectus meus mihi et ego illi, ilium solum desidero, ilium
solum tenere concupisco, illius amore langueo, illi soli adhere suave
mihi et iocundum, quia speciosus est pre filiis hominum.
Postea Rex Northamhimborum Aldfrith vir in scripturis eruditus
misit legates suos ad venerandum Ine regem Westsaxonum, rogans ut
ei suam sororem sanctam Cudburgam daret in coniugem. Quibus
auditis Rex ut erat voltu placido respondit legatis quod super hoc
virginis acceptaret animum, utrum talibus prebere asswnsum. Advocans
ergo rex clam sororem suam indicavit ei regis legacionem, et quid super
hoc responsurus esset sui requirit animi voluntatem. Ad hoc verbum
virgo pudica primo expavit ; deinde resumpto spiritu sic regi respondit :
" Domine et f rater, si mihi ad votum meum vivere liceret, nullus
certe in tota Britannia rex vel subregulus in sponsum michi placeret.
Set quia Scriptura dicit, quod qui potestati resistit Dei ordinacioni
resistit, quemcunque tua maiestas mihi ordinaverit me sibi obedientem
* The name in tne M.S. is variously spelt ' Cuthburga,'
' Cudburga,' ' Cuthberta,' and ' Cudberta.'
t I. Cor. vii., 34. J Cant., ii., 16. Rom. iv., 2.
THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA. 171
Here beginneth concerning Saint Cuthburga, Virgin and Queen.
About the year 670 from the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus, there
was in Wessex a certain sub -king of high nobility and sprung from a
noble line of great kings, Kenred by name. This Kenred begat Saint
Ina and his brother Ingild and the blessed Cuthburga and her sister
Saint Quenburga. But on the death of Ceadwalla king of Wessex
the aforesaid venerable and royally descended Ina is elected king by
the general choice and joint will of all that region and is set to govern
the whole kingdom. Now the venerable virgin, his sister Cuthburga,
from the days of her youth chose to please the Lord of the angels
alone, like a wise virgin thinking only the thoughts of the Lord, that
she might be holy in body and in spirit. And so, keeping untouched
the flower of her virginity, she made ready a pleasing mansion for the
Holy Spirit. Now the report of her purity and of her beauty being
spread abroad on all sides and everyone sending forth a sweet odour,
had attracted many kings and noble youths with love of her, and by
many she was eagerly sought in marriage, both because she came of
royal race and because her countenance was worthy of a position of
supreme authority. But she, rejoicing to cleave to the embrace of
her heavenly spouse alone, shrank even from the gaze of men, and,
wholly intent on the contemplation of the Divine, said in her heart,
" My beloved is mine and I am His ; Him alone do I desire ; Him
alone do I desire to hold, and with the love of Him alone do I languish ;
to Him alone is it sweet and pleasant to me to cling, for He is lovely
beyond the sons of men."
The second Chapter.
Afterwards Aldfrith, king of the Northumbrians, a man learned in
the Scriptures, sent his envoys to do honour to Ina king of Wessex,
desiring that he will grant him his sister Saint Cuthburga in marriage.
Whereupon the king with his habitual placid countenance made answer
to the envoys that he would make trial of the virgin's mind on this
matter whether to give assent to such a request. Therefore the king,
calling his sister privately to him, made known to her the king's
embassage, and asked her will what he should answer in this matter.
At this the modest virgin was at first amazed ; but afterwards,
recovering her spirit, she thus makes answer to the king : " My lord
and brother, were it permitted me to live after mine own wish, assuredly
no king or under king in all Britain were a husband to my mind. But
inasmuch as the Scripture saith ' he who resists authority resists the
ordinance of God,' whomsoever your majesty hath ordained for me he
shall find me prompt to obey him, though it be not of my will. For
172 THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA.
prompte quamvis non voluntarie inveniet. Scriptum est autem* quod
voluntas habet penam, et necessitas parit coronam. In Domino enim
confido quod respiciet humilitatem ancille sue, nee patietur violari
claustra pudicicie mee, neque vnquam me sequestrabit a castis com-
plexibus dileccionis sue. f Non est enim impossibile apud Deum omne
verbum Potens est ergo Dominus et sponsus meus me sibi eciam sub
matrimonio custodire incorruptam ; et quamvis alicui secundum
legem hominum nubam, potest tamen me sibi conservare inviolatam."
Audito igitur virginis response serenissimus rex Ine mandat regi
Northamhimbrorum tandem ad consensum emollitum virginis animum,
et ut statuta die ducat earn in vxorem juxta regiam nobilitatem et
gentis sue consuetudinem. Quo audito rex Northamhimbrorum supra
quern dici potest magno gavisus est gaudio ; quia non modico virginis
ardebat desiderio. Evoluto igitur non longo temporis intervallo
adest dies determinatus nupciarum ; et desponsatur beata virgo
Cudburga regi Northamhimbrorum. Cumque nupcie regio more
celebrarentur et omnes provincie illius optimates tante festivitati
interesseiit et congratularentur, beata virgo Cudburga secreto sola
cubicularem ingressa thalamum talem dicitur oracionem fudisse ad
dominum : " Domine Ihu dominator universe creature inclina pias
aures ad preces ancille tue. Bone Ihu donator castitatis sanctificator
virginitatis intende queso oracionem meam pravitatis et ascendat
deprecacio mea in conspectu tue maiestatis. Te solum domine in
sponsum meum elegi, tibi me totam a iuventute mea donavi, tu mihi
super omnia complacuisti. Custodi domine quod tuum est, conserva
tibi partem tuam, dignare me vocare sponsam tuam. Non sinas
corpus meum quod templum tuum est aliqua carnis corrupcione
contaminari, nee aliquod candide virginitatis mihi detrimentum
inferri. Set interj virgines que secuntur agnum quocunque ierit iube
me computari. Fac eciam domine hanc cum ancilla tua
misericordiam si aliquam in oculis tuis inveni graciam ut in corde
sponsi mei scilicet huius regis spiritum infundes gracie salutaris,
quatinus despectis seculi huius vanitatibus et carnalibus illecebris
mihi in castitatis proposito consenciat, ut ad te qui omnium bonorum
dispensator es recto itinere perveniat." Sic orabat ilia felix et vere
beata et per maxillam currunt vbertim lacrimarum fluvium, et a
maxilla plorantis ascendunt lacrime in conspectu divine maiestatis.
Exaudita est enim oracio eius, sicut postea rerum probavit eventus.
* This may mean that the necessity imposed on man by the
compelling grace of God produces reward.
f S. Luke i., 27. J Apoc., xiv., 4. Esther, vii., 3.
THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA. 173
it is written that ' voluntary action incurs punishment and external
constraint produces a crown.' For I have faith in God that he will
regard the lowliness of His handmaiden, and will not suffer the guards
of my virginity to be violated, nor will ever remove me from the chaste
embraces of his love. For nothing is impossible with God. There-
fore, my Lord and spouse is strong to preserve me uncorrupted for
Himself even in matrimony ; and although I wed anyone after the
law of men, yet nevertheless he is able to keep me inviolate for
The third Chapter.
Having therefore heard the reply of the virgin, the most serene king
Ina announces to the king of the Northumbrians that at length the
virgin's mind is bent to agreement, and bids him wed her on a stated
day as befits his royal nobility and the custom of his people. On
hearing this, the king of the Northumbrians rejoiced with a great joy
beyond what words can express, for he burned with exceeding desire
for the maiden. And so after the lapse of no great length of time the
day fixed for the nuptials is at hand ; and the blessed maiden Cuthburga
is betrothed to the king of the Northumbrians. And when the
nuptials are being celebrated with royal state and all the nobles of
that province were present at the great ceremony and were offering
their congratulations, the blessed virgin Cuthburga went apart alone
to her chamber and is said to have prayed to the Lord in words such
as these : " Lord Jesus, ruler of all creation, incline favourable ears
to the prayers of thine handmaiden. O good Jesu, giver of chastity
and sanctifier of virginity, hear, I pray, the supplication of my sinful
nature and let my prayer ascend before Thy majesty. Thee alone, O
Lord, have I chosen for my spouse ; to Thee have I given myself
entirely from my youth up ; Thou hast been my delight above all things.
Preserve, O Lord, that which is Thine ; keep for Thyself what is part
of Thee ; deign to call me Thy spouse. Suffer not my body which is
Thy temple to be stained with any carnal corruption, nor any loss of
my spotless virginity to be inflicted upon me. But bid me to be
numbered amongst the virgins which follow the Lamb whithersoever
He goeth. Have also this mercy upon Thine handmaid, if I have
found any favour in Thy sight, and pour into the heart of my spouse
this king a spirit of saving grace, so that putting away the vanities of
this world and the snares of the flesh, he may consent to my purpose
of chastity, and come to Thee, who art the giver of all good, by a straight
road." So prayed that blissful and truly blessed maiden, and rivers
of tears ran plenteously down her cheeks, and from her cheek the
tears of her weeping ascended to the presence of divine majesty. For
her prayer was heard as the future events showed.
174 THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA.
Interea vero rex et omnis familia in aula regia com magna exultacione
et hillaritate convivabant, et tocius provincie primates cum senibus et
iunioribus pari assensu et voluntate tante solempnitatis festine et
iocunde congaudebant. Cum iam totus dies in tali gaudio et leticia
expediretur noxque superveniens dormiendi requiem hortaretur, rex
letus et hilaris subintrat cubiculum gemmatis cortinis et regalibus
diviciis adornatum, desiderans cum sponsa mortalium more consuetum
habere consorcium. Et cum essent in cubiculo soli, beata Cudberta
oportunum sibi considerans tempus loquendi talis (sic) fertur verbis
regem et sponsum suum affari. " Amantissime hominum et dulcissime
mihi super omnes filios mortalium, quamvis excellent! sis preditus
ingenio et super modernos reges litterarum eruditus sciencia, ne
indigneris queso si loquatur tibi sponsa et ancilla tua. Scriptum
quippe est, 1 Libenter suffertis insipientes cum sitis ipsi sapientes.
Et alibi,' 2 sit omnis homo velox ad audiendum. Ergo si aliquid
fortassis dixero quod saluti tue maiestatis fore cognoveris necessarium,
ne cun(c)teris libenter verbis meis prebere assensum. Omnium
creaturarum dei naturale et proprium est creatorem suum diligere super
omnia, et tocius racionis ordo poposcit non solum malis sed eciam
bonis rebus meliora preponere. Deum ergo qui super omnia bonus est,
super omnia desiderandum esse necessario inferri potest. Set Scriptura
dicit, 3 Nemo duobus dominis servire potest. Quibus ? Deo scilicet
et mimdo. Inde scriptum est, 4 Quicunque voluerit esse amicus huius
mundi inimicus dei constituitur. Idcirco Paulus admonet dicens ad
Timotheum discipulum suum scribens 5 Precipe divitibus huius seculi
non . . sperare in incerto diviciarum. Et alibi, 6 Carnis curam ne
feceritis in desideriis. Quid ergo ? Simus in hoc seculo 7 tanquam
nichil habentes efc omnia possidentes, 8 et utamur hoc seculo tanquam
non utentes. 9 Serviamus domino in timore perseverantes in corporis
castitate et cordis puritate, nulla carnis corrupcione polluamus corpus
nostrum, ut sancti spiritus mereamus effici sacrarium.
Audiens hec rex tantam verborum in beata virgine miratua
prudenciam, et talem fertur protulisse responcionem. Universa que
loquendo persequeris sponsa dulcissima cognosce te prorsus veraciter
deseruisse (sic) ; nee aliqua possunt contradici racione. 10 Qui
1 2 Cor., xi., 19. 2 S. James, i., 19. 3 S. Matt., vi., 24.
4 S. James, iv., 4. 5 2 Tim., vi., 17. 6 Rom., xiii., 14.
7 2 Cor., vi., 10. 8 cf. I. Cor., vii., 31. 9 Ps. ii., 11, Servite (Vulg.).
10 From Thomas Aquines.
THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA. 175
The fourth Chapter.
Meanwhile the king and all his folk were feasting in the royal hall
with great joy and gladness, and the chief men of the whole province
with the elders and the young men were rejoicing merrily and happily
in that great occasion with common consent and goodwill. And when
now the whole day had passed in such pleasure and gladness, and the
night coming on summoned them to the rest of sleep, the king, full of
happiness and joy, enters the chamber adorned with begemmed
hangings and royal wealth, desirous of having the accustomed inter-
course with his bride after the manner of men. When they were alone
in the chamber, the blessed Cuthburga, thinking this the fitting time
for her to speak, is said thus to have addressed the king her spouse :
" O most beloved of men, and dearest to me of all mortals, although
thou art endowed with excellence of understanding and art skilled in
knowledge of letters beyond kings of the present day, do not be
indignant, I beseech thee, if thy bride and handmaid speaks to thee.
For it is written, ' Ye suffer fools gladly though ye yourselves are
wise,' And in another place, ' Let every man be swift to hear.'
Wherefore, if I shall say anything perchance that thou knowest to be
necessary for the salvation of thy majesty, be not slow freely to give
assent to my words. It is natural and proper for all God's creatures
to love their Creator above all things, and the whole scheme of reason
demands that we should prefer the better not only to things which are
bad, but also to those which are good. God, then, who is good above
ail things, it can necessarily be inferred, is to be desired above all
things. But the Scripture saith ' No man can serve two masters.'
What masters ? God and the world. Afterwards it is written :
' Whosoever willeth to be a friend of this world shall be accounted
the enemy of God.' Wherefore Paul admonishes us, saying in his
Epistle to Timothy his disciple ' Charge them that are rich in this
world not to put their trust in the uncertainty of riches.' And in
another place, ' Take not care for the flesh in its desires.' What then ?
Let us be in this world ' as though having nothing and yet possessing
all things,' and let us ' use this world as though using it not.' ' Let us
serve the Lord in fear,' persevering in chastity of body and in purity of
heart ; let us pollute our body with no corruption of the flesh that we
may deserve to be made the shrine of the Holy Ghost.
The fifth Chapter.
Hearing these things the king marvelled at so great a wisdom of
speech in that blessed virgin, and is said to have made this reply
" All that thou hast spoken, my sweetest bride, I know that thou
hast said with the utmost truth, and no reason can avail to refute it.
176 THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA.
enim ad vite perfeccionem festinare desiderab proculdubio
necesse est ut omnia que seculi sunt postponat et
dominum sequendo* artam viam que ducit ad vitam incedere
satagat. Sic enim salvator noster cuidam dixisse scribitur.
f Si vis perfectus esse, vade vende omnia que habes et da
pauperibus et veni sequere me. Set cum nupcias a domino mortalibus
propter sobolis propagacionem concessas credimus, et ipsius salvatoris
presencia sanctificatas evangelica auctoritate comprobamus. Ipse
enim dominus Ihs salvator mundi evangelio teste nupciis interfuit,
ut eas approbare intelligeretur in eisdem nupciis novo et inusitato
miraculo aquam in vinum optimum mutavit. Paulus eciam apostolus
doctor egregius per quern loquebatur deus dixit, J melius est nubere
quam uri. Et iterum, Unusquisque habeat uxorem suam propter
fornicacionem. Nulli igitur divinis iussionibus vel saluti humane
contrarium videatur si vir uxorem ducat aut si mulier viro tradatur.
Ad hec beata Cudberta quasi subridens sic ut fertur responsit dicens.
Verum est enim bone rex dominum et salvatorem nostrum nupciis
interfuisse et inibi potenti virtute de aqua vinum fecisse. Set tamen
quantum nupciis virginitatem preferat, aperte ostendit, quando
beatem virginem mariam intemeratam sibi in matrem elegit, que
prima se omnium feminarum deo virginem vovit. Et quamvis earn
divina dispensacione josep desponsari permiserit, nullum tamen
virginitatis detrimentum pertulit, set ante partum et in partu et post
partum spiritus sancti abumbracione virgo intacta permansit.
|| Sponsum eciam ipsarum nupciarum quibus salvator interfuit, ab
ipsis nupciis ut tradunt historic aspiracione interna abstraxit, et
* S. Matt., vii., 14.
f S. Matt., xix., 21, &c. J I. Cor., vii., 9.
I. Cor., vii., 2.
|| I am indebted to the Rev. H. Pentin for the following note :
" I cannot trace the source of the legend that S. John was the
bridegroom at Cana in Galilee ; but it appears in the 15th century
Vita Christi, given in Migne's Legendes, and the conclusion is :
" When they had supped, Christ called John, and said to him,
* John, leave thy wife and come after Me, for I wish to bring thee to a
THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA. 177
For whosoever desires to hasten to the perfection of life, it is doubtless
needful that he should put behind him all that is of the world, and,
following the Lord, strive to go along the narrow way that leads to
life. For so it is written that our Saviour said to a certain man :
" If thou wilt be perfect, go sell all that thou hast and give to the
poor, and come follow Me." But as we believe that marriage has
been granted by the Lord to mortal men for the propagation of
children, so we prove on the authority of the Gospel that it has been
sanctified by the presence of the Saviour Himself. For he, the Lord
Jesus, the Saviour of the world, was, as the Gospel bears witness, a
guest at a wedding ; and that it might be seen that He approved of
marriage, at that very same wedding, by a new and unheard of miracle,
He changed water into the best of wine. Paul the Apostle, also, that
excellent doctor by whom God spake, said ' It is better to marry than
to burn.' And again, ' Let everyone have a wife because of fornica-
tion.' To no one therefore should it seem contrary to divine commands
or to human salvation if a man marry a wife or if a woman be given in
marriage to a man."
The sixth Chapter.
To this, so it is reported, the blessed Cuthberga answered with a
smile : " True it is, O excellent king, that our Lord and Saviour was
present at a wedding and there by His powerful virtue changed water
into wine. But nevertheless He showed plainly how greatly He
preferred virginity to marriage when He chose the blessed and
unstained Virgin Mary for His mother, who first of all women devoted
herself as a virgin to God. And although He suffered her by a divine
dispensation to be espoused to Joseph, yet she endured no detriment
of her virginity ; but, before the birth and in the birth and after the
birth, she remained a virgin intact by the sheltering grace of the Holy
Spirit. Also He withdrew by an inward inspiration the very bride-
groom at the wedding where the Saviour was present, as the histories
hand down, and caused him to continue a virgin free of all carnal
grander wedding than this, and that thou mayest know what it is, it
is My passion.' ' :
" There are, however, earlier references to the story that our Lord
prevented John from marrying. Many of these are given under the
title " Johannes Herkunft " in Lipsius' Die ApoTcryphen Apostel-
geschichten und Apostellegenden.
" The identification of the bridegroom at Cana with " Simon the
Canaanite " is the more widely accepted tradition. Lipsius deals
with it in his Vol. III." J.M.J.F.
178 THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA.
tocius carnalis copule immunem perseverare virginem fecit, et in
tantum eum dilexit, ut apostolus et evangelista effici mereretur, et
discipulus ille quern diligebat Ihs vocaretur, et supra omnem creaturam
divinitatis gloriam intueretur Cui enim salvator noster in cruce iam
positus matrem virginem virgini commendavit, et discipulus virgo
matri virgini deservivit, Considera igitur quanta sit gloria maiestatis,
quanta excellencia virginitatis. Per earn beata maria super omnes
feminas deo complacuit, per earn deus Johannem apostolum super
omnes homines dilexit. Qui ergo conditori suo complacere et celesti
regno excellentem gloriam obtinere desiderat, a facie ad faciem deum
Videre anhelat, cordis mundiciam et corporis castitatem conservare
Tune vero rex preventus spiritus sancti presencia beate Cudburge
respondisse dicitur in hec verba. Omnia quidem cognosco karissima
vere esse que loqueris, et ceteris virtutibus candidam virginitatem si
humilitati coniuncta fuerit precellere confiteor ut asseris. Sicut
ergo ex tuis verbis colligi potest virginitatem tuam deo consecrasti, et
ut mihi videtur virginem te permansuram proposuisti. Injustum est
igitur me aliquam tibi contra tuam voluntatem vim inferre, et mentem
tuam a tarn sancto proposito revo(c)are. Nichil quidem amodo
verearis neque timeas aliquam de hac re per me pati molestiam, set
permitto tibi propositam tenere pudiciciam, concedatque tibi deus
talem inchoate religionis habere perseveranciam, quatenus post hums
vite peregrinacionem ad summe divinitatis merearis pertingere con-
templacionem. Pro me eciam benignum Ihesum assiduis precibus
interpellare non desistas, ut mihi sue spiritum dileccionis infundat quo
imbutus omnes mundales paruipendam honores et divicias, et presentis
vite superare queam illecebras quatenus* iuste et sancte vivens in hoc
presenti seculo dei valeam consequi misericordiam in future. Ad
hec verba beata virgo Cuthburga exultans in spiritu sancto magnas
cepit gracias agere omnipotenti.
Impetrata itaque post aliquod tempus licencia felix et beata virgo
Cuthburga, postposita et despecta omni imperiali gloria locum qui
Wynburnia nuncupatur edificavit, ibique basilicam in honorem
* cf. Tit. ii., 12.
THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA. 179
connection, and loved him so greatly that he was deemed worthy to
be made an Apostle and Evangelist, and was called ' that disciple
whom Jesus loved,' and beyond every created being beheld the glory
of the Godhead. And to him our Saviour, when placed upon the cross,
eommended His mother, a virgin to a virgin, and the virgin disciple
served the virgin mother. Consider, therefore, how great is the glory
of majesty, how great the excellence of virginity. By it the blessed
Mary pleased God beyond all women ; by it God loved the apostle
John above all men. Whosoever, therefore, desires to please his
Maker and to obtain exceeding glory in the kingdom of heaven, who-
soever pants to see God face to face, let him study to keep a clean heart
and a chaste body."
The seventh Chapter.
Then the king, aided by the presence of the Holy Spirit, is said to
have answered the blessed Cuthburga in these words : " All that
thou sayest, most dear one, I know to be true, and I confess that pure
virginity, if it be allied with humility, surpasses the other virtues as
thou dost claim. Wherefore, as it may be gathered from thy words,
thou hast consecrated thy virginity to God, and hast determined, as
it seems to me, to remain ever a virgin. It w r ere unjust in me to bring
to bear any force against thy will, and to recall thy mind from so holy
a purpose. Thou needest from henceforth be afraid of nothing from
me, nor fear to suffer any molestation in this matter at my hands ; but
I permit thee to maintain thy intended chastity, and may God grant
thee such perseverance in thy holy enterprise that after the pilgrimage
of this life thou mayest deserve to attain to the contemplation of the
most high God. For me, too, do not cease to address kind Jesus w T ith
unceasing prayers that He may pour into me the spirit of His love,
penetrated with which I may despise all worldly honours and riches,
and may overcome all the snares of this present life, so that, living
righteously and holily in this present world, I may in the world to
come obtain the mercy of God." At these words the blessed virgin
Cuthburga, rejoicing in the Holy Spirit, began to give hearty thanks
to the Omnipotent One.
The eighth Chapter.
And so, after a certain space of time, the happy and blessed virgin
Cuthburga, permission having been obtained, and every imperial
glory being despised and cast away, built that place which is called
Winburne, and there erected a basilica to the honour of the holy mother
180 THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA.
sancte dei genetricis et perpetue virginis construxit. Cepit igitur in
eodem loco venerabilis femina soli deo totis viribus deservire oracionibus
nocte et die incumbere, elemosinis studium impendere, ad celestem
patriam summo desiderio an(h)elare. Quis autem inter philosophos
tarn eloquens ut eius digne valeat angelicam describere
conversacionem ? Quis autem inter rhetores tarn lingue potens qui
dignis efferat laudibus admirabilem huius beatissime domine sanc-
titatem. Tenerum quippe et delicatum corpus multis affligebat
inimicis, carnem macerabat ieiuniis, noctes et dies continuabat vigilias.
Orabat sine intermissione, terram quidam corpore, set celum
inhabitabat mente. Sacrificium deo spiritum contribulatum cotidie
oft'erebat, in lacrimis et contricione cordis seipsam in conspectu dornini
mactabat, lugebat autem iam pro peccatorum remissione, set pro
desiderio celestis patrie. Quicquid deo placitum est ad implere
satagebat, ipsumque offendere quantalacunque eciam cogitacione
precavebat. Erga dominum et homines erat humilis, ad omnes
mansueta et mitis. Fama igitur tante bonitatis pervulgata circum-
quaque et tarn vive suavitatis ubique disperso odore, ceperunt ad
earn confluere puelle nobiles et matrone, que despecto seculari habitu
et conversacione promittebant se velle regulariter cum beata
Cuthburga deo militare. Quod videns virgo venerabilis supra quam
dici potest gaudebat in domino, quia cernebat eas tarn devote se deo
mancipare obsequio. Factum est autem dei providencia ut plurima
ibidem in brevi tempore advocaretur congregacio sanctimonialium ;
quarum unaquaque aliam zelo iusticia et religionis ad dominicum
provocabat farnulatum. Tune vero sancta Cuthburga magis ac magis
cepit in timore et amore dei proficere, et quasi nichil prius egisset, ad
virtutum incrernenta vehementer nitebatur festinare.
Intelligens igitur post hec dignimissima virgo deposicionis sue diem.'
iinminere, indesinenter cepit domino et sponso suo gracias agere, et
importunis precibus lacrimis et gemitibus ipsum rogabat, ne diucius a
dulcedinis sue complexibus earn fraudare permitteret. Videntes vero
alie sanctimoniales femine sorores sue earn infirmari, ceperunt
vehementer omnes unanimiter contristari, et pro incolumitate eius
assiduis oracionibus altissimum deprecari. Dicebant enim omnes
malle se mori, quam tanto thesauro destitui. Ipsa quippe omnes
materno affectu nutrierat, foverat et quasi filias uteri sui dilexerat, et
immortalis vite viam et tocius sanctitatis monstraverat. Conveniente
THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA. 181
of God, ever-virgin. The venerable woman began in that place to
serve God alone with all her strength, to call upon Him with prayers
by day and by night, to give herself to the practice of almsgiving, and
with very great longing to desire the heavenly country. Who amongst
the philosophers is so eloquent that he can fitly describe her angelical
conversation ? Who amongst the rhetoricians is so gifted in speech
that he can express with fitting praise the admirable sanctity of this
most blessed lady ? Why, she afflicted her tender and delicate body
with many penances, she afflicted her flesh with fasting, and passed
nights and days in \vatchings. She prayed without ceasing. She
dwelt upon earth indeed with her body, but in heaven with her soul.
Daily she offered up her afflicted spirit as a sacrifice to God, in tears
and contrition of heart she offered herself up before God, she mourned
for the remission of sins and through desire for her heavenly home.
She made it her business to fulfil whatosever is well pleasing to God,
and she was careful not to offend Him even in the very least thought.
She was humble before God and man, gentle and kind to all. The
fame of her so great goodness was spread abroad everywhere, and the
odour of such marvellous sweetness was spread all around, and noble
maidens and matrons began to gather themselves to her, who, despising
the ways and conversation of the world, professed themselves ready
to serve God under a rule with the blessed Cuthburga. And when she
saw this, the venerable virgin rejoiced in the Lord with inexpressible
joy, because she beheld them so devotedly giving themselves over to
the service of God. And so it came to pass, by the providence of God,
that in a short space of time a very large number of nuns was collected
there, each one of whom incited her fellow to the service of God in zeal
for righteousness and religion. Then, truly, Saint Cuthburga began
more and more to increase in the fear and the love of God, and, as
though she had done nothing before, she earnestly endeavoured to
hasten on to a growth in virtue.
The ninth Chapter.
After these things the most worthy virgin, understanding that the
day of departure was at hand, began without ceasing to give thanks to
her Lord and spouse, and besought Him with instant prayers, tears,
and groans that He would no longer suffer her to be deprived of the
embraces of His sweetness. The other nuns her sisters seeing that she
was becoming weaker, all with one accord began to be exceedingly
sorrowful, and with unceasing prayers to beseech the Most High for
her restoration to health. For they all said that they would rather die
themselves than be deprived of so great a treasure. For she had
nourished them all with a mother's love, had cherished and loved them
as if (they had been) the children of her womb, and had shown them
the way of eternal life and of all happiness. And so, one day, the
182 THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA.
itaque dierum circa earn tota sororis congregatione tali eas adhortari
dicitur sermone. Videte karissime sorores, * videte vocacionem
vestram quomodo caute ambuletis, cum timore et tremore vestram
ipsarum salutem operamini, redimentes tempus quam dies mali sunt.
Considerate quam fallax sit mundus quern corpore et habitu deseruistis,
et ideo in egyptum vnde existis corde reverti me velitis, set omnia
custodia cor vestrum custodite, quoniam ab isto vita procedit*
Attendite cuius persone estis, cui sponso consecrate et sanctificate
estis. Ipsi certe desponsate estis cui angeli serviunt, ad cuius nutum
vniversa celestia et terrestria contremiscunt. Si igitur tanto sponso
placere desideratis, necesse est ut eius legem et mandata sollicite
custodiatis, et que odit et prohibit cum omni diligencia precaveatis.
Ipsum ergo dominum et sponsum vestrum super omnia amate, vosmet
ipsa mutua caritate diligite, f honore vos invicem prevenientes ad
eterne beatitudinis premia indesinenter suspirate. Ego autem iamdiu
est quod J dissolui cupio et esse cum Christo, set nunc adimpleri
desiderium meum sencio, quia iam mortis debitum me persolvere
gaudio victura postmodum sine fine cum sponso meo dulcissimo.
Vos autem quas mihi relinquo in presenti vita superstites satagite ut
mei sit is per omnia imitatrices, et que vidistis ex me hec agite et deus
pacis erit vobiscum. Hiis auditis sanctimoniales femine a minima
usque ad maximam ceperunt vehementer dolore plangere, gemere et
facies suas lacrimarum rivulis rigare. Quas consolans beata sic ait
Cuthburga : Nolite karissime sorores nolite propter discessum meum
flere nee gemitibus vestris exitum meum aggravare. Non enim
moriar set vivam quia modo de corrupcione transibo ad immortalitatem,
de miseria vado ad gioriam, de peregrinacione revertor ad patriam.
Igitur si me diligitis successibus meis congaudete et transitum meum
psalmis et canticis spiritualibus domino commendate, et corpusculo
meo debita humanitatis officia persolvite. Sic est locuta signo
dominice passionis undique munita et sacrosancta dominici corporis et
sanguinis communione percepta pridie kalendas septembris migravit
ad dominum, cui ab infancia devotum indefesse exhibuerat famulatum.
Sepulta est autem condigno honore in eadem quam edificaverat sancte
dei genetricis basilica, ubi meritis ipsius plurima facta sunt miracula et
multa infirmantibus prestita sunt beneficia, claudis gressus, surdis
auditus, cecis reddita sunt lumina, operante Ihesu Christi nostri
misericordia, cuius maiestas et imperium permanet in infinita secula
Explicit de sancta Cudburga virgine et regina.
* I. Cor., i., 26; Ephes., v., 15, 16; vi., 5; Phil., ii., 12.
f Rom., xii., 10. J Phil., i., 23. Phil., iv., 9.
THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA. 183
whole congregation of sisters being gathered round her, she is said thus
to have exhorted them, " See, dearest sisters, see your calling, how ye
should walk circumspectly, with fear and trembling working out your
own salvation, redeeming the time since the days are evil. Consider
how deceitful is the world which ye have left in body and in dress, and
yet ye wish me to return to that Egypt from which in heart ye have
come out. But guard your heart with every guard since from that
proceedeth life. Mark ye whose ye are, to what spouse ye are con-
secrated and sanctified. Surely ye are betrothed to Him whom the
angels serve, at whose nod all things tremble, both things which are
in heaven and things which are on the earth. If, therefore, ye desire to
please so great a spouse, it is necessary that ye keep carefully His law
and commandments, and with all diligence are on your guard against
what He hates and forbids. Him, then, your Lord and spouse, love
beyond all things, be kindly affectioned one to another with mutual
love, in honour preferring one another, aspire unceasingly to the
rewards of eternal bliss. But as for me, I have desired to depart and
to be with Christ ; but now I feel that the fulfilment of my desire is at
hand, for I rejoice to pay the debt of death that I may live thereafter
for ever with my most sweet spouse. But ye whom I leave behind,
my survivors in this present life, strive to imitate me in all things, and
what ye have seen in me this do, and the God of peace will be with
you." When they heard this the nuns from the least to the greatest
began to be vehemently overcome with grief, to sob aloud, and to
moisten their faces with streams of tears. But to console them the
blessed Cuthburga speaks thus : " Do not, dearest sisters, do not
weep for my departure, nor make my death more difficult by your
groanings ; for I shall not die but live, for I shall pass now from
corruption to immortality ; I go from misery to glory ; from a pilgrim-
age I return to my fatherland. Therefore, if ye love me rejoice in my
success, and commend my passing to the Lord with psalms and spiritual
songs, and pay to my vile body the rites due to humanity." So she
spake, fortified on every side by the sign of the Lord's passion, and
having partaken of the most sacred Communion of the Body and
Blood of the Lord, she departed to the Lord on the last day of August,
the Lord whom from her very childhood she had served devotedly and
unweariedly. She was buried with fitting honour in the same church
which she had built to the holy mother of God, where by her merits
very many miracles were wrought and many benefits were bestowed
on the sick ; the power of walking was restored to the lame, hearing
to the deaf, sight to the blind, through the tender mercy of Jesus our
Christ, whose majesty and sway remain for ever and ever. Amen.
Here ends concerning Saint Cuthburga, virgin and queen.
184 THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA.
In conclusion it should be stated that it is a matter of doubt
whether the marriage of St. Cuthburga and her husband was
ever really consummated or not, i.e., whether they separated
immediately after the religious ceremony, or whether it was
not until after some years of married life. We have already
seen that, interesting as this MS. is, it is valueless as historical
evidence, seeing that it was not written until more than six
hundred years after St. Cuthburga 's death. The Monkish
Chroniclers, almost without exception, compiled their histories
some time after the Norman Conquest, or four centuries after
the date of the marriage, and consequently had merely
tradition, or some older chronicles to go by. William of
Malmesbury (c. 1125) says that the connection was dissolved
soon after marriage ; Matthew of Paris (d. 1259) states that
it was " during his life time ; " Florence of Worcester (d. 1118)
and Ralph Higden (d. 1363) affirm that " before the end of
life both for the love of God separated." The Acta Sanctorum
states that Cuthburga was espoused to the King of Northum-
bria, and " being released shortly after " became a nun, &c.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, under the year 718, chronicles the
death of Ingild, the brother of Ina, and continues as follows :
' ; Their sisters were Cwenburge and Cuthburga. And
Cuthburga built the monastery at Wimborne ; and she was
given in marriage to Alfrid, king of the Northumbrians ; and
they separated during his life-time." The Sarum Office
Books, which, of course, would not be anterior to the last
quarter of the eleventh century, commemorate her on the
31st day of August, and she is described in the Sarum Kalendar
and Sanctorale as " a Virgin, not a Martyr."
This, however, at any rate, is certain, that St. Cuthburga
was a Saxon Princess, the sister of Ina, King and Lawgiver ;
that she was married to Alfrid, King of Northumbria ; and that
by mutual consent she separated from her husband, either
immediately after their marriage, or at some later period
of their lives ; that she embraced the Religious Life, and,
after being trained at Barking, she founded the Monastery at
Wimborne and ruled over it as Abbess. There she was
THE MARRIAGE OF ST. CUTHBURGA. 185
buried, if Leland is correct, in the north side of the presby-
tery, the body of King Ethelred, a century and a half later,
being placed by her, though some time afterwards her body
was translated to the east end of the high altar. The noble
Minster of Wimborne, often spoken of as "the pride of Dorset,"
and "the glory of Wessex," which in its earliest days bore
the name of the Blessed Virgin, at a later age w T as dedicated
to St. Cuthburga ; and by this designation it is still known.
Be turns of Kainfall in
By R. STEVENSON HENSHAW, C.E.
17 ROM the 70 returns which have been received
this year I have selected 24 for the purpose
of the averages and calculations contained in
Tables 3 and 5, as against 20 such returns last
year. The stations from which these returns
have been sent are spread fairly equally over
the whole county.
The average rainfall calculated from these 24 stations is
44' 624 inches, with an average number of wet days of 199' 7,
whilst the average rainfall calculated from all the 70 stations
is, I find, 44-418 inches.
1912, therefore, as far as Dorset is concerned, was wetter
than any year since 1872, the ratio, as will be seen from
Table 5, to the 57 years' average, 1856 to 1912, being 132,
against 126' 5 for 1903, the next wettest year.
However, taking England and Wales, or the British Isles
as a whole, Dr. Hugh R. Mill has kindly informed me that
1903 was wetter than 1912 as 128 is to 121 for the former,
and 128 to 115 for the latter, the relative values being
expressed as a percentage of the average general rainfall.
It will also be seen from Table 5 that three years out of the
last four have been considerably wetter than the average,
and consequently, therefore, the average for the county has
RAINFALL IN DORSET. 187
The average rainfall for the past 57 years is 33' 843 inches,
whereas at the end of 1903 it was 33" 753 inches. This
raising of the average has the effect of lowering the ratio of
each year to the average, as will also be seen from Table 5,
the figures in brackets being the ratios previously given.
I was unable to go back farther than 1898, as I have no
records beyond this year ; but this information can be
obtained, I think, from the appendix to that year's report.
August was by far the wettest month in the year, and will,
I think, be long remembered by most of us.
The average fall during that month was 7' 28 inches on 27
days ; at some stations rain fell on 30 days.
April was by far the driest month, and at three stations
no measurable rain fell. Taking the average, namely, '11,
it proved to be the driest month since February, 1891, when
'04 was the average of 34 stations. The wettest day generally
appears to have been the 29th September, as it is so recorded
at 36 stations, followed by the 16th January at 10 stations
and the 17th August at six stations.
The 2 - 68 inches recorded at Swanage on the 29th September
is the greatest rainfall recorded by any observer throughout
the county, the observers at Parkstone and Branksome record-
ing 2 - 38 inches and 2*20 inches respectively on the same day.
The maximum number of wet days was recorded at
Broadstone, namely, 269 ; and the minimum of 138 days at
Fleet House, Chickerell.
One inch, or more, was recorded on seven days at three
stations, six days at three, five days at five, four days at
seven, three days at 22, two days at 15, and one day at 11,
whilst at two stations the rainfall appears not to have
amounted to one inch on any day.
Referring to Table 3 we find that the month of May is the
driest month in the year 011 the average of the past 57 years,
and October the wettest month, the proportionate fall for the
two months being 58' 5 and 123 respectively.
In a large proportion of the returns sent in I have found
errors which have simply been caused through incorrect
188 RAINFALL IN DORSET.
copying. It would be of great assistance, therefore, and
save some considerable time if observers would kindly have
their copies checked before sending them out, and I should
be extremely obliged if in future they would do so.
ABBOTSBURY, NEW BARN. The rainfall for the year,
namely, 38' 96, is 10*55 inches more than the average of the
last 14 years.
BEAMINSTER, HAMILTON LODGE. The Beaminster average
for the 39 years ending 1911 is 37*79. The rainfall of 1912
(47*79) is therefore exactly 10 inches above the average.
This fall, however, was exceeded by the 49*25 inches of 1903.
BROADSTONE. The night temperatures were high in the
Autumn, and the year wet and sunless, with very few thunder-
BROADWINDSOR, BLACKDOWN HOUSE. 1912 was the
wettest year I have known. I have kept a record since 1894.
BROADWINDSOR VICARAGE. A little snow fell on the 1st
and 3rd of February, and on the 19th of March. On the
4th and 8th of March thunderstorms with hail occurred, and
a hail storm on 21st October at 6.45 p.m. A partial eclipse
of the moon was very clearly visible on the 1st of April.
BUCKHORN WESTON. 3rd March A very brilliant lunar
rainbow at 5.30 a.m. 4th March A very strong gale more
or less all day, and at 2.30 p.m. a sudden and sharpish thunder-
CHEDINGTON COURT. On January 18th, at 9 a.m., the
snow was Sin. deep, and lin. fell after that time ; a rapid
thaw set in on the 19th, and the snow was gone by the 20th.
The lowest temperature was 18 of frost on the 3rd February,
and the highest 86 in the shade on July 16th.
No thunderstorms of any note were noticed during the year.
The wet month of the year was August, with 8*25 inches ;
the fall of 1*76 on the 17th August being the greatest for any
24 hours during the year.
RAINFALL IN DORSET.
The dry month of the year was September, no rain falling
for 22 days, from the 6th to the 27th inclusive.
CHICKERELL, " MONTEVIDEO." Feb. 2nd and 3rd A few
flakes of snow each day. May 12th Thunderstorm, slight.
June 21st Thunder and lightning a long way off. July
13th Lightning in evening. Sept. 29th One flash of
lightning and one clap of thunder. Oct. 1st A distant clap
of thunder heard. Oct. 12th No rain, but there had been
very heavy dews for several nights, which deposited a little
water in the rain gauge.
In addition to the 211 days on which one-hundredth of an
inch or more of rain was recorded, there were no less than 39
other days on which rain fell, but always in too small a
quantity to be recorded.
CREECH GRANGE. I'GOin. of rain fell between 7 p.m. on
the 23rd and 1 p.m. on the 24th of August.
Thunder and lightning, accompanied by rain and hail, at
10 a.m. on 26th December, and an exceptionally violent S.W.
gale raged the whole day.
DORCHESTER, WOLLASTON HOUSE. The total rainfall for
the year, namely, 48*90 inches, is 13' 10 inches above the
recently calculated average for Dorchester 35*80 inches.
ST. GILES' HOUSE.
January . .
Mean Temperature for Year
Hours of Sunshine
A remarkably wet and sunless year. Compared with 1911 we had 600 fewer hours
of sunshine. W. E .AXFORD.
190 RAINFALL IN DORSET.
GUSSAGE ST. MICHAEL MANOR. On January 17th -43in.
of the -93in. collected was melted snow.
LITTLEBREDY. January A little snow on the 17th and
28th. April 17th Eclipse in cloudless sky. November
Brilliant lightning between midnight and 1 a.m. on the
27th, in a sudden lull in the gale. 26th December Thunder
7 a.m. and violent S.W. gale. Two hundred trees blown
EAST LULWORTH VICARAGE. 1912, with 45-33 inches, was
wetter than any year during the last eight years, and exceeded
the fall in 1909 by 6'37 inches.
The abnormal rainfall in August, 7' 32 inches, fell in 24
days. The only other such excessive monthly totals in
recent years are 7' 93 in January, 1905 ; 10' 02 in October,
1907 ; and 7'56 in October, 1909.
The first snow fell on January 18th. It is rather a curious
coincidence that no rain was recorded on the 13th of any
month excepting December ('05).
LYME REGIS. December 26th Commencing about 3.30
a.m., a violent storm occurred S.W. a little southerly, which
reached hurricane force from about 5 a.m. to 6 a.m., and did
considerable damage in Lyme Regis to roofs, chimney pots,
&c., and lifting heavy window boxes from their places and
dropping them into the streets. It continued, though much
moderated, until noon.
PARKSTONE. December 26th Very rough day ; lightning,
thunder, rain, and hail stones as big as marbles ; some I
picked up measured two inches round.
EASTON, PORTLAND. No measurable rain fell during
There were 200 wet days, and a further 29 days when less
than -005in. fell.
STURMINSTER MARSHALL, BAILIE HOUSE. 3in. tube well,
50ft. ; with a further 70ft. IJin. bore unlined. Top of tube
1ft. above ground.
RAINFALL IN DORSET.
Weekly record of water from top of tube :
UPWEY. A little snow fell on the 17th January, 4th
February, and 19th March. Thunder was heard on the
llth and 12th of May, 22nd June, and 19th August ;
lightning being seen on 13th July. There were six days
when more than lin. of rain fell.
WEYMOUTH, MASSANDRA. With the exception of the year
1903, with rain 45*23 inches, this year, 1912, with rain 4O55
inches, is the wettest for the past twenty years. On three
days, viz., January 27th, September 29th, and October 1st,
I measured over one inch, the amounts being T37in., l.SOin.,
and l'52in. respectively. Only three dry spells, 19 days from
April 16th to May 5th, 24 days from September 4th to 28th,
and 10 days from October 2nd to 12th. The temperature,
with the exception of a cold period from January 28th to
February 7th and a warm period from July 14th to 18th,
was remarkably equable and mild. Vegetation in all forms
flourished, gardens were most productive, in marked contrast
to the year 1911.
WlNTERBOURNE WHITCHURCH VlCARAGE.
JAN. Up to the 25th the weather was very stormy and wet ; the 16th
was a particularly rainy day, l'30in. falling in the 24 hours.
Snow fell to the depth of Sin. during the night of the 17th.
The highest temperature was registered on the 6th, 51 in
shade ; the lowest for the month, during the night of the
192 RAINFALL IN DORSET.
JT EB . The first week of month was very wintry ; on the 5th the
temperature never rose higher than 28 all day. A very
sudden thaw set in on the 6th, and the rest of the month was
mild and wet. The max. temp, of the month occurred on
the 28th, 56 ; the min. the night of the 2nd, 17.
MAR. An exceptionally wet month for March. There were no less
than 20 wet days, and there was a complete absence of E.
wind during the month an unusual feature.
Max. temp, occurred on the 28th, 57 ; min., the night of
the 19th, 30.
APRIL. A remarkably dry month, only 0'05 of rain registered.
Max. temp, of the month occurred on 21st, 69 ; min., the
night of the 30th, 27.
MAY. Max. temp, of the month occurred on the 10th, 70 ; min., the
night of the 2nd, 34.
JUNE. A cold, wet month, producing only eight fine days.
On the 22nd a rather heavy thunderstorm passed from
S.S.W. to N.N.E. between 9.30 and 11 p.m. During the
storm two cottages were struck and burnt down at Hammoon.
Max. temp, of the month occurred on the 22nd, 75 ;
min., the night of the 2nd, 36.
JULY. With the exception of a brief spell of hot weather from the
13th to the 18th, the month was cold and damp, with 14 wet
The max. temp, of the month occurred on the 15th, 88 ;
the min. the night of the 8th, 42.
AUG. This month will long be remembered for its clouds, its cold,
and its continuous rain. There were only three days without
rain throughout the month, and the rainfall for the month
The max. temp, of the month occurred on the 25th, 67 ;
the min. the night of the 27th, 35.
SEPT. Very little rain fell till quite the end of the month, but the last
three days produced 2*59in. of rain.
The max. temp, occurred on the 16th, 66 ; the min. the
night of the 9th, 35.
OCT. Both day and night temperatures were much below the average
throughout the month ; on no less than 15 nights did the
temperature fall to or below the freezing point.
The max. temp, of the month occurred on the 10th, 61 ;
the min. the night of the 4th, 25.
Nov. Heavy hurricanes occurred on 10th and llth, 16th, and 26th.
Max. temp, of the month occurred on the 22nd, 55 ; the
min. the night of the 27th, 22.
RAINFALL IN DORSET 193
DEC. This month will be remembered for its remarkably mild
character. On no less than 20 days did the thermometer
reach 50 and above in the shade, and on the 28th at Bath
the exceptional reading of 59 was registered.
On the 26th two rather heavy thunderstorms passed from
S.W. to N.E. between 7 and 8 and 9 and 10 a.m., accom-
panied with heavy and large hail.
Max. temp, of the month occurred on the 28th, 54 ; the
min. the night of the 1st, 22.
N.B. The thermometers from which the above readings are taken
are Negretti and Zambra standard Kew-corrected instruments, placed
in a Stevenson screen, 4^ft. above ground, on grass.
RAINFALL IN DORSET.
CD oo oj i> <N oo **< oscs-***-* * CD oj 01 cicor-i CD o ** oo <M mo inr^coio oo m o o r-i co oo o
OJOt^tfi^OO CO pCpippOOpCp<N CD <N1>-^ incp<N t^r-l 9*00 * pOOr-lr-l ip 00 * CJ CO O CO
** cb oi ib r-i i-!
in r~ n t-
co o co co
* <o o oo oo > <>5 co t^ co
' | OSinSOTtHiOt^ ODO000"*0^iH^hC005I>^i^-*<Mi-lC50iTt<05(MrHOO ** 00 > r-( 00 CO <M
8 l> \0 LO <p 00 O "A US 05 r-( 00 C<I C- O C >A r-l t- O 00 CO OS CO i-l C<1 O 00 Oi (N O 00 O C5 CO 05 l> <p
I 4f< i
j< ^ >
00 "^ iH r-l 00 rH OO CO C<I <O (N rH CO C<1 CO C^l OS It} O5 00 > r-l rH CO (N Oi O r-l t~- rH tt> O W CO O OO
C<ICOlplpt^Ttl ^pO^OOOW^OOtOlpO-^-^lpCO^p-^lpCOCOpplplp ^*tOlOr-l(MCS
> I> 00 OJOJifScOOOCOO<OOOW500l>'^*<NOSOlXMOinSiOI>COi
r-fC^^Hi|-i|p prHprHrH(NiJH^pppCvIr-lprH|pppqr-lr-lp^^H TP T 1 ? P p 7<
l r-l 00 O O C5 O rH *D >O CO r-l t^ O ^ Oi OO
r^COCqcOCOOO cO-^OOOOOOCOOCOiClrHtMCOt^r-lT-li-OOOCOr-lfOCOCOiOiCi COt^COt^CS-^CO
05C<IC<ICM-^Tl< (N^prHOCpplpr-l^ptNl^COr-ICqSDpplOOOCxIOOCqip CvlMOOGMCOOOCO
P -^OOOr-ICDCD CDCOt^C5CO-HHr-<OOC5O'*C5'*CO(MI>r-ICD(M^tlOOCOCOCOlO l^-COrHr-l-^CDOJ
ibibcbcbibcb >bcbo < rHibcboiocbi>-ib^ticbio4fiibcDcbcbb>u3ib*b*b4t< ib4t^ibcbcb*b^
a g ^ M
^lll : ll^ ^Ill-i g>|1 l8 'a8lSa1*
^o|^ - 3J^MVfl5^^g^l*:x*3
: ll| f
Illll llallSl a
RAINFALL IN DORSET.
St^rH co o i> t> o> <N eo o 10 co co i>- <* eo eo o <N r^ 'o co <N 10 coioooooeoio
rH <N rH rH -* CO -^i ^ vp >p IN CO p ^- CO rH t^ OT CD 00 >O <N Oi IN -^ 00 p IN CO OO p
t^THIN <N O500 CO inOSOlNOO rH O5 rH CO CO rH OS CO t^ O IN &t rH C3 rH rH 00 00 CO CO
OOrHOJ O "* iH 1C I> !> CO <*< t- (NOOOO OOCKNrH l> * "* O IN CO t- rH 00 CO * O5 IT5
ICCOO C<I C5 IN 1O COOOOSrH OO'pT*' rHC5C<)p pOOOOrHOS O5 t^ O C<1 ^* OS TjH
CCOrt* io rj< O rt< in rH T|< r}< 4j( -^ -^ -rH O 4j* in 4j< ib !# 4j( in in >* Tti D 4D ib CO T< ?O
00-^ CO -^ (M 00 OOVCI>OO
lOCO OOCO rH r-U^C<10CO
->IC<I c^ IHC<I w c^iHNcqiH
>* OS O5 OiO5t>O iH O -* iO >n ^H
Ot^O Oli-tOO Ot-OOOrHO
CO rHCOOSOOtM -*Ot^ OOOOOO5 00 (M 1><M -^ t^
!> -* 00 rH (M Ol r-1 CO rH tt> O O lO OJ LO OJ CO Cq iH
CO iO I> rH CO O 00
CO CO p p C<l Ol ^
co in ib i- '- '- '
COI> Oi i-l
ICO-* O >* IN IO
10001 OS rHrH p
oocb in iboo r>-
COt>00 t^ -*t- l>
COrH >O rH O >O CO
(N TH IN 0<1 <N !N CO
005COCO CSOOOrHOO 10 CO rH rH 00 rH I
COIO CO 100 rt COt^OOOiOi COCDO ippOCO * rH ^ rH
* 4j< 4i* co eort< TW ^ 4j* co co M coco4j< eorfcocq eo co co TJH
I ,_!!>,_( rH OSiO OO CO^
OIN^ oo v^"? 3 T 1 (Nco
4t<4jN <N <NCO CO CO(N(
<NOO5I> OO * O CO iQ CO 00 00 CO rH
s^TfioorH 7 |H 7 l< t>-7 H< ;" ) ^* < ?V r:> ^T**
COCONCO CO(N(NCOCO<N CO-^COCO
OlNrHOS t^OOO3-^I>CO COOO>OrH^(MCO
OOrH kO^C<lt^ COCOOOrHOOt- rH>OC<Ipp(N05
ibibib cbiibioib cb in 10 in <* * >b t^ cb cb t in in
: lil : : 1
f4 jr4^Hi hJtiJdHWO W'odwS^ri
RAINFALL IN DORSET.
I CM CN CM CN rH CM C
a 72 w COCOCOCOCOCO ]'*(MO(MiOCO(M>O>OCOOiO(MCO'*l>'*t^<MC^rHCO<MrH^ |COI>
g'&n S'&Q'&cJflis -^8 ) --S - ft - .flftfl^ft . a
O^^ "eg "|i5^^SiS "-0^ "O "S ^^^h?cg "I i? "
fl rHC5t>l>C5C5 O O5 CO O5 I> T* t^ CO I> I> CO I> rH rH O5 O5 C5 O5 O5 t> O5 CO I> O5 O5 O CO
(M rH rH <M CM rH CM rH (M rH rH rH rH (M <M rH CM CM (M (M (M rH (M rH (M (M (M r-H rH
O fi 1 rHrSrHrHrHrH rH CM 6 rH rH rH rH ,' ' '
' * 6b PH ' ':
^ K ' a's ' "39 '3
RAINFALL IN DORSET.
198 RAINFALL IN DORSET.
TABLE III. AVERAGE MONTHLY RAINFALL.
01 in. or
Do. corrected for
126 + 30
125 + 53
2 - 63
39 - 19'5
91 + 25
163 + 81-5
47 - 38
104 - 19
47 - 54
120 -t- 10
TABLE IV. STATISTICS OF THE TEMPERATURE OF THE
AlR, AND OF THE HUMIDITY AND AMOUNT
OF CLOUD. AT WlNTERBOURNE STEEPLETON
MANOR AT 9 A.M. KEPT BY MR. H. STILWELL.
Temperature of the Air.
In Stevenson's Screen.
January . .
RAINFALL IN DORSET.
TABLE V. FLUCTUATION OF ANNUAL RAINFALL.
57 years' average = 100.
N.B. The ratios previously arrived at are given in brackets for compaiison.
jfirst Appearances of $iris, Inserts,
ant) first jfJatoerinry of
IN DORSET DURING 1912.
By NELSON M. RICHARDSON, B.A.
HE names of those who have this year sent in
returns are as follows ; they are denoted in the
Report by initials :
(N. M. R.) Nelson M. Richardson, Monte-
video, near Wey mouth.
(E. S. R.) E. S. Rodd, Chardstock House,
(W. H. D.) Rev. W. Hughes D'Aeth, Buckhorn Weston
(J. R.) Rev. J. Ridley, Pulham Rectory, Dorchester.
(S. E. V. F.) Rev. S. E. V. Filleul, All Saints' Rectory,
(E. F. L.) Rev. E. F. Linton, Edmondsham Rectory,
(J. M. J. F.) Rev. Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, The Vicarage,
(E. E. W.) Miss Ellen E. Woodhouse, Chilmore, Ansty,
FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC. 201
(G. R. P.) G. R. Peck, Muston Manor, Puddletown,
(W. P. C.) W. Parkinson Curtis, ) Aysgarth, Parkstone
(E. H. C.) E. Barker Curtis ) Road, Poole.
Messrs. W. P. and E. H. Curtis are new observers as far as
this Report is concerned, and have sent in valuable and
interesting notes on birds and insects. The former was the
author of the excellent monograph of the Ringed Plover,
which gained the Mansel-Pleydell Medal in 1906, and is
printed at p. 188 of Vol. XXVII. of our Proceedings. Single
notes from other observers will be acknowledged under their
NOTE ON FISH BY (W. P. C.) AND (E. H. C.).
Taken 15 Nov., 1912, in Holes Bay, Poole Harbour, by
Mark Bolt and Fred Brown.
Orcus (Thynnus) thynnus. The short-finned Tunny-
Length, 8 feet, nose to fork of tail ; girth behind pectorals,
5ft. IJin. ; gape, llin. ; fins, pectoral, 16in. ; dorsal,
9fin. ; lower caudal, 19Jin. ; tail, depth, 7in. ; anal
dorsal, 17 Jin. ; ventral dorsal, 8 fin. ; anal fin, 12 fin. ;
weight (estimated), 8501b.
NOTES ON RARE AND OTHER BIRDS IN 1912.
HAWFINCH (Coccothraustes coccothraustes) . Six seen at
Buckhorn Weston, July 12-20. (W. H. D.)
LESSER SPOTTED WOODPECKER (Dendrocopus minor) seen
Sept. 8 at Pulham. (J. R.)
LAPLAND BUNTING (Plectrophanes lapponica). The follow-
ing note is copied from the " Field " newspaper at the end of
April, 1912, to which it was sent by Rev. S. E. V. Filleul, who
observed this rare species near Wareham. Its occurrence in
Dorset does not appear to have been before recorded :
LAPLAND BUNTING IN DORSETSHIRE. On Jan. 30,
whilst standing quietly in a rough field adjoining one of the
202 FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.
heaths near Wareham in Dorset, I noticed a strange little
bird, something like a meadow pipit, feeding hungrily on the
ground quite close to my feet. I called up a keeper to look
at it, and we both agreed that it was a bird which we had
neither of us seen before. I remarked that if it had been
summer time I should have supposed it to be a reed bunting, the
dark head being very similar to that common summer visitor.
When I got home I found a figure of it in Morris's ' British
Birds/ and there can be no doubt that it was a Lapland
bunting. Its remarkable tameness is not an uncommon
characteristic of this species, which, like the grey phalarope,
comes from the uninhabited wastes of northern lands, and
this peculiarity tends to confirm its identification, about
which I have no doubt myself. If not a rare visitor, it is very
rarely observed, and, as I believe that this is perhaps the first
notice of its occurrence in Dorset, I think it worth while to
send you this short account of it. F." [In Mansel-Pley dell's
" Birds of Dorsetshire," published in 1888, no mention is
made of the Lapland bunting. It is an uncertain visitor in
autumn and winter, usually found on or near the coast, and
occasionally in large flocks. Seen oftener on the east coast of
Norfolk and Lincolnshire, it is sometimes found in company
with snow buntings. ED.]
(This was mentioned Proc. XXXIII., 234.)
GRASSHOPPER WARBLER (Locustella noevia). Colonel F.
G. L. Mainwaring of Wabey House, Upwey, near Weymouth,
sends the following note : " I saw and heard a Grasshopper
Warbler singing (very similar song to some of the Cicadse I
have heard in India) in a Berberis bush in our shrubbery
yesterday between 4.0 and 5.0 p.m. A very shy bird : I
could not get nearer than six yards to it." This species is
also mentioned in Mr. Curtis' notes below. (See also Proc.
LITTLE AUK (Mergulm alle). Mr. B. Edmund Freame, of
The Chantry, Gillingham, Dorset, sends the following note :
" A Little Auk was picked up near this place on Feb. 2nd.
It is impossible to keep this Arctic bird alive in England,
FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC. 203
apparently, and I believe the longest life at the Zoo has been
but a matter of a few days. This specimen died during the
night following its capture, and was given to me." (See also
Proc. XXXIII., 234.)
SHOVELLER (Spatula clypeata). This duck seems to breed
regularly between Wool and Moreton. Two pairs nested in
the meadows at Wool ; one nest with five eggs was found on
Apr. 20, probably the second attempt at nesting. The male
bird appears to attend the female when she has her brood out,
unlike the common Wild Duck. A brood of Shovellers was
being disturbed by a little dog when the male bird came to
the rescue and swooped down close to the dog, whilst the
female fluttered away in the ditch. (S. E. V. F.)
The following interesting Bird Notes are contributed by
Messrs. W. Parkinson Curtis and E. Harker Curtis :
Ruticilla phoenicurus (Redstart). Small company of about
one dozen seen on migration at Knighton, Canford Estate.
Sept. 15th, 1912. None were observed the day before and
none a week later.
Acrocephalus phragmitis (Sedge Warbler) last seen Aug.
5th, 1912, at Poole Park.
Muscicapa grisola (Spotted Flycatcher) seen very fre-
quently around Charmouth, June 30th to July 2nd. In
the district of Poole and Morden heath lands, in fact
anywhere on the sandy soil, it is not abundant.
Motacilla campestris, Sept. 8th, at Osmington, two seen
keeping company with M . lugubris (Pied Wagtail).
Numenius phceopus ( Whimbrel) . First downward migration,
two seen in Poole Harbour, Aug. 25th, 1912.
Totanus hypoleucus (Common Sandpiper). First downward
migration July 6th, 1912, Poole Harbour.
Arenaria interpres (Turnstone). Four or five seen on
downward migration Aug. 10th, 1912, Studland Break-
Vanellus cristatus (Peewit). First large autumn flock,
40-45, seen on Handley Down, near Cranborne, Dorset.
204 FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.
Athene noctua (Little owl). One juv. reported by Head-
Keeper Wren, Break Hill Wood, Canford. Identity certain.
[This appears to be new as a Dorset species. N.M.R.]
Turdus merula (Blackbird). Feb. 3rd, 1912. A male, with
a deal of white about it, making it look like a miniature
magpie, has frequented the yard of Mr. Hiscock, builder,
Longham. Three or four primaries were white on both
wings, head and sides of neck white, crown black, the second
or third outer tail feather was pure white, the wing coverts
were white for the most part, and the markings were nearly
Feb. 3rd and Feb. 4tth, 1912, brought in a very cold snap.
The salt water lake at Poole Park was nearly frozen over,
except for a little water that the birds had kept open. About
mid-day on the 4th it blew a small blizzard from the N.E.,
and I took the opportunity of approaching the fowl. I
noted about 10 Tufted Duck, about 10 Golden Eye, one or
two Widgeon, 30 to 40 Pochard, and 600 to 700 common Coots.
Dendrocopus minor (Lesser spotted Woodpecker). Feb.
4th, 1912. One shot by a boy at Longfleet, who " thought it
was a bullfinch devouring buds on a fruit tree."
Feb. 10th, 1912. One male Linota rufescens (Lesser Redpoll)
seen at Cock Wood, Canford Estate ; one Turdus iliacus
(Redwing) seen at Break Hill Wood, Canford.
Feb. 5th, 1912. Two Hawfinches and one Hawfinch
(Coccothraustes coccothraustes) seen near Poole. (The two
were seen by T. Rigler, jun., and others at Sandbanks, Poole,
and the one was seen by Canon Okes Parish at Longfleet
Feb. 5th, 1912. Jesse Baker ("Sunbeam," of Poole)
reports to us a large white falcon about the size of a Peregrine,
which he watched for some time off Ballard Head. On cross-
examination I assume that it must have been a Falco candicans
(Greenland Falcon) driven south by the recent blizzard. (I
do not offer identity as conclusive.)
Feb. 17th, 1912. Turdus musicus (Song thrush) in song at
Break Hill Wood ; Perdrix cinerea (Partridge), paired,
FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC. 205
Canford, Dorset ; Turdus viscivorus (Missel thrush), paired,
Feb. 18th, 1912. Parus major (Great Tit), in <: song."
March 2nd, 1912. AegitJialis vagans (Ringed Plover) are still
in parties, not yet paired, at Canford, Dorset ; Columbus
palumbus (Wood pigeon), last seen in big flocks.
March 3rd, 1912. In the field between Bere Wood and
Bloxworth were about 200 Turdus musicus (Song thrush)
spread about with a few T. viscivorus (Missel thrush) with
them. Vanettus cristatus (Peewit) were reported to me by
the Woodman to have been " weeping " over their breeding
ground for the past week.
March 9th, 1912. Break Hill Wood, Canford, Dorset.
Parus major (Great Tit) and Gecinus viridis (Green Wood-
pecker) are paired.
March 10th, 1912. Paludum Bog, Bloxworth. Gallinago
ccelestis (Snipe). One pair observed at Bloxworth. I hear
an unfortunate Dendrocopus minor (Lesser spotted Wood-
pecker) has been destroyed.
April 5th, 1912. Turdus musicus (Song thrush). Nest and
two eggs. Eegulus cristatus (Goldcrest), building. Aegithalis
vagans (Ringed plover), not yet paired.
April 6th, 1912. Turdus musicus (Song thrush). Six
nests (three with birds in nest, one nest and two eggs, one
nest finished, one nest unfinished) on Handley Down, Cran-
borne, Dorset. About 25 Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare) seen in
the tops of the tall beeches on Handley Down.
April 7th, 1912. At Break Hill Wood, Head-Keeper Wren
saw a pair of Scolopax rusticola (Woodcock).
April 20th, 1912. Asio otus (Long-eared owl) seen at
Canford. At Canford, Phylloscopus sibilatrix (Wood wren)
first heard. At Canford, Anthus trivialis (Tree pipit) first seen,
April 21st, 1912. At Bloxworth, Ruticilla phcenicurus,
(Redstart), one seen. At Bere Wood, Daulias luscinia
(Nightingale), first heard. At Bere Wood, Inyx torquilla
(Wryneck), first heard. At Bere Wood, Turdus musicus
(Song thrush), juv. first seen out of nest.
206 FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.
April 28th, 1912. At Bere Wood, Sylvia curruca (Lesser
white throat) first heard.
April 30th, 1912. At Canford, Sylvia atricapilla (Black-
cap) seen and heard.
May 8th, 1912. At Canford, Locustella ncevia (Grasshopper
warbler), one seen.
May 5th, 1912. At Bere Wood. Nest of Sylvia salicaria
(Garden warbler), structure finished, not yet lined.
May llth, 1912. At Bere Wood, Sylvia atricapilla (Black-
cap warbler) nest and one egg. A few days prior to this a
gamekeeper at Bloxworth destroyed a very fine female of
Falco cesalon (Merlin) and nailed it up on his gallows.
May 12th, 1912. Oaker's Wood, near Moreton, Phyllos
copus sibilatrix (Wood wren) is by no means uncommon ; at
Bere Wood it is met with very sparingly.
May 18th, 1912. Turtur turtur (Turtle dove). Four seen
at Canford, Dorset.
May 26th, 1912. A pair of Coccothraustes coccofhraustes
(Hawfinch), evidently nesting in Bere Wood. Bere Wood,
Caprimulgus europceus, one flushed ; but we did not search
for nest, as we were too busy with insects.
May 27th, 1912. Dendrocopus major (Great spotted wood-
pecker) nested this year on the Canford Estate.
NOTES ON INSECTS.
By (W. P. C.), Poole. As a lepidopterist I found the
season a failure. The weather was about the worst in my
recollection. The heavy rains in the spring, followed by a
short spell of fine weather only, were most detrimental to the
larvae. The hot spell in May appears to have spoilt the birch
stumps, and the death rate amongst the pup^e of Sesia
culiciformis was abnormal. Sesia cynipiformis, on the other
hand, suffered from the wet June and July. It commenced
emerging in May, my earliest is 18th May, and continued to
dribble out until the later end of August. Larvse were
exceptionally scarce, although Sarothripus revayana got to a
second brood in September. Hemaris fuciformis continued
FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC. 207
feeding till the end of September. We obtained a single larva
of Acronycta alni at Canford. The only larva approaching
abundance was Dicranura furcula, of which we obtained seven
in September in the Poole District. One Colias edusa only
came under my notice. My time was much curtailed this
year. I only did night work in Cambridgeshire for 10 days
in the middle of July, when both light and sugar paid well.
I was unable to do any night work in Dorsetshire except in
the late autumn, when nothing noteworthy was taken,
although arbutus blossom paid well. Camptogramma fluviata
occurred at Poole on 8th Nov., 1912.
POOLE. Portuguese man-of-war (PJiysalia utriculus] found
washed up on Sandbanks, Poole Harbour, in March. (G. R. P.)
CHICKERELL. A fine sun-pillar was seen on May 3rd about
7.30 p.m., lasting a quarter of an hour or more. It was
of about the diameter of the sun, and extended vertically
upwards to a height of 20 or 25, becoming fainter near the
top. The light of it was of a pale, yellowish colour. There
were a few clouds on the actual horizon, so that the sunset
was not visible, and the pillar emerged above them. It
differed from ordinary bright rays in being the same breadth
all the way up, and not in the form of a cone. The moon,
also, when near the horizon shortly after 11.0 p.m., presented
somewhat the same appearance of a vertical pillar above it,
but shorter and less definite. Possibly had it been observed
when rising, the phenomenon would have been more distinct.
(N. M. R.)
CHARD (E. S. R.). Very wet January, with floods ; deep
snow on 18th and 19th, which soon thawed. Very hard frost
the beginning of February, 20 frost here, and skating every-
where for a week. The past five months, from November,
1911, to April, 1912, have been a remarkably wet, unsettled
time, and farming operations are in a backward state. On
April 17th I saw the eclipse of the sun from mid-day to
208 FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.
1 p.m. very well. I made several observations from Chard-
stock House. The day was cold and raw ; wind light, from
N.E. ; cloudy. The eclipse was seen well between the breaks
in the light clouds. The summer of 1912 beats any record
for wet and cold and no sunshine ; 1879 was the last very wet
summer, but not to be compared with 1912. Floods and wet
in Dorsetshire, Somersetshire, Wiltshire, and Norfolk from
May to September, 1912. A good deal of thunder and wind,
abnormally cold and wet from May to September. [From
Meteorological Notes from E. S. Rodd's Daily Journal of
Natural History and County Events of 40 years' close
observation at Chardstock House, Dorsetshire 1872 to 1912.]
The wettest August in England on record ; and much
damage caused by floods, especially in Huntingdon and
Norfolk. Fine cold September ; October was warm and
bright ; lovely English autumnal weather up to 14th. Plenty
of " Eddish " in the pastures everywhere. Partridges very
patchy ; ditto pheasants ; hundreds drowned in the wet
weather. Cubs very plentiful. Cows and calves high price,
and more stock selling at good fair prices. Had my last
dish of green peas on November 1st, grown in the open
kitchen garden at Chardstock House. Potatoes not a good
crop, but fairly sound. Roots fair, but no plant life has had
sun or warmth enough this year, 1912. Apples and peas a
fair crop, and abundant year for nuts and blackberries.
Very few mushrooms, oddly enough, about here this wet
season. Garden flowers have not done well, except sweet
peas and begonias, which like much rain. I think the good
nut and berry year may be owing to the wood in many trees
and shrubs being thoroughly ripened during 1911, when we
had a hot, dry summer. December 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th
a heavy gale of wind from the S.W. and torrents of rain
fell at times. Weather very mild ; I have not observed
the barometer so low for a very long time. On Dec. 31st
I saw a field of wheat in " stitch " near Yarcombe Village
returning from hunting. The year 1912 kept its character
up to the end, and ended in wet, mild weather.
FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC. 209
PULHAM (J. R.). On the whole a very wet year, but some
intervals of drought. From Sept. 1st to 28th practically no
rain only slight drizzle on two or three days.
Thunder, March 5th ; on 8th, heavy peal ; May 12th,
June 19th, 30th, a little ; June 12th, very violent for 1 J hours,
no rain ; July 4th, heavy ; 5th and Aug. 10th and 20th,
slight ; Oct. 25th, a little. On Dec. 26th a furious gale, very
heavy rains, few peals of thunder.
Snow, Jan. 12th, heavy, quite six inches deep. Some very
Since the dry summer of 1911 squirrels have disappeared.
They used to come to be fed at my windows. In adjoining
districts, also, they have almost, or quite, disappeared. It
would be interesting to know the cause. Was it want of
water or disease ?
On last day of 1912 (and for many weeks previously) we
could gather bunches of primroses. At end of year also there
were white violets in bloom, and many lesser celandine. I
never saw such a profusion of apple blossom and hawthorn
blossom as in 1912. Leaves were lost in bloom.
Barometer reading : average for each month and for the year :
January, 29-295 ; highest, 30'2 ; lowest, 28'825. February,
29-285 ; highest, 29'82 ; lowest, 28'59. March, 29-431 ;
highest, 30-0 ; lowest, 28-45. April, 29- 89 ; highest, 30-15 ;
lowest, 29-46. May, 29-63; highest, 30-02; lowest, 29-12.
June, 29-53; highest, 29-84 ; lowest, 29-12. July, 29-62 ;
highest, 29-87 ; lowest, 29-31. August, 29-451 ; highest, 29-85 ;
lowest, 28-9. September, 29- 837 ; highest, 30-12; lowest,
29-05. October, 29-497; highest, 32-6; lowest, 29-0.
November, 29-17 ; highest, 30'07 ; lowest, 29-925. December,
29-58 ; highest, 30-025 ; lowest, 28-71. Average for the
year, 29-518 ; highest, 32-6 ; lowest, 28'45.
Lists of the dates of First Appearances and First Flowerings
are appended, as well as particulars of the prize exhibits of
barley, wheat, and oats for 1912, furnished by Rev. James
Cross, of Sturminster Marshall.
210 FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.
W. H. D.
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FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC. 211
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FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC. 213
E. H. C.
F. First seen. S. Song first heard. N. Nesting. L. Last seen or heard.
(1) Flycatcher last seen Aug. 25 at Lulworth (E. H. C.). (2) Nest with 3 eggs. (3) Nest with two eggs and 4 young (E. H. C.). (4) Wheatear last
seen at Lulworth on Aug. 25 (E. H. C.). (5) In Break Hill Wood or elsewhere near Canford (E. H. C.). (6) Nest with 4 eggs (E. H. C.). (7) Sept. 8, at
Osmington (E. H. C.). (8) Foster parents, Robin (E. H. C.). (Q) At Wareham (E. H. C.). (10) Late nest Aug. 17 with 2 young in down at Studland (E. H. C.).
(11) About 25 Fieldfares seen at Handley Down, Ap. 6 (E. H. C.). (12) 2 young ones (J. R.). (13) Have never been seen or heard here. (14) Nest with one egg.
(15) Cuckoo seen on Ridgway, Ap. 18 (N. M. R.). (16) First swallow of pair building in cowhouse Ap. 15, not joined by mate until Ap. 28 (N. M. R.).
NOTES. WEYMOUTH Thrush singing vigorously on January 1 ; Missel thrush's nest finished on Jan. 18. Cuckoo singing at 1.30 a.m. on June 1, and other
nights (N. M. R.). PULHAM Thrushes and Woodpigeons singing during 1st and last weeks of the year ; Missel thrush sitting March 26; Stockdoves cooing March
7; Woodpigeons cooing on April2, at 2.30 a.m. (J. R.). EDMONDSHAM Wryneck, May 11 (E. F. L.). PUDDLETOWN Common sandpiper, Ap. 8; Hundmls of
Stockdoves during November (G. R. P.).
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FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC. 215
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Kmnan CHJks ii
THEIR SITES AND THE RELICS FOUND THEREIN
WHICH THROW LIGHT UPON THE CIVIL LIFE OF THEIR
(Being the Mansel-Pleydell Prize Essay for 1912-1913.)
By the Rev. Canon T. E. USHERWOOD, M.A,
T will be well at the outset to place before our
minds as clearly as possible what it is
our purpose in the following pages to
endeavour to show.
We are to examine the relics of Roman
life in Dorset which have come to light,
and to learn from them, as much as may
be possible, what was the condition of the
civil life of those Roman visitors to these
British shores, and the extent to which that civilisation
which they introduced operated upon the less-civilised Briton
with whom Rome now for the first time came in contact.
To the early Greeks all foreigners were " barbarians "
without exception, and the term, originally Greek, was
adopted by Rome, and under this name the Romans were
ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET. 217
wont to class all who were outside the Empire, or beyond the
pale of Greco-Roman civilisation.
This spirit is not altogether unknown amongst us at the
present day. There is a strong tendency in the British mind
to look down with some contempt upon all " coloured "
persons. Yet many of these, as e.g. our Indian fellow-
subjects, are frequently not inferior in intellect to the globe-
trotter who too often despises them.
Amongst those whom we class as uncivilised there are
undoubtedly many degrees. So no doubt it was in former
years. It is a matter of comparison. Thus, in order to form
a true estimate of the influence of Roman civilisation in
Britain, we have to consider the state of civilisation to which
each of the races now brought into communication with
one another had then arrived.
I. THE CIVILISATION or BRITAIN.
It would almost seem as if the words of our own Thomas
Hardy, addressed to the Dorset Field Club in 1884, had been
in the mind of those who suggested for our study this year,
" Roman Villas discovered in Dorset. Their sites and the
relics found therein which throw light upon the civil life of
It will not be out of place to quote a most inspiring passage
from that address. Mr. Hardy says
" It would bo a worthy attempt to rehabilitate, on paper,
the living Durnovaria of 14 or 1500 years ago as it actually
appeared to the eyes of the then Dorchester men and women.
Standing on the elevated ground near where the
South Western Station is at present, or at the top of Slyer's
Lane . . wo may ask what kind of object did Dorchester
then form in the summer landscape as viewed from such a point.
Where stood the buildings ? Were they small ? How did the
roofs group themselves ? What were the gardens like, if any ?
What social character had the streets ? What were the
customary noises ? Were the passengers up and down the ways
few, or did they ever form a busy throng such as we now see on a
market day ? These are merely the curious questions of an
218 ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET.
outsider to initiated students of the period. When we consider
the vagueness of our mental answers to such inquiries as the
above, we perceive that much is still left of this fascinating
investigation which may well occupy the attention of the Club
in future days."
Yes, these are indeed questions to set one thinking. Yet,
even if we were able thus to see Durnovaria as it appeared
in Roman times, there are further matters to be taken into
consideration before we can justly estimate the influence
which Roman civilisation exerted upon the ancient inhabitants
of our beloved Dorset, the Durotriges.
We must try to ascertain something as to their mode of
life, the kind of dwellings they occupied, the dress they
wore, the tools they used, the arts and crafts they were
acquainted with ; then we can better judge of their progress
under Roman influence. It will assist us if we trace the
history of those early years, from the first contact of Britain
with Rome to the time of the final withdrawal of the Romans
from our shores.
Some of our earliest information is found in Csesar's Com-
mentaries. His first expedition was made in 55 B.C. The
conquest of Britain seemed to him a small matter. A few
weeks of summer (exigua parte cestatis reliqua) were left,
which he thought sufficient for the purpose ; but he found
it a harder task than he anticipated. It was a " terra
incognita " ; also he did not know his enemies' manner of
fighting ; and so he sends C. Volusenus to explore. Repre-
sentatives from some of the states arrive, promising
submission ; after which Volusenus, who, by the way, never
dared to leave his ship, returns to Csesar and reports. Csesar
starts, and, we are glad to see, finds much difficulty in landing.
In spite of their promises the Britons make a good resistance
(pugnatum est ab utrisque acriter), but in the end submit,
and Csesar returns to Gaul, after having much trouble with
his ships in the Channel.
His expedition in the following year, 54 B.C., meets with
better success, and in his account of this campaign we learn
ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET. 219
more about the ancient Britons. As an effect of these two
raids the southern tribes of Britain were regarded at Rome
as vassals of the Empire ; but had the Britons themselves
been asked they might have told a different tale.
But our chief interest is to learn what Caesar has to tell us
about the people. We have seen they were good fighters ;
another point on which we may claim kinship, a foreign
enemy at the gate united tribes which before were unfriendly.
He speaks of the inhabitants as numerous, and living in
dwellings similar to those of the Galli. (By another author
these are described as cabins made of brushwood virgeas
habitant casas.} He describes them as wearing their hair
long, shaving all but the head and upper lip, and staining
themselves with woad (inficiunt vitro). For money they
used rods, of iron or copper, of a certain weight. He credits
them, too, with being excellent charioteers, though he says
nothing about the scythes fixed to the axles ; Pomponius
Mela, the historian, seems to be the only authority for them,
and as it is unsupported by any of the numerous discoveries
that have been made, we may, I suppose, dismiss it as a myth.
Having their horses under perfect control, they had the
mobility of cavalry with the stability of foot-soldiers. The
coast-dwellers he considered the more civilised ; those
living inland did not sow corn, they lived on milk and flesh.
Nearly 100 years passed ere Rome took in hand the sub-
jugation of Britain. It had been planned years before by
the Emperor Augustus, but imperial matters occupied his
attention, and it was left to Claudius, 43 A.D., to undertake
the conquest. The Second Legion, under the command of
Vespasian, afterwards Emperor, subdued the south and
penetrated as far as Somersetshire. Within three or four
years all south of the Humber was annexed, but fighting was
continued in the highlands to the North and West till the end
of the 2nd century.
Thus it is to the Lowlands, which were the first to settle
down peacefully, that we must turn for scenes of civil life.
Here it was that towns, villages, and country-houses would
220 ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET.
be chiefly found. This would seem to be a chief reason why
our county is so rich in Roman remains. Many an old
Legionary soldier, his fighting days over, would be glad to
settle down in this, now peaceful, neighbourhood, far removed
from war's alarms. He was in close touch with the Empire,
from which only a narrow belt of water divided him. And
the Roman civil system encouraged it ; lands in a conquered
territory would be given to old soldiers ; Roman citizenship
was not lost ; we see Camulodunum made a " Colonia,"
Verulam a " Municipium."
Friendly intercourse would be established between Rome
and Britain through the use which Roman generals made,
as we learn from Tacitus, of British auxiliaries.
The Britons were also skilful boatmen. Their " Coracles "
mentioned by Caesar were a few years ago still to be seen on
the Severn, though they are less common now. They are
formed of canvas, tarred and pitched, stretched over basket-
work ; they are light and easily carried. In these it is not
unlikely that the fearless Briton may have crossed the Channel
and traded with the Belgse, and picked up something of
Roman civilisation in those hundred years between Caesar's
raid and the final conquest by Rome. They also had their
" Dug-outs," such as have been discovered in the lake-
dwellings near Glastonbury.
But the mention of Glastonbury reminds us that in the
Lake-Village (Crannog or Stockaded Island) discovered by
Arthur Bulleid at the close of the last century, in the close
neighbourhood of Glastonbury, we have an excellent intro-
duction to the state of British civilisation just previous to
the Roman occupation. The date is very accurately fixed
by the relics which excavations of a very thorough nature have
afforded. These are distinctly British, and pre-Roman ;
anything of a later date was found in superficial strata, and
therefore of later importation. Samian ware, an evident mark
of contact with Rome, is conspicuous by its absence. No
Roman coins have been discovered ; the only coin, of tin, is
contemporary with the British coins of the beginning of the
ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET. 221
Christian era ; and lastly, the " Fibulae," or brooches, found
are like the Gaulish brooches of Caesar's time. For all these
reasons Dr. Munro, an expert, determines the date of this
Lake- Village to synchronize with the date of Caesar's raid. The
discoveries here are, therefore, of the highest importance in
estimating the civilisation of the Briton at the time of the
The accurate manner in which the squared logs were
morticed together, to which our attention was drawn by
Mr. Bulleid on the occasion of the D.F.C.'s visit, are most
remarkable, and show a great knowledge of carpentry. The
bronze " Fibulae " show their knowledge of metal-work.
Nor are these altogether devoid of ornament. Personal
ornaments, too, are not wanting. But particular notice
should be taken of the weaving combs which have been
found in large numbers, made chiefly of red-deer antler,
these proving without a doubt the knowledge of the art of
weaving. Many fragments of frame-work, also, have been
found, which presumably have formed parts of a loom ; so
that we may consider the knowledge of weaving proved,
although, from the nature of the case, no product of the loom
Another interesting find at Glastonbury is a lathe-turned
wheel- hub. This, taken in connection with the skill shewn
in morticing, proves the early Britons to have been not
unskilled in carpentry and the allied arts and crafts.
Then as to their milling. We know they were agricul-
turists (British corn was exported to the Rhine valley in the
4th century) and grew corn, so it is natural to enquire how
they ground it. Now sundry Querns have been discovered
in various parts of the county ; one pair, from Portland, may
any day be seen working in the Dorchester Museum ; another,
found at White Staunton, is probably Roman ; then the
upper part of a Quern was found at Bagber in a British
Barrow in company with a coin of Vespasian ; that found
at Tyneham is considered to be mediaeval ; but the most
convincing evidence of British milling comes from Hod-hill.
222 ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET.
In an interesting address delivered to the Club at Hod-hill
by Dr. Boyd Dawkins he describes his researches in that
ancient British camp. He mentions the circular depressions
which were noticeable. These he had discovered to be the
bases of hut-dwellings, 6ft. to 7ft. in diameter. He had
found the old hearths, the old utensils, and what is more to
our purpose, the old Querns.
Next, as to the age of these finds. Dr. Boyd Dawkins was
fortunate enough to find in one of the huts a perfect skeleton.
Now, the skull is an index to the age in which its owner lived.
Let us here briefly sketch the changes which have taken
place in man during his habitation of this island. First, we
have Palaeolithic man, dwellers in the limestone caves, as at
Brixham and Kent's Cavern, Torquay. Then the Ice- Age
followed w r hich swept him away, blotting him out, as it were,
until he was discovered in our own time, buried under a bed
of stalagmite which must have taken incalculable years to
deposit. After this, followed what is commonly called the
Neolithic Age, showing an advance in civilisation ; his
flint implements are better executed, he is an agriculturist,
breeds cattle, lives no longer in caves, but in huts or houses,
and in one point only seems inferior to Palaeolithic man, in
that he has apparently lost the art of drawing for which the
cave-dwellers were distinguished. Probably he was non-
Aryan. The Age of Stone is succeeded by the Age of Bronze,
and that by the Age of Iron. Now both these Ages the
Bronze and the Iron belong to the Celtic domination.
There were two Celtic waves. The first of these is identified
with the Bronze Age, and is known as the Gaelic ; it advanced
as far as Scotland and Ireland. The second is identified with
the Iron Age, and is known as the Cymric ; it advanced to
the East and centre of Britain, probably driving the Gaels
before them, their knowledge of iron giving them, perhaps,
Now, how are these different races distinguished ? Chiefly
through their burial customs. The Neoliths buried in long
barrows, the Bronze Age in round barrows ; and the skulls
ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET. 223
found in the one differ from the skulls found in the
The Neolithic men, buried in the long barrows, have
Dolicho -Cephalic skulls ; i.e., the width from ear to ear is
considerably less than the length from the eyes to the back
of the head ; whereas the Bronze-Age men have Brachy-
Cephalic skulls ; i.e., square and strong, the width about
4-5ths of the length. Then as we pass from early to late
Celtic, the transition being marked by the presence of iron
objects, we notice that the skulls undergo modification,
tending towards the Dolicho-Cephalic type, indicating, as it
would seem, that Neolithic man had not been entirely
extirpated, but that, on the contrary, he was much in evidence,
and was tending to re-establish his type, as would be the case
if Neolithic men were numerous.
We see, then, the immense value of such a find as a skeleton
in these pit-dwellings at Hod-hill, as we are able through it
to assert with some confidence that we are examining relics
of the prehistoric age, and that querns were known before
the Roman occupation.
The crucibles which the excavations at Glastonbury have
brought to light show that our Celtic fore-elders were versed
in Metallurgy, and many objects in iron and bronze, such as
awls, gouges, nails, and portions of harness have been found.
Weaving, too, presupposes spinning, and the evidences for
this art are supplied by numerous finds of spinning-whorls,
made both of tin and of lead.
II. THE CIVILISATION OF ROME.
We have examined to some small extent the civilisation
of our British forefathers ; we must now proceed to examine
the civilisation of Rome at the period under consideration,
and this we are enabled to do in a very remarkable manner.
Anyone who has visited Pompeii will acknowledge the
weird feeling that comes over one when traversing the streets
of that ancient Roman town. Why, at any moment you
224 ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET.
would not be astonished were an ancient Roman to confront
you ! You expect to meet one at every corner you turn. The
place is alive with memories. There you may see the life of
Rome depicted ; the shops, the theatres, the temples, the
private houses both of the wealthy and of the poor ; all has
been preserved to us in the present day, having been buried
in the ashes of Vesuvius for the last eighteen centuries. Now,
as Pompeii was utterly destroyed by an earthquake in the
year 63 A.D., and was at once rebuilt, and then, only 16 years
later, was buried out of sight in the volcanic eruption of
Vesuvius in August, 79 A.D., we have here an exact record of
the civilisation to which Rome had attained at the time, or
very shortly after, the Roman invasion of Britain.
The decoration of their houses exhibited the most refined
taste. The walls were covered with frescoes or mosaics.
What can we imagine more beautiful in the way of decoration
than the frescoes on the walls of the house of the Vettii, the
colours of which are as fresh to-day as when they were first
painted '? The floors were inlaid with coloured mosaics,
worked out in the most choice and elaborate patterns. A
most beautiful example of Roman mosaic of about this period,
or a little earlier, is to be seen in the museum "Alaoui," in
the suburbs of Tunis. It has been removed there from
Sousse, and it represents the " Triumph of Neptune." It is
a noble piece of work, of splendid design, covering an
immense area. But that which is considered by some to
be the finest Roman specimen extant is one representing the
" Battle of Issus." It was found at Pompeii in the " House
of the Faun," being the floor of a sitting-room in the peristyle,
an apartment probably used by the ladies of the family. In
it Darius is seen flying before Alexander, who pursues him
mounted on Bucephalus.
The relics found in Pompeii are both numerous and varied
in character. There are articles of ladies' toilet, including the
safety-pin which is still in use, combs for the hair, hair-pins,
studs, &c. Articles in glass, such as wine glasses, tumblers,
chemists' jars, also a beautiful specimen of glass, cut like a
ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET. 225
cameo, representing a vintage scene. Then the surgical
instruments, and the mathematical, denote a high advance
in scientific knowledge. Also there are carpenters' and
labourers' tools, as spades, hoes, &c. Kitchen utensils in
bronze, truellce for decanting and drawing liquids, colanders,
&c., Amphorae of all sizes. In short, almost every depart-
ment of life is represented here, and shows the Roman to
have been highly advanced in civilisation, though, possibly,
there may be detected a decadence from the high state of art
which Rome had received from Greece.
And nearly all these find their representatives in Dorset-
shire. We are rich in mosaic floors, as any visitor to the
Dorchester Museum is aware. Then there is the pavement
discovered on Lenthay Common, now removed to the dairy
at Sherborne, representing a sitting figure playing on a lyre
with six chords, while a second figure is dancing and playing
a double pipe united at the mouthpiece. Another was
discovered at Fifehead Neville, and has been described and
figured in Vol. XXIV., D.F.C. Again, there is the well-
known " Venus pavement," now in the British Museum,
which was found at Hemsworth, near Badbury, and about
f mile from the Via Iceniana, which connected Badbury
with Old Sarum. This floor is about 16ft. by 12Jft. The
pavement found at Preston is figured in Vol. XXI. of D.F.C.
Proceedings. If we have no conspicuous object such as the
Roman Baths of Uriconium, we have at least traces of the
existence of such in the tiles and pipes which have from time
to time been discovered. Flat clay, or pottery, tiles have
been found at Thornford, and these may have been used for
carrying hot air to the rooms, as at Uriconium. They would
also serve the purpose of drain-tiles. In the same spot were
also found roofing-tiles with, in some cases, the nails adhering.
Tiles have also been found at Iwerne Minster, and at the East
Farm, Bradford Abbas. The Thornford find has furnished
us with knives and tools.
Passing on to ladies' dress, we find pins and brooches are
common objects in our local museum, and special attention
226 ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET.
may be drawn to the beautiful glass pins from the Roman
cemetery at Fordington. These are described by Mr. Moule
in " Dorchester Antiquities." A bronze hair-pin, with very
delicate ornamentation, 9in. long, has been found in Dor-
chester. (Proceedings, Vol. IV.) From Thornford comes
a fragment of an Amphora, besides sundry knives and
tools. Roman beads have also been found. One, of ex-
quisite blue glass, was found deep in the clay at Norden.
Others, together with Samian ware, on the site of All Saints,
III. PROGRESS OF CIVILISATION IN BRITAIN.
Having now reviewed the civilisation of the Briton and the
Roman at the period under review, we are in a position to
judge of the effect of Roman civilisation upon the Briton.
Our enquiry, I think, should lead to the conclusion that the
Briton had a good deal to learn from the Roman.
In the foremost place we should name the great advance
made in their dwelling-places. Nowhere would the result
of Roman civilisation be more self-evident than in the ex-
change from the rude, circular hut to the princely Roman
villa, square, stone-built, with its several rooms. The hut,
as constructed by the Britons, was almost of necessity a single
chamber ; and the change to a square building is now, in
the Mission stations of Africa and elsewhere, one of the aims
of the missionary, as it more easily lends itself to the pro-
vision of separate rooms for the various members of a family,
and so tends to decency of life. The best preserved private
houses are to be seen at Silchester (Calleva Attribatum) ;
the site extends over 100 acres ; and has been completely un-
covered. Here we find two types of house ; one, a long row
of rooms with a verandah in front, and frequently a small
room at each end of the verandah, a common type in the
colonies to-day ; the other, in which the rooms form three
sides of an open square, and are connected by a corridor.
One modification of the Roman type is to be noticed ; " while
ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET. 227
the houses of Italy were constructed to look inwards upon
open impluvia as befitted a hot climate, the houses of Britain
and Northern Gaul looked outwards on to the surrounding
country." (Romanization, &c.)
A further advance made possible by the exchange from the
pit-dwellings, or wattle-built hut, to the style of building
introduced by the Romans, was the heating of their houses.
This, from the necessity of the case, was a novelty to the
Briton. There was no place for it in his hut. In Uriconium
(Wroxeter, Salop) we have a fine example of a Roman, or
rather what we should now call a Turkish, bath ; for there is
clear evidence that the different rooms were heated to a
different degree. Tiles for the passage of hot air from the
cellar fires were clamped to the wall, in some rooms sparsely,
closer in others, and again, in the hottest room they were
placed in contact, so covering the whole wall. In Dorset we
have abundant evidence of hypocausts in the tiles which have
been discovered in various places, and which have most
certainly been used for heating purposes. Moreover, in the
villa discovered at Hems worth we see the remains of the
actual hypocaust in situ.
Then from the Roman the Briton would also learn to
decorate his home. The decoration of the floors and walls of
the Roman houses could not but strike the simple Briton with
wonder. The Greek historian, Dion, records the surprise of
Caractacus when, as a captive, he viewed the stately buildings
of the Imperial City of Rome and exclaimed ' You who possess
all these things actually covet the shanties of Britain.' Nay,
as we look upon them to-day, after the lapse of nearly 2,000
years, do not such fragments as are preserved to us make us
feel that we have not greatly advanced in that art ? The
material used by the Roman builder in the construction of his
mosaic floors seems, by general consent, to have been local,
and not imported, so the Briton would readily learn to copy
the Roman colonist, and his material was close at hand. In
support of the view that he did thus copy we learn an interest-
ing fact from Eumenius that in the age of Constantino ' skilled
228 ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET.
artizans abounded in Britain, and were fetched to build
public and private edifices as far south as Autun.' (Roman-
The Briton, as we know from the Quern found at Bagber,
was accustomed to grind corn, but his method was as simple
as that of the African to-day ; the Roman Quern or Mill was
a great improvement which he would readily adopt.
There is some uncertainty as to the introduction of the
Potter's Wheel. Early British pottery gives clear evidence
that it was made by hand, without the aid of the wheel.
For the smaller vessels this would be a simple matter. For
the larger ones it has been suggested that a basket would be
used as a foundation, and the clay gradually built up inside
until the whole was finished. Then, when fired, the basket-
work would be burnt off, leaving the marks of the reeds on
the outside like a pattern. It has been conjectured, indeed,
that this may very probably have first suggested the orna-
mentation of other pots made by hand. But on the other
hand, the British Museum Guide (Iron Age) is of opinion
that the pottery found in the Aylesford Cemetery, to which
is assigned a date of about 100 B.C., was all made on the
wheel and " shows a distinct advance on the rough hand-
made ware of the British Bronze Age." It is thought, too,
that traces of a Potter's Wheel have been found amongst
the relics from Glastonbury. But whenever, and by whom-
soever the wheel was introduced, it would greatly advance
the potter's art, and we may at least give Rome the credit of
teaching the Briton improvements in the art.
Gardens We have evidence from Pompeii, to mention
only the house of the Vettii, of a Roman's love of a garden.
We have also Pliny's description of his villa built at
Laurentium on the shores of the Tuscan Sea, near the mouth
of the Tiber. Writing on this subject Mr. Calthrop, in the
" Charm of Gardens," says " Whether a Roman living in
England ever built himself such a house it is difficult to prove,
since, so far as I can find, no remains f such a place are to be
seen. But when one considers the actual evidence of the
ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET. 229
Roman occupation, the yields given by the neighbourhoods
of Roman cities, the statues, vases, toys, the amphitheatres
for cock-fighting, wrestling, and gladiatorial combat, then
surely there were gardens of great wonder near to these
cities, where men like Pliny went to sit in their garden-houses,
and enjoyed the cool of the evening after a day's work.
Yes ! We have little doubt that the Roman colonist
would have a garden attached to his villa, and moreover he
would most likely endeavour to grow some of his old friends
to remind him of home, as the English colonist does to-day
in Africa or Australia. To this we probably owe the introduc-
tion of some of our rarer plants ; and in this connection it is
interesting to read in the " Flora of Dorset " (p. 37),
" Leucojum Vernum may possibly not be accepted as truly
indigenous, for although it grows luxuriantly in its English
habitat, it has no nearer authentic home than the Cote d'Or
and Saone et Loire. Devon and Cornwall share with Dorset
the enviable distinction of possessing the delicate, southern
type plants Polycarpon Tetraphyllum, Lotus Hispidus, and
Cynodon Dae ty Ion." These and other plants may with
great probability have been brought to our shores by the
Roman settlers in Dorset. To Rome we certainly owe the
Lettuce (Lactuca), both plant and name. Also in another
department, the gastronomic, Rome used to be credited with
the introduction of the Edible Snail (Helix Pomatia), but now
I believe it is considered to be indigenous.
Roads The Romans were notorious as road-makers.
These were made with such care that they have out-lived the
ages, and their traces are to be found in this XXth Century.
But the Britons, too, were road-makers to some extent ;
their fame as Charioteers would suggest this ; traces of these
British roads are undoubtedly to be found in our county ;
though as with British earthwork fortifications so also with
the roads, we doubt not that Rome utilised and improved
Bridges From roads the transition is natural to bridges.
A great engineering nation like Rome must, sooner or later
230 ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET.
have introduced the Arch into Britain, and we see no reason
to doubt, pace Mr. Brocklebank (D.F.C., Vol. 29), that the
bridge at Preston is Roman ; and if Roman, it would come
within the scope of our paper, as Preston is one of the sites
which has furnished a tesselated pavement, so that it may be
regarded as an adjunct to a Roman villa.
Then, a people who could produce surgical and other
instruments such as were found in the ruins of Pompeii, and
are now to be seen in the Naples Museum, had much to teach
the Briton in the manufacture of tools. Already the Briton
was advanced beyond the age when he had nothing but his
flint implements with which to fashion his dug-outs, and make
his spear and arrow heads. He was beginning to learn the
use of metal, but a great impetus would be given by the
advent of the foreigner. He had learned the art of Metallurgy
even in pre-Roman times, as we know from the crucibles that
have been found in Glastonbury. He had learned to forge
his spear-heads and axes and implements of agriculture ; but
from Rome it seems certain that he learnt coinage.
In Caesar's time his money consisted of cumbersome bars
of iron of a definite weight, and slightly varying in shape ;
specimens of these may be seen to-day in the British Museum.
And here, on the adjacent wall, is hung a case containing
casts of British coins preserved in the Museum. But first
there is a cast of a gold " Philip II. of Macedon." The object
of placing these in juxta-position is to show the genesis of
British coinage. In the Guide to the Antiquities of the Early
Iron Age a plate is given of these early British coins, and one
sees how the first coinage was almost a burlesque on the
Philip II., from which it appears to have been copied. To
quote from the Guide, " The obverse has the locks of hair and
the laurel wreath much exaggerated, and drapery added at
the neck, while the reverse has a fret pattern in the exergue
instead of the name of Philip, and only one horse is shown,
the driver being placed above in the position usually occupied
by a Victory on coins of Syracuse." The horse, however, after
a time develops eight legs, and the Charioteer is resolved into
ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET. 231
a cluster of atoms. Coins of British kings are extant extend-
ing over the last 30 years B.C., which show an increasing
tendency towards Roman manners and art. The old barbaric
survivals of the Macedonian effigies disappear, classical
profiles are introduced, and the cornucopia, the eagle, and the
lion sometimes make their appearance. (Political History.)
It is interesting to note that the name of one of these kings,
Dumnobellaunus, is preserved in a monument at Angora,
in the heart of Asia Minor. On the side of a desolate Galatian
hill stand the ruins of a marble temple of ' Augustus and Rome,'
the walls of which bear an inscription recording the chief events
of the 56 years of Augustus' reign : " To me fled as suppliants
the kings of the Parthians . . . the kings of the Britons,
Dumnobellaunus and Tim . . .," the rest of the name
being obliterated. (Political History p. 27.)
While speaking of coins it is well to remember that even
the civilised world has only recently, so to speak, produced
coinage. It was in the 7th century B.C. that the Lydians in
Asia Minor introduced a stamped coinage, replacing the
unstamped, weighed metal of the Babylonians. (Encyc.
Brit.) So the Britons were not so very far behind the times,
and they would prove apt pupils under Roman tutelage.
British coins have been found, one of Allectus and one of
Victorinus, on the site of the British village on Boveridge
Down (Ancient Dorset p. 22), 20 of bronze or copper on
Minchington Down, and others in various parts of the county
(p. 279). Hod Hill furnished several British coins (p. 154)
besides Roman from Augustus to Trajan. Dorchester is
credited with but few, a gold coin from Maiden Castle, a large
silver, a base silver, and a bronze (Dorch. Antiq. p. 48) but
Roman coins are plentiful, from Augustus to Trajan. Coins
from Gordian to Postumus have been found at Preston.
But if the Briton learned many good things from the Roman,
we cannot blind our eyes to the fact that, in all probability,
he also learned some bad things. It is painfully certain that,
along with their civilisation, they would impart also their
vices. So far fortunately we have not to my knowledge
232 ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET.
unearthed anything which could give colour to this charge ;
but the obscenities of Pompeii make one fear that such
would be the case. It is the sad experience of the Missionary
to-day. Civilisation is not always an unmixed blessing.
It never can be a blessing at all unless it is accompanied by
Christianity ; and our study of Roman influence on the civil
life of Britain would be incomplete were we to leave out
altogether the subject of Christian Missions.
At the Council of Aries, 310 A.D., there were present three
British Bishops, York, London, and probably Lincoln, proving
the early introduction of Christianity. Whence did it come ?
Tradition speaks of S. Paul himself as having visited our
island. S. Joseph of Arimathea is bound up traditionally
with Glastonbury. The first missionaries made use of, and
to a large extent followed, the Roman roads ; and one of
these we know traversed our county from Durnovaria (Dor-
chester) to Sorbiodunum (Old Sarum). Traces of Christianity
may be rare amongst us. If we are to trust antiquarians,
no traces have been found amongst the innumerable Roman
remains extant in this county. That may be too strong a
statement. But the wonder is, considering the ruthless
character of the Saxon invasion, that any traces at all of
Roman civilisation are left to us ; and such emblems of
Christianity as might be found would be the first to suffer at
the hands of their heathen invaders.
Yet even within the limits of our survey there is one relic
which lays claim to be Christian, and is in keeping with the
thought that some of our Roman colonists brought the Faith
of Christ to these shores. There has been found, worked
into the design of a tesselated pavement at Frampton, what
has been said to be ' the earliest known emblem of the Christian
Faith in Britain,' the Chi-Ro, the initial letters of the Name
of Christ, and this lends colour to the assertion that Christian-
ity existed as a new Faith in Wessex even during the life of
S. Paul himself. It is no disproof that this emblem was
associated with an inscription to Neptune, and a head of the
ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET. 233
IV. CONCLUDING REMARKS ON THE CIVIL LIFE
We are now able to picture to ourselves, faintly perhaps
and only in dim outline, yet with some degree of truth, the
civil life of the Roman colonist in those early years of the
history of our county. Dorset is still held by Roman garri-
sons, dotted about in. good strategic positions. Many of the
ancient British earthworks, as at Maiden Castle, Hod Hill,
&c., have been strengthened and adapted to the requirements
of the Roman Legions. But Roman and Briton in this
South country are no longer at strife. War has travelled
northwards and left our county to develop the arts of peace.
The Roman is now free to build himself those villas which
modern research is from year to year exposing to our view.
We see those villas to have been equipped with all the appli-
ances to which he had been accustomed in the luxurious city
of Rome. He spared no pains in the decorating of his home,
for he had come to stay. The floors were laid with mosaics,
rich in colour and in design. The walls were adorned with
frescoes. Baths of a most elaborate kind were added, furnish-
ed with all the appliances of a Turkish bath. His rooms were
comfortably heated, for our climate, especially in the winter,
would feel cold to the southerner.
Then on a summer evening, can we not picture him sitting
in his villa garden looking at the shadows racing across the
heath, or enjoying the cool breeze which comes to him from
off the Channel, and watching the waves breaking, and dream-
ing perhaps of his distant home-land across the water ? Or
it may be that he is busy sowing the seed which some friend
has just brought him from home, or watching his bed of young
lettuce which he is trying to naturalise.
Nor is he alone. There were no need for him to build
such villas unless he intended to bring wife and family to
Britain. These assuredly shared his voluntary exile, and
have left us abundant evidence of their presence in the
bracelets and brooches, the hair-pins and combs which have
been found on the site of their dwellings.
234 ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET.
The Briton, moreover, was rapidly learning the arts of
civilisation from his Roman neighbour, so that there would
be a steady approach between the two nations. Friendships
would be formed, and these might in time grow to closer
alliances. Then if, as we have reason to believe, some of
our Roman visitors were Christian, they would regard the
native Briton in a new light. The more earnest of them, at
any rate, would try to bring these natives to the knowledge
of Christ, and here would be a new link forged binding the
races together in a Christian fellowship.
Other influences were at work tending to assimilate the
races. We learn from Tacitus that Agricola, his father-in-law,
encouraged the Britons to come into the towns, build houses,
&c. The bath, and the luxurious banquet offered their
attractions not in vain to the late simple hunter in the forest,
and though, as Tacitus sarcastically remarks, " the simple
folk called that civilisation (humanitas) which was really the
beginning of slavery," yet at first it would have the effect of
bringing Roman and Briton into closer contact. We know
how in the end it sapped the virile life of the nation, and
made them unequal, when Rome withdrew her troops, to
withstand the Saxon invasion.
If Professor Buckman (D.F.C., Vol. 11. p. 58) is correct in
his surmise, we have in East Farm, Bradford Abbas, an
example of a little community of British and Roman living
together. The villa remains to be discovered, but " bits of
pavement " have been found scattered about. But what has
been found is a number, some five or more, of cooking stoves ;
or they may have been used for firing pottery ; and the
Professor considers the dwellings in which they have been
found to have been occupied by Celts, the slaves or labourers
of the owner of the adjoining villa. Were this the case, it
gives us a fresh peep into the life of the Roman colonist.
Another scene of Roman life in Britain we may surely picture
to ourselves. The Amphitheatre, so essential an adjunct to
the life of a Roman, was not wanting. Maumbury Rings, just
outside Dorchester, has fortunately been preserved to our
ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET. 235
day. Dr. Stukeley calculated that it would accommodate
close on 13,000 spectators. In the 18th century it was used as
the place of public execution, and 10,000 persons are said to
have been present at the last execution in 1705. A different,
but not less disgusting, sight claims our attention. Some great
national festival is at hand, and there are to be games in the
Amphitheatre. The " Gens Togata " and majesty of Imperial
Rome will show itself. High officials may even join in the
contests. In Whyte Melville's " Gladiators," which we believe
gives a faithful picture of Imperial Rome, the Patrician
Placidus enters the arena as a Retiarius. Our Roman,
clad in his Toga ; wearing finger rings such as have been
found at Fifehead (at first a military distinction, then a
Senatorial privilege, but afterwards extended to knights
and other classes) ; will drive in his chariot to attend the
show. The ladies of his household will be there also. They
will be distinguishable more by their ornaments than by their
dress, for the Toga was worn by both sexes. They will
appear in their gayest attire, wearing their Fibulae or brooches,
and Armillse (bracelets), as found at Fifehead Neville, Brac-
chialia (armlets) like that from Maumbury, Crinales (hair-
pins) such as the beautiful specimen of bronze found at Dor-
chester ; also may be seen Tores or cords of gold, worn round
the neck or on the arm, such as had been introduced from Gaul,
and are amongst the relics found at Neville. On the head
would be worn Coronse (wreaths).
But the greater number of the spectators would be drawn
from the native population. In contrast to the richly dressed
Romans, these would come in their rough dress made from
the skins of animals taken in the chase ; the women, perhaps,
wearing leather aprons, adorned with beads, much after the
fashion of the African to-day. And then the show ! Gladia-
torial combats ; fierce exhibitions of courage, strength, and
skill ; crowned with the victor's wreath, or alas, doomed to
the fatal penalty awarded to ignoble defeat. These, with
various kinds of races, constituted in all probability the prin-
cipal amusements which the civilising Roman provided for
236 ROMAN VILLAS DISCOVERED IN DORSET.
the purpose of reconciling the Durotriges to the yoke they
had to bear.
But we must curb our imagination. The Roman occupa-
tion drew to a close. The Teuton conquest of Gaul early in
the 5th century cut off Britain from the Empire. The
Central Government ceased to send Governors, and the
Roman Legionaries were gradually, and about the year 436
A.D. finally, withdrawn, having occupied our island for
nearly 400 years.
But though the soldiers left, many a Roman civilian would
remain. Ties of friendship, and even of kinship, had been
formed which knit them in a bond of fellowship with the
Britons ; and even amongst the soldiers we can well believe
that Millais' picture is true to life, and that many a soldier,
while ordered home, left his heart behind.
BOOKS OF REFERENCE.
Proceedings of D.F.C. from the commencement. 32 Vols.
Days before History. By H. R. Hall.
The Glastonbury Lake Village. By A. Bulloid and St. G. Gray.
Pompeii. By Gusman.
Ancient Dorset. By Chas. Warne.
Wessex. By Walter Tyndale and Clive Holland.
Political History of England (in XII. Vols.). By T. Hodgkin.
Caesar. De Bell. Gall.
Uriconium. By J. Corbet Anderson.
Dorchester Antiquities. By H. J. Moulo.
Guide to Dorset County Museum. By J. E. Acland.
Catalogue of Sepulchral Pottery. By J. E. Acland.
Guide to Early Iron Age Antiquities. By British Museum Trustees.
The Charm of Gardens. By D. C. Calthrop.
Flora of Dorset. By J. C. Mansel-Pleydell.
The Romanization of Roman Britain. By F. Haverfield.
Encyc. Brit. Xlth Ed.
INDEX TO VOL. XXXIV.
By E. W. YOUNG.
Acland, Cap!:. J. E., xliii., xlvii., 1.
Arachnida, British (1912), xlviii., 107
Author's Publications on,
List of, 128
New and Rare, 110
Archaeological Congress, Delegates'
Assizes, Dorset, XVII. Century, xlvi.,
Avebury, Church, xxx.
Bankes, E. R., xlviii., 46
Barclay, Rev. W. G., xli.
Barley, Malting, &c. (Table), 215
Beaulieu, Abbey, xxvii., xxviii.
Buckler's Hard, xxviii.
"St. Leonard's Abbey,"
Bellarmine Jugs, xliv.
Birds, First Appearances, &c. (1912),
Notes on Rare, &c., 201
Bloxworth, Church, 42
Bond, Nigel, liii.
Bradford Abbas, Church, xxxvi.
Brasses, Memorial, 158
Brewers of Sherborne( 1383), xlviii., 151
British Association, Delegate's Report,
Browne, Cornish, 1., liii.
Butterwick, Buried Oaks at, xlv.
Cambridge, Rev. O. P. (Vice -President)
Came, Barrows, Damage to, xliii.
Cecil, Lord E. (Vice -President), xl.
Cerne Valley, Visit to, xxxix.
St. Augustine's Well, xl.
Charles II. at Trent, xxxvi.
Charminster, Church, xxxix.
Cicada, larva and pupae of, xlvii.
Cistercian Order, The, xxviii.
Clifton Maybank, xxxvii.
Coker's Survey of Dorset, xxxvi.
Committees, Earthworks, lii, liii.
Photo. Survey, 1.
Cranborne Chase, Earthworks at, xlvi.,
List of, 34
Notes on Plans of, 39
Crosses (Dorset), 155
Daniell, Mr., xxxvii.
Dicker, Rev. C. W. H. (Editor and
Vice -President), xxviii., xxix.,
(Death of)xxxv.,lvii. (Reminis-
cence of), 42 '
C. G. H., xliv.
Digby, Wingfield, xliii.
Dorchester, Plans and Sections of, li.
Dundas, Archdeacon, xxxix.
Elwes, Capt. (Vice -President), xxvii.,
Financial Statements, liv.
Fletcher, Canon, xlviii., 167
Forsyth, Mr., xliii.
Froxfield Almshouses, xxxiii.
Fry, E. A., xliii., xlviii., liii., 161
Gerard, Thomas, author of Coker's
Gray, H. St. G., xxx., xxxi., xxxii.,
Gundry, Rev. H. D., xl.
Harbin, Rev. E. H. Bates, xxxvi.,
Harding, Stephen (Monk of Sher-
Henshaw, R. S., xliii., 186
Insects, &c., Dorset, First Appear-
ances of (1912), 200,
Lepidoptera (Purbeck), xlviii., 46
Delenda ot Corrigenda
(Vol. VI., pp. 128-177).
List of, 52
Mainwaring, Lt.-Col., xliii., xlvii.
Mansel-Pleydell, Canon J. C. M. (Vic-.-
President and Hon.
Treas.), xli., xlix.,
March, Dr. EC. Colley (Vice -President),
xxx., xxxiii., xl., xlv., lii., 1, 81
Marlborough, Meoting at, xxx.
Avebury Church, xxx.
Knowle Chapel, xxxiii.
Silbury Hill, xxxii.
St. Mary's Church,
Littlecote Hall, xxxiv.
Marque, Letter of (1803), xliv.
Maumbury, Excavations at, xlvii.
Medals Competitions, lii.
Meetings, Annual, xlix.
Summer, xxvii., xxx., xxxvi.,
Winter, xlii., xlvii.
Members of the Club
List of, xii.
Memorial Brasses of Dorset (Part
VII.), xlix., 158
Wareham, St. Mary's
Montagu, Lord, xxviii.
Morris, Sir W., xxx., xlii.
Mortival, Roger de, Bishop, Inspcxi-
mus of (1315-1330), 153, 155
Moule, Henry (the late), xl.
Museum, Countv, additions to, xliii.,
Nash -Brown, J. W., xxviii.
Newland, Stone Cross at, 155.
Newton Surmaville, xxxvii.
New Testament, Paraphrase of
Erasmus on, xlvii.
Officers of the Club, Past and Present,
Orcus (Thynnus) thynnus, 201
Ord, Dr. W. T., xlv.
Pent in, Rev. H- (Vice -President and
Hon. Sec.), xxix., xxiii., xxxv.,
xxxvii., xl., xliv., xlix., liii., 176
Peters, Rev. A. E. G., xxxii.
Petroleum Oil, Sources of, lii.
Pitt-Rivers, A. L. F., xli.
Plants, Flowering, Dorset, Earliest
Records (Dorset), Tables 210
Pope, A., xxxvi., xxxvii., xl., xlvi.,
F. J., xlvi., 17
Pouncy, H. (Assist. Sec.), liii.
Presidential Address, xlix., Ivi.
Anthropology and Arch-
Prideaux, W. cle C., xlix., 158
Publications of the Club, xxvi.
Rainfall, &c., in Dorset (1912), xliii., 186
Observers' Notes, 188
Steepleton Manor, 198
Rawlence, E. A., xxxvi., xliv., xlv.
Reid, Clement, xlix.
Reports, Director Photo. Survey, 1.
Earthworks Sectional Com-
Secretary's, xlix., Iv.
Treasurer's, xlix., liv.
Richardson, N. M. (President), xxx.,
xxxv., xxxviii., xxxix., xlii., xliv.,
xlvii., xlix., liii., Ivi., 46, 200
Roman Villas (Dorset), lii., 216
Roper, Charles, lii.
Rules of the Club, vi.
Fandsfoot Castle, xliv.
Scando-Gothic Art in Wesscx, xlv.,
Sermon to Dorchester Gentlemen
Sherborne Brewers, xlviii., 151
Silbury Hill, xxxii.
Societies, &c., Corresponding, xxxvi.
St. Cuthburga of Wimbome Minster,
Marriage of, xlviii., 167
v Stilwell, H-, xliii.
Sumner, Heywood, xlvi., 31
Superstitions (Dorset), 137
New Year's Day, 138
Weather Forecasts, 145
Symonds, H. (Vice President and
Hon. Editor), xliii., xliv., L, liii.
Trent, Church, xxxvi.
Manor House, xxxvi.
Udal, J. S., xlviii., liii., 137
Usherwood, Canon, xlix., Hi., 216
Weather Lore, Dorset, xlviii, 137
Webb, E. Doran, xxx., xxxiii., xxxiv.
Weymouth Half-crown (1643-4), xliv.
Whitcombe Church, Sculptured Stones
at, xlv., 1.
Wickham, Canon, xxxvii.
Wilton, Rev. T. G., xxxvi.
Winwood, T. R., 1.
Wright, Rev. T. Russell, xxix.
Wyke Grange, xxxvi.
Yeo Valley, Upper, Visit to, xxxvi.
Bradford Abbas, Church,
Trent Church, xxxvi.
Wyke Grange, xxxvi.
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